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MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page62
I.OBJECTIVES
At the end of the period, the students must be able to:
1. Identify the parts of the male reproductive system and their corresponding functions.
2. State the processes that happen in spermatogenesis.
3. Identify the primary regions of the sperm and its characteristics.
4. Trace the pathway of the sperm from its production to its ejaculation.
5. Appreciate the role of the male reproductive system in the reproduction of human life.
II. SUBJECT MATTER
Topic: Male Reproductive System
Subtopics: 1. Parts of the Male Reproductive System
1.a. The Parts and its Functions
2. The Sperm
2.a Spermatogenesis
2.b The Regions of the Sperm
2.c The Pathway of the Sperm
3. The Semen
3.a The Composition of the Semen
4. Diseases/ Complications of the Male Reproductive System
References:
Science Spectrum (Fallaria, Apolinario, Ronquillo) pages 2-3
Making Life [How We Reproduce and Grow] Richard Walker, pages 12- 15
Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge [16], pages 42 -43
http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_one_lect/weblinks/oogenesis-spermatogenesis
Internet
Materials:
Visual Aids
Illustration of the male reproductive system
Illustration of the process of spermatogenesis
Concepts:
1. The main functions of the male reproductive system is to produce,
store and transport the sperm cells.
2. Spermatogenesis is composed of two phases: Meiosis and Spermiogenesis
3. The sperm has three primary regions: the head, the midpiece and the flagellum.
4. The semen is composed of 10% testicular fluid, 60% seminal fluid and 30% prostatic
fluid.
5. The sperm travels through in this path:
Production in the testes  epididymis  vas deferens  urethra  seminal vesicle

ejaculatory duct  prostate gland  bulbourethral gland penis Ejaculation
Materials:
Visual Aids
Manila Paper
Illustrations of the Male Reproductive System, the pathway of the Sperm and
Spermatogenesis
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page63
Skills:
Analyzing, Thinking, Identifying, Describing
III.METHODOLOGY
Pre-Activity
Review on the parts of the male reproductive system.
B.Lesson Proper
1.Motivation:
Post a picture of the male reproductive system.
Ask: What are the parts of the male reproductive system?
Let the students describe and define each of those parts
while pointing it out on the illustration.
-Discuss the process of spermatogenesis.
-Showing a picture of the sperm, point out its primary regions.
-Using the illustration of the male reproductive system,
trace the pathway of the sperm or the semen.
-Discuss the composition of the semen.
C.Minds-On
Open Forum
The students are free to ask. Queries shall be answered to the best of my knowledge.
IV. GENERALIZATION
Summary of the report.
V. EVALUATION
In a one-fourth sheet of paper, answer the following questions.
Write the answer only.
1. It acts as the „climate control system‟ for the testes.
2. Two phases of
3. Spermatogenesis
4. The three
5. Regions of
6. The sperm
7. It composes 60% of the semen.
8. Give two of the accessory organs
9. of the male reproductive system
10. Sperm production occurs in the __________.
Key to Correction
1. scrotum
2. meiosis
3. spermatogenesis
4. head
5. midpiece
6. flagellum
7. epididymis / bulbourethral gland
8. vas deferens / prostate gland
9. urethra / seminal vesicle
10. seminiferous tubules
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page64
PPAARRTTSS OOFF TTHHEE MMAALLEE RREEPPRROODDUUCCTTIIVVEE SSYYSSTTEEMM
TESTES – These are large oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum,
secured at either end by a structure called spermatic cord. It produces the sperm cells and
hormones called androgen. It is located outside of the body because they require temperature than
the rest of the body in order to produce sperm cells (spermatogenesis).
SCROTUM- This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It
contains the testicles, as well as many nerves and blood vessels. It acts as “climate control
system” for the testes. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax,
moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the
temperature. The skin of the scrotum contains numerous sweat glands that assist in the cooling
process.
PENIS – It is the external tissue which contains the urethra and through which the semen and/or
urine is expelled.
It has three parts:
a. The root – which is the one that is attached to the wall of the abdomen
b.The body or shaft –
c. Glans – It is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis.
It is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. It is also called the head of the penis.
The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular-shaped chambers.
These chambers are made up of special sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large
spaces that fills with blood when is sexually aroused. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to
accommodate changes in penis during an erection.
Accessory Organs
EPIDIDYMIS – It is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports
and store sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It is also the job of the epididymis to bring
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page65
the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of
fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
VAS DEFERENS - It is a long, muscular tube located in the spermatic cord that travels from the
epididymis into the pelvic cavity to just behind the bladder. It transports mature sperm to the
urethra.
URETHRA – It is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. It also
ejaculate semen when a man reaches orgasm.
*When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only
semen to be ejaculated at oragasm.
SEMINAL VESICLES – These are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base
of the bladder. These produce a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy to
help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man‟s
ejaculatory fluid.
PROSTATE GLAND – It is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in
front of the rectum. It also contributes fluid to the ejaculate which helps nourish the sperm.
*secretes an alkaline fluid which enters the seminal vesicle to mix with the sperm cells and from
the semen.
BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS – It is also called the Cowpers‟ glands. These are pea-sized
structures located on the side of the urethra just below the prostate gland. It produces a clear,
slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and
to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
THE SPERM
SPERMATOGENESIS
- The entire process of formation and maturation of the entire male gamete
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page66
Spermatogenesis is the total process of sperm formation.
It consists of 2 phases:
meiosis and spermiogenesis.
It occurs in the seminiferous tubules.
Most of the cells that comprise the walls of the seminiferous tubules are in different stages of
developing into sperm and are collectively known as spermatogenic cells.
The cells found in the outermost layer of the tubule are diploid germ cells known as
spermatogonia.
The spermatogonia divide continuously by mitosis to form 2 types – type A and type B.
Type Aspermatogonia stay in the peripheral rim of the seminiferous tubules to maintain the
population of germ cells.
Type B spermatogonia undergo meiosis and eventually become sperm.
Meiosis consists of 2 series of nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions that convert 1 diploid cell
into 4 haploid cells. The first set of nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions is known as meiosis I and
the second set is meiosis II.
Prior to meiosis I, the B type spermatogonium replicates its entire complement of DNA.
It‟s now a primary spermatocyte and moves slightly closer to the lumen of the tubule.
The primary spermatocyte then undergoes meiosis I dividing its nucleus and cytoplasm.
This results in 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes. They are found slightly closer to the
lumen than the primary spermatocytes.
Each secondary spermatocyte then undergoes meiosis II dividing its nucleus and cytoplasm to
become 2 haploid spermatids.
The spermatids are slightly closer to the lumen then the secondary spermatocytes.
At the completion of both stages of meiosis, one diploid spermatogonium has produced 4 haploid
spermatids. Spermatids do not physically resemble mature sperm.
The process by which the spherical spermatids acquire the characteristic shape of adult sperm
is known as spermiogenesis.
Following spermiogenesis the 4 spermatids will have turned into 4 adult spermatozoa.
Both meiosis and spermiogenesis are assisted by another cell type found in the seminiferous
tubules – the sustentacularor Sertolicells.
Sustentacular cells help move, signal, and feed the developing sperm cells. They will also secrete
the testicular fluid whose bulk flow will force sperm into the epididymis. Tight junctions
between the sustentacular cells form the blood –testis barrier which prevents sperm cells from
encountering cells of the immune system. Since sperm cells do not form until well after the
immune system is established they would be recognized as foreign and destroyed.
3 REGIONS OF THE SPERM
A. Head– contains the nucleus (with 23 chromosomes) and the acrosome (contains the
digestive enzymes that help sperm penetrate the cells surrounding the egg)
B. Midpiece – contains multiple mitochondria to provide the ATP that powers the
sperms swimming
C. Flagellum – the long tail that is used to propel the sperm
SEMEN
Composition of the Semen
10% testicular fluid
60% seminal fluid
30% prostatic fluid
DISEASES
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page67
Testicular Cancer
*most common sign – painless solid mass in the testis
- affects 1 of every 20,000 males
Prostate Gland Hypertrophy
- Blockage off the gland
Erectile Dysfunction
- Aka impotence
- The inability to attain an erection when desired
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page68
REFLECTION
The human body is one of the most complex gifts of God. It comes hand in hand with
reproduction and sex. Looking at it outside, you can simply look at it as a process, but digging it
up all inside, you can see God’s great art and intelligence rolled into one. I find it necessary that
all of us should be able to look at it in this way – not just seeing it as an organ system, but as
something even more significant, holding that much importance and requiring that great
understanding.
I don’t know if it was really coincidence that I was the one who was picked to report on
this but nevertheless, I was more than satisfied for I got one of the most intriguing topics we
have to discuss in our subject and I could already sense the overflowing questions from
everyone and I wasn’t mistaken! My mind too, was occupied by answers and questions at the
same time. The class was even more informed than me and their questions sent me like, “Why
didn’t I think of that?”. I was dumbfounded. They’re really intelligent. Well, people really are
unpredictable and that’s what makes life more wonderful. I think that’s what they call give and
take relationship between a teacher and his students. It really could not exist as one-sided and
it never will. It always comes from both – the other one learns as the other teaches and vice
versa, and sometimes the teacher is even more benefited.
As a discussant, I was able to experience ‘somehow’ the life of a teacher. The sleepless
nights spent on planning and thinking for what you’re going to show your class, those nights
that you have to make your aesthetic sense work for you to be able to make visual aids catchy
enough for the class or when you have to think in one way or another how will you be able to
get the attention of the class or when you come to the point of talking in your own head and
asking questions like: ‘How am I going to act tomorrow? Will I panic? Will they be interested?
Will they listen to me?
There’s just so much t think about, yet you just got to think positive about it. It’s only on
yourself how you can make it successful or not. Believing in yourself is one big thing and being
ready is another. I realized that discussing wasn’t just being able to discuss your topic. You
have to think how to connect with your students. You have to think like them or get how their
imaginations work. You need to be one of them.
Being a teacher isn’t that easy. A teacher really always needs to be ready whenever,
wherever. It takes great courage and confidence to stand on it. It also requires diligence and
perseverance. “You have to know more and more about less and less.”
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo
Page69
Reproductive System
(to the tune of I Won’t Give Up by Jason Mraz)
When I look at vagina
I really feel so high
When I see the egg rise
An erection I hold
Oh my dear testis,
I see that you’ve come so far
To be right where you are
How old are you sperm?
I won’t give up on you
Even if your walls get rough
The energy I have for you
Still swimming up
And when you’re needing your space
To do some navigating
I’ll be here patiently waiting
To see what I’ll find
Even if clitoris fade
Or wrinkled it to the earth
We got to travel lot
I know I can make it
I won’t give up on you
Even if your walls get rough
The energy I have for you
Still swimming up
I won’t give up on you
Even if your walls get rough
The energy I have for you
Still swimming up

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Lesson Plan on the Male Reproductive System

  • 1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page62 I.OBJECTIVES At the end of the period, the students must be able to: 1. Identify the parts of the male reproductive system and their corresponding functions. 2. State the processes that happen in spermatogenesis. 3. Identify the primary regions of the sperm and its characteristics. 4. Trace the pathway of the sperm from its production to its ejaculation. 5. Appreciate the role of the male reproductive system in the reproduction of human life. II. SUBJECT MATTER Topic: Male Reproductive System Subtopics: 1. Parts of the Male Reproductive System 1.a. The Parts and its Functions 2. The Sperm 2.a Spermatogenesis 2.b The Regions of the Sperm 2.c The Pathway of the Sperm 3. The Semen 3.a The Composition of the Semen 4. Diseases/ Complications of the Male Reproductive System References: Science Spectrum (Fallaria, Apolinario, Ronquillo) pages 2-3 Making Life [How We Reproduce and Grow] Richard Walker, pages 12- 15 Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge [16], pages 42 -43 http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_one_lect/weblinks/oogenesis-spermatogenesis Internet Materials: Visual Aids Illustration of the male reproductive system Illustration of the process of spermatogenesis Concepts: 1. The main functions of the male reproductive system is to produce, store and transport the sperm cells. 2. Spermatogenesis is composed of two phases: Meiosis and Spermiogenesis 3. The sperm has three primary regions: the head, the midpiece and the flagellum. 4. The semen is composed of 10% testicular fluid, 60% seminal fluid and 30% prostatic fluid. 5. The sperm travels through in this path: Production in the testes  epididymis  vas deferens  urethra  seminal vesicle  ejaculatory duct  prostate gland  bulbourethral gland penis Ejaculation Materials: Visual Aids Manila Paper Illustrations of the Male Reproductive System, the pathway of the Sperm and Spermatogenesis
  • 2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page63 Skills: Analyzing, Thinking, Identifying, Describing III.METHODOLOGY Pre-Activity Review on the parts of the male reproductive system. B.Lesson Proper 1.Motivation: Post a picture of the male reproductive system. Ask: What are the parts of the male reproductive system? Let the students describe and define each of those parts while pointing it out on the illustration. -Discuss the process of spermatogenesis. -Showing a picture of the sperm, point out its primary regions. -Using the illustration of the male reproductive system, trace the pathway of the sperm or the semen. -Discuss the composition of the semen. C.Minds-On Open Forum The students are free to ask. Queries shall be answered to the best of my knowledge. IV. GENERALIZATION Summary of the report. V. EVALUATION In a one-fourth sheet of paper, answer the following questions. Write the answer only. 1. It acts as the „climate control system‟ for the testes. 2. Two phases of 3. Spermatogenesis 4. The three 5. Regions of 6. The sperm 7. It composes 60% of the semen. 8. Give two of the accessory organs 9. of the male reproductive system 10. Sperm production occurs in the __________. Key to Correction 1. scrotum 2. meiosis 3. spermatogenesis 4. head 5. midpiece 6. flagellum 7. epididymis / bulbourethral gland 8. vas deferens / prostate gland 9. urethra / seminal vesicle 10. seminiferous tubules
  • 3. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page64 PPAARRTTSS OOFF TTHHEE MMAALLEE RREEPPRROODDUUCCTTIIVVEE SSYYSSTTEEMM TESTES – These are large oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called spermatic cord. It produces the sperm cells and hormones called androgen. It is located outside of the body because they require temperature than the rest of the body in order to produce sperm cells (spermatogenesis). SCROTUM- This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles, as well as many nerves and blood vessels. It acts as “climate control system” for the testes. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature. The skin of the scrotum contains numerous sweat glands that assist in the cooling process. PENIS – It is the external tissue which contains the urethra and through which the semen and/or urine is expelled. It has three parts: a. The root – which is the one that is attached to the wall of the abdomen b.The body or shaft – c. Glans – It is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. It is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. It is also called the head of the penis. The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular-shaped chambers. These chambers are made up of special sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fills with blood when is sexually aroused. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis during an erection. Accessory Organs EPIDIDYMIS – It is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and store sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It is also the job of the epididymis to bring
  • 4. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page65 the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens. VAS DEFERENS - It is a long, muscular tube located in the spermatic cord that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity to just behind the bladder. It transports mature sperm to the urethra. URETHRA – It is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. It also ejaculate semen when a man reaches orgasm. *When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at oragasm. SEMINAL VESICLES – These are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. These produce a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man‟s ejaculatory fluid. PROSTATE GLAND – It is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. It also contributes fluid to the ejaculate which helps nourish the sperm. *secretes an alkaline fluid which enters the seminal vesicle to mix with the sperm cells and from the semen. BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS – It is also called the Cowpers‟ glands. These are pea-sized structures located on the side of the urethra just below the prostate gland. It produces a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra. THE SPERM SPERMATOGENESIS - The entire process of formation and maturation of the entire male gamete
  • 5. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page66 Spermatogenesis is the total process of sperm formation. It consists of 2 phases: meiosis and spermiogenesis. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules. Most of the cells that comprise the walls of the seminiferous tubules are in different stages of developing into sperm and are collectively known as spermatogenic cells. The cells found in the outermost layer of the tubule are diploid germ cells known as spermatogonia. The spermatogonia divide continuously by mitosis to form 2 types – type A and type B. Type Aspermatogonia stay in the peripheral rim of the seminiferous tubules to maintain the population of germ cells. Type B spermatogonia undergo meiosis and eventually become sperm. Meiosis consists of 2 series of nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions that convert 1 diploid cell into 4 haploid cells. The first set of nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions is known as meiosis I and the second set is meiosis II. Prior to meiosis I, the B type spermatogonium replicates its entire complement of DNA. It‟s now a primary spermatocyte and moves slightly closer to the lumen of the tubule. The primary spermatocyte then undergoes meiosis I dividing its nucleus and cytoplasm. This results in 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes. They are found slightly closer to the lumen than the primary spermatocytes. Each secondary spermatocyte then undergoes meiosis II dividing its nucleus and cytoplasm to become 2 haploid spermatids. The spermatids are slightly closer to the lumen then the secondary spermatocytes. At the completion of both stages of meiosis, one diploid spermatogonium has produced 4 haploid spermatids. Spermatids do not physically resemble mature sperm. The process by which the spherical spermatids acquire the characteristic shape of adult sperm is known as spermiogenesis. Following spermiogenesis the 4 spermatids will have turned into 4 adult spermatozoa. Both meiosis and spermiogenesis are assisted by another cell type found in the seminiferous tubules – the sustentacularor Sertolicells. Sustentacular cells help move, signal, and feed the developing sperm cells. They will also secrete the testicular fluid whose bulk flow will force sperm into the epididymis. Tight junctions between the sustentacular cells form the blood –testis barrier which prevents sperm cells from encountering cells of the immune system. Since sperm cells do not form until well after the immune system is established they would be recognized as foreign and destroyed. 3 REGIONS OF THE SPERM A. Head– contains the nucleus (with 23 chromosomes) and the acrosome (contains the digestive enzymes that help sperm penetrate the cells surrounding the egg) B. Midpiece – contains multiple mitochondria to provide the ATP that powers the sperms swimming C. Flagellum – the long tail that is used to propel the sperm SEMEN Composition of the Semen 10% testicular fluid 60% seminal fluid 30% prostatic fluid DISEASES
  • 6. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page67 Testicular Cancer *most common sign – painless solid mass in the testis - affects 1 of every 20,000 males Prostate Gland Hypertrophy - Blockage off the gland Erectile Dysfunction - Aka impotence - The inability to attain an erection when desired
  • 7. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page68 REFLECTION The human body is one of the most complex gifts of God. It comes hand in hand with reproduction and sex. Looking at it outside, you can simply look at it as a process, but digging it up all inside, you can see God’s great art and intelligence rolled into one. I find it necessary that all of us should be able to look at it in this way – not just seeing it as an organ system, but as something even more significant, holding that much importance and requiring that great understanding. I don’t know if it was really coincidence that I was the one who was picked to report on this but nevertheless, I was more than satisfied for I got one of the most intriguing topics we have to discuss in our subject and I could already sense the overflowing questions from everyone and I wasn’t mistaken! My mind too, was occupied by answers and questions at the same time. The class was even more informed than me and their questions sent me like, “Why didn’t I think of that?”. I was dumbfounded. They’re really intelligent. Well, people really are unpredictable and that’s what makes life more wonderful. I think that’s what they call give and take relationship between a teacher and his students. It really could not exist as one-sided and it never will. It always comes from both – the other one learns as the other teaches and vice versa, and sometimes the teacher is even more benefited. As a discussant, I was able to experience ‘somehow’ the life of a teacher. The sleepless nights spent on planning and thinking for what you’re going to show your class, those nights that you have to make your aesthetic sense work for you to be able to make visual aids catchy enough for the class or when you have to think in one way or another how will you be able to get the attention of the class or when you come to the point of talking in your own head and asking questions like: ‘How am I going to act tomorrow? Will I panic? Will they be interested? Will they listen to me? There’s just so much t think about, yet you just got to think positive about it. It’s only on yourself how you can make it successful or not. Believing in yourself is one big thing and being ready is another. I realized that discussing wasn’t just being able to discuss your topic. You have to think how to connect with your students. You have to think like them or get how their imaginations work. You need to be one of them. Being a teacher isn’t that easy. A teacher really always needs to be ready whenever, wherever. It takes great courage and confidence to stand on it. It also requires diligence and perseverance. “You have to know more and more about less and less.”
  • 8. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Eileen Aycardo Page69 Reproductive System (to the tune of I Won’t Give Up by Jason Mraz) When I look at vagina I really feel so high When I see the egg rise An erection I hold Oh my dear testis, I see that you’ve come so far To be right where you are How old are you sperm? I won’t give up on you Even if your walls get rough The energy I have for you Still swimming up And when you’re needing your space To do some navigating I’ll be here patiently waiting To see what I’ll find Even if clitoris fade Or wrinkled it to the earth We got to travel lot I know I can make it I won’t give up on you Even if your walls get rough The energy I have for you Still swimming up I won’t give up on you Even if your walls get rough The energy I have for you Still swimming up