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MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRIES
CLASS X: CBSE – SOCIAL SCIENCE
GEOGRAPHY: CHAPTER – 6
(BY: MRS. USHA JOY)
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
 Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing
from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
 People employed in the secondary activities manufacture the primary
materials into finished goods.
 The workers employed in steel factories, car, breweries, textile industries,
bakeries etc. fall into this category.
 The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of
manufacturing industries.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING
 Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of economic
development because –
 1. Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, they
also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by
providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
 2. Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of
unemployment and poverty from our country. It was also aimed at
bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and
backward areas.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING
 3. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and
brings in much needed foreign exchange.
 4. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of
finished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in
increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as
possible.
Agriculture and industry
 Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.
 For instance, the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to
agriculture by raising its productivity.
 They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such
as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC
pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.
 In the present day world of globalisation, our industry needs to be more
efficient and competitive. Self-sufficiency alone is not enough.
 Our manufactured goods must be at par in quality with those in the
international market.
Contribution of Industry to National
Economy
 Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has
stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the
industry which includes 10 per cent for mining, quarrying, electricity and
gas.
 This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it
is 25 to 35 per cent.
 The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent.
 Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10
per cent per annum.
Contribution of Industry to National
Economy
 With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed
efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that
manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.
 The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been
set up with this objective.
Industrial Location
 Industrial locations are are influenced by availability of raw material, labour,
capital, power and market, etc.
 It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate
place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be
arranged at lower cost.
 After an industrial activity starts, urbanisation follows.
 Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance,
transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.
 Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages
offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
Industrial Location
 In the pre-Independence period, most manufacturing units were located
in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai,
Kolkata, Chennai, etc.
 Consequently, there emerged certain pockets of industrially developed
urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.
 The key to decision of the factory location is the least cost.
Industry – Market Linkage
Ideal Location of an Industry
Classification of Industries
 On the basis of source of raw materials used:
 Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and
sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
 Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine
tools, petrochemicals.
Classification of Industries
 According to their main role:
 Basic or key industries are those which supply their products as raw
materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper
smelting, aluminum smelting.
 Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers –
sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
Classification of Industries
 On the basis of capital investment:
 A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum
investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a
period of time. At present the maximum investment allowed is rupees
one crore.
 Large scale industries has an investment of more than one crore.
Classification of Industries
 On the basis of ownership:
 Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL
etc.
 Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of
individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
 Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or
a group of individuals - Oil India Ltd. (OIL)
 Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers
or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
Classification of Industries
 Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
 Heavy industries such as iron and steel
 Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such
as electrical goods industries.
Agro-based Industries
 Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are
based on agricultural raw materials.
Value addition in the textile industry
Textile Industry
 The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy,
because it contributes significantly to industrial production, employment
generation and foreign exchange earnings.
 It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in
the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added
products.
Textile Industry
Cotton Textiles
 In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and
handloom weaving techniques.
 After the 18th century, power-looms came into use.
 Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period
because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.
 The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
Cotton Textiles
Cotton Textiles
 In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the
cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
 This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to
farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning,
weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
 While spinning continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and
Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralized.
 India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low
quality of fabric.
Cotton Textiles
 India exports yarn to Japan, U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European
countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.
 We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn.
 There are some large and modern factories in these segments, but most
of the production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local
market.
 Although, we have made significant increase in the production of good
quality long staple cotton, the need to import is still felt.
Jute Textiles
 India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at
second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.
 The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1855 at Rishra.
 After Partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of
the jute producing area went to Bangladesh.
Jute Textiles
Location of Jute mills
 Most of the jute mills are located in the banks of the Hugli river(West
Bengal) because:
 Proximity of the jute producing areas, inexpensive water transport, a
good network of railways, roadways and waterways cheap labour from
West Bengal and adjoining states etc.
Challenges – Jute Textile
 Challenges faced by the industry include stiff competition in the
international market from synthetic substitutes and from other
competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
 The internal demand has been on the increase due to the Government
policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
 The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Ghana, Saudi Arabia, U.K. and
Australia.
Sugar Industry
 India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first
place in the production of gur and khandsari.
 The mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya
Pradesh.
 Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
 Major challenges include the seasonal nature of the industry, old and
inefficient methods of production, transport delay in reaching cane to
factories and the need to maximise the use of baggase.
Sugar Industry
Mineral-based Industries
 Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called
mineral-based industries.
 Iron and Steel Industry:
 The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other
industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
 Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods,
construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment
and a variety of consumer goods.
Iron and Steel Industry
 Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a
country’s development.
 Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of
approximately 4 : 2 : 1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required
to harden the steel.
 In 2018 with 106.5 million tonnes of crude steel production, India ranked
2nd among the world crude steel producers.
 It is the largest producer of sponge iron.
 In 2018 per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around
70.9 kg per annum against the world average of 224.5 kg.
Iron and Steel Industry
Iron and Steel Industry
 Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel
Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
 In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel.
Today, China is the largest producer and consumer of steel.
 Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron
and steel industries due to low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials
in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market.
Iron and Steel Industry
 India is not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:
 (a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal
 (b) Lower productivity of labour
 (c) Irregular supply of energy and
 (d) Poor infrastructure.
 We also import good quality steel from other countries.
Crude Steel Production in India and
China
Processes of Manufacture of Steel
Major Iron and Steel Plants in India
Aluminum Smelting
 Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry
in India.
 It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and
becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals also can be used as a
substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead.
 It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.
 Aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala,
Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
 Regular supply of electricity and an assured source of raw material at
minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.
Aluminum Smelting
Aluminum Smelting
 4 to 6 tonnes ofbauxite 2 tonnes of alumina
1tonne of aluminium
Aluminum Smelting
Chemical Industries
 The Chemical industry comprises both large and small scale
manufacturing units.
 Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.
 Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture
fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric
acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper)
and caustic soda.
Chemical Industries
Chemical Industries
 Organic chemicals: Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are
used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-
stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
 Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical
plants.
 The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
Fertilizer Industry
 The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous
fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate
(DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N),
phosphate (P), and potash (K).
 Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves.
 Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards
half of the fertilizer production.
 Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar,
Maharashtra, Assam, etc.
Cement Industry
 Cement industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone,
silica and gypsum.
 Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
 The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
 Improvement in the quality has found the produce a readily available
market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia apart from a large
demand within the country.
Automobile Industry
 After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models
stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the
healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three-
wheelers.
 The industry is located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai,
Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
Information Technology and
Electronics Industry
 The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor
sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange,
radars,etc.
 Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
 Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi,
Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
 A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
 The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the
success of IT industry in India.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental
Degradation
 Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:
 (a) Air
 (b) Water
 (c) Land
 (d) Noise
 The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.
Industrial pollution
Air pollution
 Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable
gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
 Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like
dust, sprays mist and smoke.
 Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects like Bhopal
Gas tragedy.
 Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings
and the atmosphere as a whole.
Water pollution
 Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and
affluents discharged into rivers.
 The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and
dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that
let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts, etc.
 Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid
wastes in India.
Thermal pollution
 Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and
thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
 Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production
facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
 Soil and water pollution are closely related.
 Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground
and the ground water also gets contaminated.
Noise pollution
 Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause
hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among
other physiological effects.
 Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment,
generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of
noise.
Control of Environmental Degradation
 Suggestions for the reduction of the industrial pollution of fresh water:
 minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling
 harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
 Treatment of industrial effluents - can be done in three phases
1. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening,
grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
2. Secondary treatment by biological process
3. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
Control of Environmental Degradation
 Overdrawing of ground water needs to be regulated legally.
 Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to
factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and
inertial separators.
 Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
 Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted
with silencers or to be redesigned.
 Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of
earplugs and earphones.
NTPC shows the way
 National Thermal Power Corporation Pvt Ltd (NTPC) is a major power
providing corporation in India.
 It has ISO (International Organization for Standardization’) certification
for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.
 It suggests that:
 1. Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and
upgrading existing equipment.
 2. Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
NTPC shows the way
 3. Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing
the question of special purpose vehicles foafforestation.
 4. Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash
water recycling system and liquid waste management.
 5. Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for
all its power stations.

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Manufacturing industries

  • 1. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES CLASS X: CBSE – SOCIAL SCIENCE GEOGRAPHY: CHAPTER – 6 (BY: MRS. USHA JOY)
  • 3. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES  Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.  People employed in the secondary activities manufacture the primary materials into finished goods.  The workers employed in steel factories, car, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc. fall into this category.  The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.
  • 4. IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING  Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of economic development because –  1. Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.  2. Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • 5. IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING  3. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.  4. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.
  • 6. Agriculture and industry  Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.  For instance, the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.  They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.  In the present day world of globalisation, our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive. Self-sufficiency alone is not enough.  Our manufactured goods must be at par in quality with those in the international market.
  • 7. Contribution of Industry to National Economy  Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 per cent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.  This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 per cent.  The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent.  Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 per cent per annum.
  • 8. Contribution of Industry to National Economy  With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.  The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with this objective.
  • 9. Industrial Location  Industrial locations are are influenced by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc.  It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.  After an industrial activity starts, urbanisation follows.  Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.  Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
  • 10. Industrial Location  In the pre-Independence period, most manufacturing units were located in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc.  Consequently, there emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.  The key to decision of the factory location is the least cost.
  • 12. Ideal Location of an Industry
  • 13. Classification of Industries  On the basis of source of raw materials used:  Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.  Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  • 14. Classification of Industries  According to their main role:  Basic or key industries are those which supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.  Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  • 15. Classification of Industries  On the basis of capital investment:  A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. This limit has changed over a period of time. At present the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore.  Large scale industries has an investment of more than one crore.
  • 16. Classification of Industries  On the basis of ownership:  Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.  Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.  Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals - Oil India Ltd. (OIL)  Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
  • 17. Classification of Industries  Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:  Heavy industries such as iron and steel  Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical goods industries.
  • 18. Agro-based Industries  Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials. Value addition in the textile industry
  • 19. Textile Industry  The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings.  It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.
  • 21.
  • 22. Cotton Textiles  In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.  After the 18th century, power-looms came into use.  Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.  The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
  • 24. Cotton Textiles  In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.  This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.  While spinning continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralized.  India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of fabric.
  • 25. Cotton Textiles  India exports yarn to Japan, U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.  We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn.  There are some large and modern factories in these segments, but most of the production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.  Although, we have made significant increase in the production of good quality long staple cotton, the need to import is still felt.
  • 26. Jute Textiles  India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.  The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1855 at Rishra.  After Partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh.
  • 28. Location of Jute mills  Most of the jute mills are located in the banks of the Hugli river(West Bengal) because:  Proximity of the jute producing areas, inexpensive water transport, a good network of railways, roadways and waterways cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states etc.
  • 29. Challenges – Jute Textile  Challenges faced by the industry include stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.  The internal demand has been on the increase due to the Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.  The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Ghana, Saudi Arabia, U.K. and Australia.
  • 30. Sugar Industry  India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari.  The mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.  Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.  Major challenges include the seasonal nature of the industry, old and inefficient methods of production, transport delay in reaching cane to factories and the need to maximise the use of baggase.
  • 32. Mineral-based Industries  Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.  Iron and Steel Industry:  The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.  Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
  • 33. Iron and Steel Industry  Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.  Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.  In 2018 with 106.5 million tonnes of crude steel production, India ranked 2nd among the world crude steel producers.  It is the largest producer of sponge iron.  In 2018 per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 70.9 kg per annum against the world average of 224.5 kg.
  • 34. Iron and Steel Industry
  • 35. Iron and Steel Industry  Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).  In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the largest producer and consumer of steel.  Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries due to low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market.
  • 36. Iron and Steel Industry  India is not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:  (a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal  (b) Lower productivity of labour  (c) Irregular supply of energy and  (d) Poor infrastructure.  We also import good quality steel from other countries.
  • 37. Crude Steel Production in India and China
  • 39. Major Iron and Steel Plants in India
  • 40. Aluminum Smelting  Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.  It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals also can be used as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead.  It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.  Aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.  Regular supply of electricity and an assured source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.
  • 42. Aluminum Smelting  4 to 6 tonnes ofbauxite 2 tonnes of alumina 1tonne of aluminium
  • 44. Chemical Industries  The Chemical industry comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.  Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.  Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda.
  • 46. Chemical Industries  Organic chemicals: Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye- stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.  Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.  The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
  • 47. Fertilizer Industry  The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).  Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves.  Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.  Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, etc.
  • 48. Cement Industry  Cement industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica and gypsum.  Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.  The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.  Improvement in the quality has found the produce a readily available market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia apart from a large demand within the country.
  • 49. Automobile Industry  After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three- wheelers.  The industry is located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
  • 50. Information Technology and Electronics Industry  The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, radars,etc.  Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India.  Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.  A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.  The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India.
  • 51. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation  Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:  (a) Air  (b) Water  (c) Land  (d) Noise  The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.
  • 53. Air pollution  Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.  Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke.  Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects like Bhopal Gas tragedy.  Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
  • 54. Water pollution  Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers.  The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts, etc.  Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
  • 55. Thermal pollution  Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.  Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.  Soil and water pollution are closely related.  Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.
  • 56. Noise pollution  Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.  Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.
  • 57. Control of Environmental Degradation  Suggestions for the reduction of the industrial pollution of fresh water:  minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling  harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements  Treatment of industrial effluents - can be done in three phases 1. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. 2. Secondary treatment by biological process 3. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
  • 58. Control of Environmental Degradation  Overdrawing of ground water needs to be regulated legally.  Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.  Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.  Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers or to be redesigned.  Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.
  • 59. NTPC shows the way  National Thermal Power Corporation Pvt Ltd (NTPC) is a major power providing corporation in India.  It has ISO (International Organization for Standardization’) certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.  It suggests that:  1. Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.  2. Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
  • 60. NTPC shows the way  3. Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles foafforestation.  4. Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.  5. Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.