SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Presented By:
Malathi A.N

II Year M.Tech.
PG12AEG4094
1
Objective of seminar
To understand the importance of
development of biodegradable films
To illustrate the biodegradable films
used in food packaging
To

review

studies

related

to

biodegradable film

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

2
Content
Introduction
Biodegradable polymer
Biodegradation process
Classification of biodegradable polymers
Application of biopolymers in food packaging
Companies involved in bioplastics for food related packaging
Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer
Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology used in food packaging
Case studies
Conclusion
References
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

3
INTRODUCTION
Most of today’s synthetic polymers are produced from
petrochemicals and are not biodegradable.
Persistent

polymers

generate

significant

sources of

environmental pollution, harming wildlife when they are
dispersed in nature.
Eg:

Disposal

of

non-degradable

plastic

bags

adversely affects sea-life

(Averous and Pollet, 2012).
Dept. of Procssing and Food Engineering

4
OUR OCEANS ARE TURNING INTO
PLASTIC...!!

NO EXCUSE FOR SINGLE USE:
Plastic bags are choking our oceans. An estimated 50-80
million end up in our environment each year. Once they enter
our precious water they do no go away. Plastic bags remains
for centuries posing threats to wildlife by entanglement,
suffocation and entering the food chain.
5
OCEAN POLLUTION
It starts with us-and it ends with us

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

6
Plastic production has increased from 0.5 to 260
million tonnes per year since 1950
40% of plastics produced every year is discarded into

Landfill.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

7
Every year, more than 500 billion plastic bags are
distributed, and less than 3% bags are recycled.
They are typically made of polyethylene and can take

up to 1,000 years to degrade in landfills that emit
harmful greenhouse gases (Heap, 2009).

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

8
9
The term ‘‘biodegradable’’ materials is used to describe
those materials which can be degraded by the enzymatic action
of living organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi and the
ultimate end products of the degradation process, these being
CO2, H2O and biomass under aerobic conditions and
hydrocarbons, methane and biomass under anaerobic conditions
(Kuorwel et al., 2007).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

10
Biodegradation process
Step-1
The long polymer molecules are reduced to shorter and shorter
lengths

and

undergo

oxidation

(oxygen

groups

attach

themselves to the polymer molecules).
This process is triggered by heat (elevated temperatures found in
landfills), UV light (a component of sunlight) and mechanical

stress (e.g. wind or compaction in a landfill).
Oxidation causes the molecules to become hydrophilic (waterattracting) and small enough to be ingestible by microorganisms, setting the stage for biodegradation to begin.
www.epi-global.com
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

11
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

12
Step-2
Biodegradation occurs in the presence of moisture and
micro-organisms typically found in the environment.
The plastic material is completely broken down into the
residual products of the biodegradation process.
Step-3
As micro-organisms consume the degraded plastic, carbon
dioxide, water, and biomass are produced and returned to
nature by way of the biocycle.
www.epi-global.com
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

13
Source of biodegradable polymer
Polysaccharides
Starches
Wheat
Potatoes
Maize
Cassava
Ligno-cellose product
Wood
Straws
Others
Pectins
Chitosan/chitin
Gums
(Averous and Pollet, 2012).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

14
Biopolymers are divided into three main categories
1. Biodegradable polymers obtained by chemical synthesis

Polyglycolic acid
Polylactic acid
Polycaprolactone
Polyvinyl alcohol

(Flinger, 2003).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

15
2. Biodegradable polymers produced through fermentation
by microorganisms
Polyesteres
Neutral polysaccharides
3. Biodegradable polymers from chemically modified natural
product

Starch
Cellulose
Chitin and chitosan
Soy based plastic

(Flinger, 2003).

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

16
Application of Biopolymers in food
packaging
Edible coating
Paper boards
Egg trays
Carry bags
Wrapping films
Containers

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

17
Companies involved in bioplastics for foodrelated packaging applications.
Company

Country

Comments

Bioenvelop

Canada

Bioenvelop moisture-barrier coating
films for biodegradable food containers
and utensils

Earthshell crop.

USA

Primarily serving food-service industry
with food containers and serviceware

Evercorn, inc.

Japan

Evercorn resin used in the following
food-related applications: disposable
serviceware and utensils, lamination or
coatings for paper/paperboard, food
containers

National Starch
Company

UK

Packing (packing peanuts) applications
for shipping and distribution

(Lillian ,2006)

18
Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer
Raw material Advantages

Disadvantages

Zein

 Good film
forming properties
Good tensile and
moisture barrier
properties

Chitosan

Antimicrobial and
High water
antifungal activity
sensitivity
Good mechanical
properties
Low oxygen and
carbon dioxide
permeability

Brittle

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

Reference
Pol et al.,
(2002).
Cho et al.,
(2010).
Peelman et
al., (2013).

19
Cont……

Raw material Advantages

Disadvantages

Reference

Whey protein
isolate

Desirable film
low tensile
forming properties streangth
Good oxygen
high water
barrier
vapor
permeability

Gluten

Low cost
High sensitivity Peelman et
Good oxygen
to moisture and
al., (2013).
barrier
brittle
Good filmforming properties

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

Kadham et al.,
(2013).

20
Cont……

Raw
material

Advantages

Disadvantages Reference

Soy protein
isolate

Excellent film
Poor
forming ability mechanical
Low cost
properties
Barrier
High water
properties
sensitivity
against oxygen
permeation

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

Pol et al., (2002).
Cao et al., (2007)
Cho et al.,
(2010).

21
The use of biodegradable films for food packaging has been

strongly limited because of the poor barrier properties and
weak mechanical properties shown by natural polymers.
The application of nano-composites promises to expand the
use of edible and biodegradable films that

reduce the

packaging waste associated with processed foods this
supports the preservation of fresh foods by extending their
shelf life
(Sorrentino et al., 2007).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

22
Nanotechnology is generally defined as the creation and
utilization of structures with at least one dimension in the
nanometer length scale (10-9m). These structures are called
nanocomposites

Nanocomposites

could

exhibit

modifications

in

the

properties of the materials

(Peelman et al., 2013).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

23
To achieve

modifications, a good interaction between the

polymer matrix and the nanofiller is desired.
Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to improve
the performance of biobased films.

(Peelman et al., 2013).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

24
Nanomaterials used in food packaging
Nanotechnology can be used in plastic food packaging to
make it stronger, lighter or perform better.

Antimicrobials such as nanoparticles of silver or titanium
dioxide can be used in packaging to prevent spoilage of
foods.

Derek Lam, (2010).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

25
Cont……

Introduction of nanoparticles into packaging to block
oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture from reaching the
food, and also aids in preventing spoilage.

Derek Lam, (2010).
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

26
Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks
packaging

Mechanical

and

barrier

properties

of

biodegradable soy protein isolate-based film coated
with polylactic acid

Preparation and characterization of whey protein
isolate film reinforced with porous silica coated
titaniam nanoparticles

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

27
Case study i

Title: Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks
packaging
Author: M. Cannarsia,, A. Baiano, R. Marino, M. Sinigaglia

and M.A. Del Nobile
Journal: Meat Science 70 (2005) 259-265

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

28
Objectives:

1. To check the possibility of replacing PVC film
with biodegradable polymers in order to preserve the
characteristic meat colour as well as control the microbial

contamination.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

29
Meat was obtained from ten organically farmed Podolian
young bulls.
Animals were slaughtered at 16–18 months of age. Mean
slaughter weight was 476 kg

22.23 kg

Dressed carcasses were split into two sides and chilled

for 48 h at 1–3ºC, after that each side was divided in hind
and fore quarter and each quarter was jointed into
different anatomical regions.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

30
The semimembranosus muscle (meat) was chosen as
representing muscles of greatest mass and economic
value.
All the removed sections were vacuum-packaged and
aged at 4ºC until 18 days post-mortem
Meat (semimembranosus muscle) was removed from the
ten carcasses 18 days post-mortem and steaks (1cm thick,
100 g weight) were cut.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

31
Samples were individually placed on polystyrene trays
and hermetically packaged with the following three films:

Biodegradable polymeric film
Biodegradable polyesters
Polyvinyl chloride film(PVC)

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

32
Water permeability: Infrared sensor technique
Microbial analysis:

TMVP(Total Mesophilic Viable Count)
TPVC(Total Psychrotrophic Viable Count)
Lactic acid bacteria
Pseudomonas spp.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

33
Mathematical model:
Gompertz equation

Where,
A is the maximum microbial growth attained at the stationary
phase
µ max is the maximum growth rate
ʎ is the lag time
cfu max is the cell load allowed for consumer acceptability
S.L is the shelf life (the time required to reach cfu max
t is time
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

34
Results

Table1: Water permeability data at 10ºC
Film

Thickness(µm)

Pw(g cm cm-2 s1 atm-1)

Polymeric film

64

1.53 10-8

4.84 10-10

Polyesters

51

4.30 10-9

3.29 10-10

PVC

12

3.75 10-9 1.30 10-10

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

35
Table2: Shelf life of beef
sample stored at 4 C

Table3: Shelf life of beef
sample stored at 15 C

Type of film

Shelf life(days)

Type of film

Shelf life(days)

PVC

2.41 0.12

PVC

1.88 0.01

Polymeric film

2.13 0.11

Polymeric film

1.25 0.01

Polyesters

2.16 0.11

Polyesters

1.35 0.01

Gompertz equation:

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

36
Table 4: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu),
of beef meat samples during a storage at 4ºC for 6 days
Microbial group

Initial
microbial load
(log CFU/g)

Type of film
PVC

Polymeric film

Polyesters

Final microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

Final
microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

Final
microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

TMVC

5.277

0.002

10.184

0.066

10.459

0.120

10.158

0.004

TPVC

5.035

0.020

10.511

0.089

10.373

0.035

10.081

0.028

Lactic acid
bacteria

5.519

0.031

9.888

Pseudomonas
spp.

5.779

0.089

10.440

0.052
0.067

9.143
10.572

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

0.004
0.038

9.210
10.203

0.004
0.002

37
Table 5: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu),
of beef meat samples during a storage at 15ºC for 6 days
Microbial group

Initial microbial
load
(log CFU/g)

Type of film

PVC

Polymeric film Polyesters

Final
microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

Final
microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

Final
microbial
load (log
CFU/g)

TMVC

5.277

0.002

9.736

0.017

9.092

0.118

9.735

0.039

TPVC

5.035

0.020

9.223

0.092

8.856

0.051

9.339

0.272

Lactic acid
bacteria

5.822

0.115

8.888

0.044

8.589

0.063

9.077

0.018

Pseudomonas
spp.

4.976

0.033

9.963

0.047

9.129

0.046

9.958

0.041

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

38
Conclusion

The investigated biodegradable films could be
advantageously used to replace PVC films in packaging
fresh processed meat, reducing in this way the

environmental impact of polymeric films

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

39
Case study ii

Title: Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy
protein isolate-based film coated with polylactic acid
Author: Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W
Journal: LWT 40(2007) 232-238

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

40
Objectives:
1. To improve mechanical and barrier properties of soy
protein isolate based film coated them with PLA
2. To determine some properties including tensile strength
(TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability

(WVP) of the films

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

41
5g SPI + 100ml distilled water + 2.5g glycerin
pH=10 0.1 with 1M sodium hydroxide solution
90ºC for 20min
Cast into a leveled teflon
Dried at ambient condition(≈23 C) for about 24h
Peeled from plates

PLA solution: 5g PLA + 100ml chloroform
SPI films were dipped into the PLA solution (2min)
Drained of excess solution and allow to dry at ambient

condition
Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

42
5g PLA + 100ml chloroform
Casting into teflon-coated glass plate

Dried at ambient condition
Peeled from plates

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

43
Results
Table 1: Soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with
Polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations
Film

Thickness(µm) DM(%)

SPI

78.8 2.2

75.5 1.2 91.3 0.4

SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.9 3.7

78.7 2.0 92.8 0.3

SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.4 4.3

78.8 1.4 92.5 0.2

SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 84.5 1.6

79.5 0.3 93.3 0.3

SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 86.2 2.8

81.9 0.7 94.1 0.1

SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 87.5 2.7

86.9 0.l

PLA

87.3 0.1 95.1 0.1

89.5 2.7

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

T(%)

94.3 0.3

44
Table 2: Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (E)
of soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic
acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations
Film

TS(Mpa)

E(%)

SPI

2.8 0.3

165.7 15.0

SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent)

8.5 1.1

82.6 5.1

SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent)

10.9 1.0

176.0 9.7

SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent)

11.5 0.5

218.3 30.7

SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent)

14.2 1.6

349.9 16.3

SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent)

17.4 2.1

207.6 34.6

PLA

17.2 0.5

203.4 20.8

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

45
Table 3: Water vapor permeability (WVP) of soy protein
isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic acid (PLA)
solution of varying concentrations
Film

WVP( 10-14 kgm/m2 s Pa)

SPI

268.30 21.50

SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent)

12.20 1.25

SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent)

7.60 0.1

SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent)

5.68 0.11

SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent)

4.74 0.25

SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent)

4.44 0.17

PLA

4.66 0.15

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

46
Conclusion

Mechanical and water barrier properties of PLA-coated
SPI films were greatly improved
The PLA-coated SPI films are suitable for applications in
packaging of foods

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

47
Case study iii

Title: Prepartion and characterization of whey protein isolate
films reinforced with porous silica coated titania
nanoparticales

Author: Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M.,
Grewell,

D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C.

Journal: Journal of food engineering 117(2013) 133-140

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

48
Objectives:
1. To develop film embedded with TiO2 nanoparticles by
utilizing sonication to achieve uniform distribution of
nanoparticles inside the WPI
2. To characterize the effects of different levels of
sonication used

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

49
5% wt of WPI and glycerol dissolved in distilled water
pH=8.0 with 2M sodium hydroxide
90 2ºC for 30min
Subjected to ultra sonication level of 0%, 10%, 50% and
100% sonication (0, 16, 80 and 160µm)
10, 15 and 20g were cast into a sterile polystyrene petri
dishes
Dried at 35 1ºC for 24h
Peeled from plates

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

50
Table 1: Thicknesses of whey protein isolate film with and
without) nanoparticles
Film

Film forming
solution(g)

Average thickness
(mm)

WPI

10

0.1456

15

0.2276

20

0.3084

10

0.1593

15

0.2329

20

0.3189

WPI-NP

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

51
1. Effect of sonication level on water contact angle of pure
WPI film and WPI films contacting nanoparticles

74°

16°

0µm

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

160µm

52
2. Effect of sonication level and with or without
nanoparticles on Young’s modulus

35mpa

19mpa

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

53
3. Effect of sonication level and with or without
nanoparticles on tensile stress of WPI films.

1.03

1.18

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

54
4. Effect of sonication level and with or without
nanoparticles on tensile strain of WPI films.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

55
Conclusion

Incorporation of nanoparticles helps to improve their
mechanical properties
Embedded nanoparticles contributed effectively to increase
the thickness of films

The presence of nanoparticles in the film was shown to
improve certain mechanical properties, but it also caused
nearly a 50% reduction in elongation.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

56
The WPI films embedded with nanoparticles have great
potential for application in food packaging for extending
the shelf life, improving quality, and enhancing the safety
of food packaged with them.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

57
Conclusion

The use biodegradable polymer reduces

the

environmental impact of non-degradable plastic

Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to
improve the performance of biobased films.
The application of nano-composites promises to
expand the use of edible and biodegradable films that

reduce the packaging waste associated with processed
foods that supports the preservation of fresh foods by
extending their shelf life.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

58
References
 Averous, L., and Pollet, E. 2012. Biodegradable polymer.
Environmental silicate nano-biocpmposites.
 Cao, N., Yuhua, F. and Junhuin, H. preparation and physical
properties of soy protein isolate and gelatin composite
films. Food hydroclloids. 21. 1153-1162
 Cho, Y.S., Lee, Y. S. and Rhee, C. 2010, Edible oxygen barrier
bilayerfilm pouches from corn zein and soy protein isolate
for olive oil packaging, LWT – Food Sci. and Technol., 43:
1234-1239.
 Flieger, M., Kantorova, M., Prell, A., Rezanka, T. and vortuba.
2003. biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.
Folia microbiol. 48(1), 27-44
 Heap, B. 2009. Preface. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences . 364: 1971-1971.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

59
 Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M., Grewell,
D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C. 2013, Preparation and
characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with
porous silica coated titaniam nanoparticles, J. of Food
Engng., 117 (1): 133-140.
 Kuorwel, K. K., Cran, J.M., Sonneveld, K., MiltZ, J. and Bigger,
W.S. 2011, Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegrdable
polysaccharide and Protein- Based Films Containing Active
Agents. Journal of Food Science, 76, 90-106.
 Liu, L. 2006. Bioplastics in Food Packaging: Innovative
Technologies for Biodegradable Packaging
 Lam, D. 2010. packaging application using Nannotechnology. San
jose state university.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

60
 Peelman, N., Ragaert, P,. Meulenaer, D. B., Adons, D., Peeters,
R., Cardon, L., Impe, V. F., and Devlieghere, F. 2013.
Application of bioplastic for food packaging. Trends in
Food Science & Technology. 1-14.
 Pol, H., Dwason, P., Action, J. and Ogale, A. 2002. soy protein
isolate/corn-zein laminated films: transported and
mechanical properties. Food engineering and physical
properties. 67(1).
 Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W. 2007. Swiss society of
food science and technology. 40: 232-238.
 Sorrentino, A., Gorrasi, G. and Vittoria, V. 2007, Potential
perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging
applications, Trends in Food Sci. and Technol., 18 (2): 8495.

Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering

61
62

More Related Content

What's hot

Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
KartikaPatil
 
Bio degradable films for food packaging
Bio degradable films for food packagingBio degradable films for food packaging
Bio degradable films for food packaging
haranadhreddy2
 
Edible packaging
 Edible packaging Edible packaging
Edible packaging
Sriganesh sankar
 
Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
Antimicrobial packaging - An IntroductionAntimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
Pragati Singham
 
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food wasteInnovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
siddharth Vishwakarma
 
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
Qatar University- Young Scientists Center (Al-Bairaq)
 
Intelligent packaging
Intelligent packagingIntelligent packaging
Intelligent packaging
ramukhan
 
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhiEdible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
Smridhi Masih
 
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industry
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industryPresentation1packaging of food product in food industry
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industry
Gyanshu Dubey
 
Non Migratory Bioactive Polymer
Non Migratory Bioactive PolymerNon Migratory Bioactive Polymer
Non Migratory Bioactive Polymer
KUSH VERMA
 
Food Packaging Technology
Food Packaging TechnologyFood Packaging Technology
Food Packaging Technology
Nazrul
 
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
Priyankashukla27dec
 
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materials
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materialsPresentation on eco friendly packaging materials
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materials
Adya Tiwari
 
Active and intelligent packaging
Active and intelligent packagingActive and intelligent packaging
Active and intelligent packaging
chanaonk
 
Retort pouches
Retort pouchesRetort pouches
Retort pouches
Cyril Mangan
 
Packaging materials for dairy products
Packaging materials for dairy productsPackaging materials for dairy products
Packaging materials for dairy products
Abhinav Vivek
 
Packaging - flavour interaction
Packaging - flavour interactionPackaging - flavour interaction
Packaging - flavour interaction
RAMYAMURUGESAN3
 
Paper used in food packaging
Paper used in food packagingPaper used in food packaging
Paper used in food packaging
AsifUzzaman8
 
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technologyActive edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
RaihanathusSahdhiyya
 
Active packaging
Active packagingActive packaging
Active packaging
Subhajit Majumdar
 

What's hot (20)

Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
Packaging asthetic and graphic design/ labelling
 
Bio degradable films for food packaging
Bio degradable films for food packagingBio degradable films for food packaging
Bio degradable films for food packaging
 
Edible packaging
 Edible packaging Edible packaging
Edible packaging
 
Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
Antimicrobial packaging - An IntroductionAntimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
Antimicrobial packaging - An Introduction
 
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food wasteInnovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
Innovative Food Packaging for reducing food waste
 
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
Food Packaging, Edible Food Packaging, IDM8
 
Intelligent packaging
Intelligent packagingIntelligent packaging
Intelligent packaging
 
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhiEdible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
Edible films and coatings in food packaging by smridhi
 
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industry
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industryPresentation1packaging of food product in food industry
Presentation1packaging of food product in food industry
 
Non Migratory Bioactive Polymer
Non Migratory Bioactive PolymerNon Migratory Bioactive Polymer
Non Migratory Bioactive Polymer
 
Food Packaging Technology
Food Packaging TechnologyFood Packaging Technology
Food Packaging Technology
 
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
Introduction to food packaging sir ppt)
 
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materials
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materialsPresentation on eco friendly packaging materials
Presentation on eco friendly packaging materials
 
Active and intelligent packaging
Active and intelligent packagingActive and intelligent packaging
Active and intelligent packaging
 
Retort pouches
Retort pouchesRetort pouches
Retort pouches
 
Packaging materials for dairy products
Packaging materials for dairy productsPackaging materials for dairy products
Packaging materials for dairy products
 
Packaging - flavour interaction
Packaging - flavour interactionPackaging - flavour interaction
Packaging - flavour interaction
 
Paper used in food packaging
Paper used in food packagingPaper used in food packaging
Paper used in food packaging
 
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technologyActive edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
Active edible films - An emerging trend in Food Packing technology
 
Active packaging
Active packagingActive packaging
Active packaging
 

Similar to Biodegradable films for Food Packaging

Bio nanocomposite
Bio nanocompositeBio nanocomposite
Bio nanocomposite
Beena R L
 
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional PlasticsEdible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
Rahul Ananth
 
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
shailajadesai6
 
Biodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plasticsBiodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plastics
DC Graphics
 
Synthesis of bioplastics
Synthesis of bioplasticsSynthesis of bioplastics
Synthesis of bioplastics
Siddarth Sandimani
 
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_JunejaBiodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
CHITRANSH JUNEJA
 
Biological degradation of synthetic polymer
Biological degradation of synthetic polymerBiological degradation of synthetic polymer
Biological degradation of synthetic polymer
Md. Mizanur Rahman
 
Biodegradable polymer
Biodegradable polymerBiodegradable polymer
Biodegradable polymer
sitimazidahabdullah
 
Nanotechnology for safe food packaging
Nanotechnology for safe food packagingNanotechnology for safe food packaging
Nanotechnology for safe food packaging
Dr. Keshab Debnath
 
Ac04605194204
Ac04605194204Ac04605194204
Ac04605194204
IJERA Editor
 
Ediblepackaging
EdiblepackagingEdiblepackaging
Ediblepackaging
Loo-Sar Chia
 
Edible Packaging
Edible PackagingEdible Packaging
Edible Packaging
Ronak Thakkar
 
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSHBiodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
CHITRANSH JUNEJA
 
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLENDSOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
International Journal of Technical Research & Application
 
Pseudomonas putida
Pseudomonas putidaPseudomonas putida
Pseudomonas putida
Amritha S R
 
Biodegradable Polymers
Biodegradable PolymersBiodegradable Polymers
Biodegradable Polymers
Saurabh Shukla
 
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
Ajjay Kumar Gupta
 
Biodegradation
BiodegradationBiodegradation
Biodegradation
Sona Pari
 
20120130406006
2012013040600620120130406006
20120130406006
IAEME Publication
 
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safetyApplications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
Dr. IRSHAD A
 

Similar to Biodegradable films for Food Packaging (20)

Bio nanocomposite
Bio nanocompositeBio nanocomposite
Bio nanocomposite
 
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional PlasticsEdible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
Edible Biodegradable Composite Films as an Alternative to Conventional Plastics
 
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
49. Vishakha Koli ppt.pptx
 
Biodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plasticsBiodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plastics
 
Synthesis of bioplastics
Synthesis of bioplasticsSynthesis of bioplastics
Synthesis of bioplastics
 
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_JunejaBiodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
Biodegradable_Polymers_by_Chitransh_Juneja
 
Biological degradation of synthetic polymer
Biological degradation of synthetic polymerBiological degradation of synthetic polymer
Biological degradation of synthetic polymer
 
Biodegradable polymer
Biodegradable polymerBiodegradable polymer
Biodegradable polymer
 
Nanotechnology for safe food packaging
Nanotechnology for safe food packagingNanotechnology for safe food packaging
Nanotechnology for safe food packaging
 
Ac04605194204
Ac04605194204Ac04605194204
Ac04605194204
 
Ediblepackaging
EdiblepackagingEdiblepackaging
Ediblepackaging
 
Edible Packaging
Edible PackagingEdible Packaging
Edible Packaging
 
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSHBiodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
Biodegradable Polymers By CHITRANSH
 
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLENDSOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
SOIL BURIAL DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/ STARCH BLEND
 
Pseudomonas putida
Pseudomonas putidaPseudomonas putida
Pseudomonas putida
 
Biodegradable Polymers
Biodegradable PolymersBiodegradable Polymers
Biodegradable Polymers
 
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
Biodegradable Plastics (Eco Friendly Plastics)
 
Biodegradation
BiodegradationBiodegradation
Biodegradation
 
20120130406006
2012013040600620120130406006
20120130406006
 
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safetyApplications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety
 

Recently uploaded

ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdfikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
agatadrynko
 
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
my Pandit
 
Best practices for project execution and delivery
Best practices for project execution and deliveryBest practices for project execution and delivery
Best practices for project execution and delivery
CLIVE MINCHIN
 
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 SlowdownPart 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
jeffkluth1
 
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challengesEvent Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
Holger Mueller
 
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptxTop mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
JeremyPeirce1
 
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdfModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
fisherameliaisabella
 
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
ecamare2
 
2022 Vintage Roman Numerals Men Rings
2022 Vintage Roman  Numerals  Men  Rings2022 Vintage Roman  Numerals  Men  Rings
2022 Vintage Roman Numerals Men Rings
aragme
 
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s DholeraTata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
Avirahi City Dholera
 
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
bosssp10
 
Building Your Employer Brand with Social Media
Building Your Employer Brand with Social MediaBuilding Your Employer Brand with Social Media
Building Your Employer Brand with Social Media
LuanWise
 
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
SOFTTECHHUB
 
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a story
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a storyBusiness storytelling: key ingredients to a story
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a story
Alexandra Fulford
 
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .pptChapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
ssuser567e2d
 
Income Tax exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
Income Tax  exemption for Start up : Section 80 IACIncome Tax  exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
Income Tax exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
CA Dr. Prithvi Ranjan Parhi
 
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
ABHILASH DUTTA
 
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
taqyea
 
Creative Web Design Company in Singapore
Creative Web Design Company in SingaporeCreative Web Design Company in Singapore
Creative Web Design Company in Singapore
techboxsqauremedia
 
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
my Pandit
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdfikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
ikea_woodgreen_petscharity_cat-alogue_digital.pdf
 
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
Unveiling the Dynamic Personalities, Key Dates, and Horoscope Insights: Gemin...
 
Best practices for project execution and delivery
Best practices for project execution and deliveryBest practices for project execution and delivery
Best practices for project execution and delivery
 
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 SlowdownPart 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
Part 2 Deep Dive: Navigating the 2024 Slowdown
 
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challengesEvent Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
Event Report - SAP Sapphire 2024 Orlando - lots of innovation and old challenges
 
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptxTop mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
Top mailing list providers in the USA.pptx
 
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdfModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
ModelingMarketingStrategiesMKS.CollumbiaUniversitypdf
 
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
Observation Lab PowerPoint Assignment for TEM 431
 
2022 Vintage Roman Numerals Men Rings
2022 Vintage Roman  Numerals  Men  Rings2022 Vintage Roman  Numerals  Men  Rings
2022 Vintage Roman Numerals Men Rings
 
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s DholeraTata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
Tata Group Dials Taiwan for Its Chipmaking Ambition in Gujarat’s Dholera
 
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
Call 8867766396 Satta Matka Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta batta Matka 420 Satta...
 
Building Your Employer Brand with Social Media
Building Your Employer Brand with Social MediaBuilding Your Employer Brand with Social Media
Building Your Employer Brand with Social Media
 
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
Hamster Kombat' Telegram Game Surpasses 100 Million Players—Token Release Sch...
 
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a story
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a storyBusiness storytelling: key ingredients to a story
Business storytelling: key ingredients to a story
 
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .pptChapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
Chapter 7 Final business management sciences .ppt
 
Income Tax exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
Income Tax  exemption for Start up : Section 80 IACIncome Tax  exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
Income Tax exemption for Start up : Section 80 IAC
 
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
The Evolution and Impact of OTT Platforms: A Deep Dive into the Future of Ent...
 
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
一比一原版新西兰奥塔哥大学毕业证(otago毕业证)如何办理
 
Creative Web Design Company in Singapore
Creative Web Design Company in SingaporeCreative Web Design Company in Singapore
Creative Web Design Company in Singapore
 
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
Taurus Zodiac Sign: Unveiling the Traits, Dates, and Horoscope Insights of th...
 

Biodegradable films for Food Packaging

  • 1. Presented By: Malathi A.N II Year M.Tech. PG12AEG4094 1
  • 2. Objective of seminar To understand the importance of development of biodegradable films To illustrate the biodegradable films used in food packaging To review studies related to biodegradable film Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 2
  • 3. Content Introduction Biodegradable polymer Biodegradation process Classification of biodegradable polymers Application of biopolymers in food packaging Companies involved in bioplastics for food related packaging Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer Nanotechnology Nanotechnology used in food packaging Case studies Conclusion References Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 3
  • 4. INTRODUCTION Most of today’s synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals and are not biodegradable. Persistent polymers generate significant sources of environmental pollution, harming wildlife when they are dispersed in nature. Eg: Disposal of non-degradable plastic bags adversely affects sea-life (Averous and Pollet, 2012). Dept. of Procssing and Food Engineering 4
  • 5. OUR OCEANS ARE TURNING INTO PLASTIC...!! NO EXCUSE FOR SINGLE USE: Plastic bags are choking our oceans. An estimated 50-80 million end up in our environment each year. Once they enter our precious water they do no go away. Plastic bags remains for centuries posing threats to wildlife by entanglement, suffocation and entering the food chain. 5
  • 6. OCEAN POLLUTION It starts with us-and it ends with us Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 6
  • 7. Plastic production has increased from 0.5 to 260 million tonnes per year since 1950 40% of plastics produced every year is discarded into Landfill. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 7
  • 8. Every year, more than 500 billion plastic bags are distributed, and less than 3% bags are recycled. They are typically made of polyethylene and can take up to 1,000 years to degrade in landfills that emit harmful greenhouse gases (Heap, 2009). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. The term ‘‘biodegradable’’ materials is used to describe those materials which can be degraded by the enzymatic action of living organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi and the ultimate end products of the degradation process, these being CO2, H2O and biomass under aerobic conditions and hydrocarbons, methane and biomass under anaerobic conditions (Kuorwel et al., 2007). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 10
  • 11. Biodegradation process Step-1 The long polymer molecules are reduced to shorter and shorter lengths and undergo oxidation (oxygen groups attach themselves to the polymer molecules). This process is triggered by heat (elevated temperatures found in landfills), UV light (a component of sunlight) and mechanical stress (e.g. wind or compaction in a landfill). Oxidation causes the molecules to become hydrophilic (waterattracting) and small enough to be ingestible by microorganisms, setting the stage for biodegradation to begin. www.epi-global.com Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 11
  • 12. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 12
  • 13. Step-2 Biodegradation occurs in the presence of moisture and micro-organisms typically found in the environment. The plastic material is completely broken down into the residual products of the biodegradation process. Step-3 As micro-organisms consume the degraded plastic, carbon dioxide, water, and biomass are produced and returned to nature by way of the biocycle. www.epi-global.com Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 13
  • 14. Source of biodegradable polymer Polysaccharides Starches Wheat Potatoes Maize Cassava Ligno-cellose product Wood Straws Others Pectins Chitosan/chitin Gums (Averous and Pollet, 2012). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 14
  • 15. Biopolymers are divided into three main categories 1. Biodegradable polymers obtained by chemical synthesis Polyglycolic acid Polylactic acid Polycaprolactone Polyvinyl alcohol (Flinger, 2003). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 15
  • 16. 2. Biodegradable polymers produced through fermentation by microorganisms Polyesteres Neutral polysaccharides 3. Biodegradable polymers from chemically modified natural product Starch Cellulose Chitin and chitosan Soy based plastic (Flinger, 2003). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 16
  • 17. Application of Biopolymers in food packaging Edible coating Paper boards Egg trays Carry bags Wrapping films Containers Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 17
  • 18. Companies involved in bioplastics for foodrelated packaging applications. Company Country Comments Bioenvelop Canada Bioenvelop moisture-barrier coating films for biodegradable food containers and utensils Earthshell crop. USA Primarily serving food-service industry with food containers and serviceware Evercorn, inc. Japan Evercorn resin used in the following food-related applications: disposable serviceware and utensils, lamination or coatings for paper/paperboard, food containers National Starch Company UK Packing (packing peanuts) applications for shipping and distribution (Lillian ,2006) 18
  • 19. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Zein  Good film forming properties Good tensile and moisture barrier properties Chitosan Antimicrobial and High water antifungal activity sensitivity Good mechanical properties Low oxygen and carbon dioxide permeability Brittle Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Reference Pol et al., (2002). Cho et al., (2010). Peelman et al., (2013). 19
  • 20. Cont…… Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Whey protein isolate Desirable film low tensile forming properties streangth Good oxygen high water barrier vapor permeability Gluten Low cost High sensitivity Peelman et Good oxygen to moisture and al., (2013). barrier brittle Good filmforming properties Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Kadham et al., (2013). 20
  • 21. Cont…… Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Soy protein isolate Excellent film Poor forming ability mechanical Low cost properties Barrier High water properties sensitivity against oxygen permeation Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Pol et al., (2002). Cao et al., (2007) Cho et al., (2010). 21
  • 22. The use of biodegradable films for food packaging has been strongly limited because of the poor barrier properties and weak mechanical properties shown by natural polymers. The application of nano-composites promises to expand the use of edible and biodegradable films that reduce the packaging waste associated with processed foods this supports the preservation of fresh foods by extending their shelf life (Sorrentino et al., 2007). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 22
  • 23. Nanotechnology is generally defined as the creation and utilization of structures with at least one dimension in the nanometer length scale (10-9m). These structures are called nanocomposites Nanocomposites could exhibit modifications in the properties of the materials (Peelman et al., 2013). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 23
  • 24. To achieve modifications, a good interaction between the polymer matrix and the nanofiller is desired. Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to improve the performance of biobased films. (Peelman et al., 2013). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 24
  • 25. Nanomaterials used in food packaging Nanotechnology can be used in plastic food packaging to make it stronger, lighter or perform better. Antimicrobials such as nanoparticles of silver or titanium dioxide can be used in packaging to prevent spoilage of foods. Derek Lam, (2010). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 25
  • 26. Cont…… Introduction of nanoparticles into packaging to block oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture from reaching the food, and also aids in preventing spoilage. Derek Lam, (2010). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 26
  • 27. Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks packaging Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy protein isolate-based film coated with polylactic acid Preparation and characterization of whey protein isolate film reinforced with porous silica coated titaniam nanoparticles Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 27
  • 28. Case study i Title: Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks packaging Author: M. Cannarsia,, A. Baiano, R. Marino, M. Sinigaglia and M.A. Del Nobile Journal: Meat Science 70 (2005) 259-265 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 28
  • 29. Objectives: 1. To check the possibility of replacing PVC film with biodegradable polymers in order to preserve the characteristic meat colour as well as control the microbial contamination. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 29
  • 30. Meat was obtained from ten organically farmed Podolian young bulls. Animals were slaughtered at 16–18 months of age. Mean slaughter weight was 476 kg 22.23 kg Dressed carcasses were split into two sides and chilled for 48 h at 1–3ºC, after that each side was divided in hind and fore quarter and each quarter was jointed into different anatomical regions. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 30
  • 31. The semimembranosus muscle (meat) was chosen as representing muscles of greatest mass and economic value. All the removed sections were vacuum-packaged and aged at 4ºC until 18 days post-mortem Meat (semimembranosus muscle) was removed from the ten carcasses 18 days post-mortem and steaks (1cm thick, 100 g weight) were cut. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 31
  • 32. Samples were individually placed on polystyrene trays and hermetically packaged with the following three films: Biodegradable polymeric film Biodegradable polyesters Polyvinyl chloride film(PVC) Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 32
  • 33. Water permeability: Infrared sensor technique Microbial analysis: TMVP(Total Mesophilic Viable Count) TPVC(Total Psychrotrophic Viable Count) Lactic acid bacteria Pseudomonas spp. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 33
  • 34. Mathematical model: Gompertz equation Where, A is the maximum microbial growth attained at the stationary phase µ max is the maximum growth rate ʎ is the lag time cfu max is the cell load allowed for consumer acceptability S.L is the shelf life (the time required to reach cfu max t is time Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 34
  • 35. Results Table1: Water permeability data at 10ºC Film Thickness(µm) Pw(g cm cm-2 s1 atm-1) Polymeric film 64 1.53 10-8 4.84 10-10 Polyesters 51 4.30 10-9 3.29 10-10 PVC 12 3.75 10-9 1.30 10-10 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 35
  • 36. Table2: Shelf life of beef sample stored at 4 C Table3: Shelf life of beef sample stored at 15 C Type of film Shelf life(days) Type of film Shelf life(days) PVC 2.41 0.12 PVC 1.88 0.01 Polymeric film 2.13 0.11 Polymeric film 1.25 0.01 Polyesters 2.16 0.11 Polyesters 1.35 0.01 Gompertz equation: Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 36
  • 37. Table 4: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu), of beef meat samples during a storage at 4ºC for 6 days Microbial group Initial microbial load (log CFU/g) Type of film PVC Polymeric film Polyesters Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) TMVC 5.277 0.002 10.184 0.066 10.459 0.120 10.158 0.004 TPVC 5.035 0.020 10.511 0.089 10.373 0.035 10.081 0.028 Lactic acid bacteria 5.519 0.031 9.888 Pseudomonas spp. 5.779 0.089 10.440 0.052 0.067 9.143 10.572 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 0.004 0.038 9.210 10.203 0.004 0.002 37
  • 38. Table 5: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu), of beef meat samples during a storage at 15ºC for 6 days Microbial group Initial microbial load (log CFU/g) Type of film PVC Polymeric film Polyesters Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) TMVC 5.277 0.002 9.736 0.017 9.092 0.118 9.735 0.039 TPVC 5.035 0.020 9.223 0.092 8.856 0.051 9.339 0.272 Lactic acid bacteria 5.822 0.115 8.888 0.044 8.589 0.063 9.077 0.018 Pseudomonas spp. 4.976 0.033 9.963 0.047 9.129 0.046 9.958 0.041 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 38
  • 39. Conclusion The investigated biodegradable films could be advantageously used to replace PVC films in packaging fresh processed meat, reducing in this way the environmental impact of polymeric films Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 39
  • 40. Case study ii Title: Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy protein isolate-based film coated with polylactic acid Author: Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W Journal: LWT 40(2007) 232-238 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 40
  • 41. Objectives: 1. To improve mechanical and barrier properties of soy protein isolate based film coated them with PLA 2. To determine some properties including tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 41
  • 42. 5g SPI + 100ml distilled water + 2.5g glycerin pH=10 0.1 with 1M sodium hydroxide solution 90ºC for 20min Cast into a leveled teflon Dried at ambient condition(≈23 C) for about 24h Peeled from plates PLA solution: 5g PLA + 100ml chloroform SPI films were dipped into the PLA solution (2min) Drained of excess solution and allow to dry at ambient condition Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 42
  • 43. 5g PLA + 100ml chloroform Casting into teflon-coated glass plate Dried at ambient condition Peeled from plates Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 43
  • 44. Results Table 1: Soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with Polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film Thickness(µm) DM(%) SPI 78.8 2.2 75.5 1.2 91.3 0.4 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.9 3.7 78.7 2.0 92.8 0.3 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.4 4.3 78.8 1.4 92.5 0.2 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 84.5 1.6 79.5 0.3 93.3 0.3 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 86.2 2.8 81.9 0.7 94.1 0.1 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 87.5 2.7 86.9 0.l PLA 87.3 0.1 95.1 0.1 89.5 2.7 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering T(%) 94.3 0.3 44
  • 45. Table 2: Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (E) of soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film TS(Mpa) E(%) SPI 2.8 0.3 165.7 15.0 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 8.5 1.1 82.6 5.1 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 10.9 1.0 176.0 9.7 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 11.5 0.5 218.3 30.7 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 14.2 1.6 349.9 16.3 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 17.4 2.1 207.6 34.6 PLA 17.2 0.5 203.4 20.8 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 45
  • 46. Table 3: Water vapor permeability (WVP) of soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film WVP( 10-14 kgm/m2 s Pa) SPI 268.30 21.50 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 12.20 1.25 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 7.60 0.1 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 5.68 0.11 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 4.74 0.25 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 4.44 0.17 PLA 4.66 0.15 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 46
  • 47. Conclusion Mechanical and water barrier properties of PLA-coated SPI films were greatly improved The PLA-coated SPI films are suitable for applications in packaging of foods Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 47
  • 48. Case study iii Title: Prepartion and characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with porous silica coated titania nanoparticales Author: Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M., Grewell, D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C. Journal: Journal of food engineering 117(2013) 133-140 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 48
  • 49. Objectives: 1. To develop film embedded with TiO2 nanoparticles by utilizing sonication to achieve uniform distribution of nanoparticles inside the WPI 2. To characterize the effects of different levels of sonication used Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 49
  • 50. 5% wt of WPI and glycerol dissolved in distilled water pH=8.0 with 2M sodium hydroxide 90 2ºC for 30min Subjected to ultra sonication level of 0%, 10%, 50% and 100% sonication (0, 16, 80 and 160µm) 10, 15 and 20g were cast into a sterile polystyrene petri dishes Dried at 35 1ºC for 24h Peeled from plates Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 50
  • 51. Table 1: Thicknesses of whey protein isolate film with and without) nanoparticles Film Film forming solution(g) Average thickness (mm) WPI 10 0.1456 15 0.2276 20 0.3084 10 0.1593 15 0.2329 20 0.3189 WPI-NP Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 51
  • 52. 1. Effect of sonication level on water contact angle of pure WPI film and WPI films contacting nanoparticles 74° 16° 0µm Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 160µm 52
  • 53. 2. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on Young’s modulus 35mpa 19mpa Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 53
  • 54. 3. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on tensile stress of WPI films. 1.03 1.18 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 54
  • 55. 4. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on tensile strain of WPI films. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 55
  • 56. Conclusion Incorporation of nanoparticles helps to improve their mechanical properties Embedded nanoparticles contributed effectively to increase the thickness of films The presence of nanoparticles in the film was shown to improve certain mechanical properties, but it also caused nearly a 50% reduction in elongation. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 56
  • 57. The WPI films embedded with nanoparticles have great potential for application in food packaging for extending the shelf life, improving quality, and enhancing the safety of food packaged with them. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 57
  • 58. Conclusion The use biodegradable polymer reduces the environmental impact of non-degradable plastic Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to improve the performance of biobased films. The application of nano-composites promises to expand the use of edible and biodegradable films that reduce the packaging waste associated with processed foods that supports the preservation of fresh foods by extending their shelf life. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 58
  • 59. References  Averous, L., and Pollet, E. 2012. Biodegradable polymer. Environmental silicate nano-biocpmposites.  Cao, N., Yuhua, F. and Junhuin, H. preparation and physical properties of soy protein isolate and gelatin composite films. Food hydroclloids. 21. 1153-1162  Cho, Y.S., Lee, Y. S. and Rhee, C. 2010, Edible oxygen barrier bilayerfilm pouches from corn zein and soy protein isolate for olive oil packaging, LWT – Food Sci. and Technol., 43: 1234-1239.  Flieger, M., Kantorova, M., Prell, A., Rezanka, T. and vortuba. 2003. biodegradable plastics from renewable sources. Folia microbiol. 48(1), 27-44  Heap, B. 2009. Preface. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . 364: 1971-1971. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 59
  • 60.  Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M., Grewell, D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C. 2013, Preparation and characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with porous silica coated titaniam nanoparticles, J. of Food Engng., 117 (1): 133-140.  Kuorwel, K. K., Cran, J.M., Sonneveld, K., MiltZ, J. and Bigger, W.S. 2011, Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegrdable polysaccharide and Protein- Based Films Containing Active Agents. Journal of Food Science, 76, 90-106.  Liu, L. 2006. Bioplastics in Food Packaging: Innovative Technologies for Biodegradable Packaging  Lam, D. 2010. packaging application using Nannotechnology. San jose state university. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 60
  • 61.  Peelman, N., Ragaert, P,. Meulenaer, D. B., Adons, D., Peeters, R., Cardon, L., Impe, V. F., and Devlieghere, F. 2013. Application of bioplastic for food packaging. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1-14.  Pol, H., Dwason, P., Action, J. and Ogale, A. 2002. soy protein isolate/corn-zein laminated films: transported and mechanical properties. Food engineering and physical properties. 67(1).  Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W. 2007. Swiss society of food science and technology. 40: 232-238.  Sorrentino, A., Gorrasi, G. and Vittoria, V. 2007, Potential perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications, Trends in Food Sci. and Technol., 18 (2): 8495. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 61
  • 62. 62