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Active and intelligent packaging

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Active and intelligent packaging

  1. 1. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: a review Joe P. Kerry Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland 52nd ICoMST, Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2. Meat Packaging “The efficient containment, preservation and protection of a meat product and allnecessary information required during packing, transport, storage, sale and use, along with the provision of convenience, taking into consideration all legal and environmental issues”
  3. 3. Importance of Meat Packaging at Retail LevelCustomer choice of a muscle-based product is dependent upon many factors Appearance most importantImportant meat/pack quality attributes Meat Colour Shelf-life Stability Drip/Moisture Loss Sensory Attributes Odour Gain/Loss Pack Integrity Pack Appearance Labelling (dates, additives, product support information) Convenience
  4. 4. Packaging functions (First level packaging)Technical Function Prevents/Allows: Free movement of gases Entry or exit of moisture Product illumination Prevent contaminationSales Function Provides: Information Convenience
  5. 5. Commercial Meat Packaging FormatsBoxedOverwrapVacuum Common process Heat-shrink Thermoforming vacuum process Skin vacuum packagingModified Atmospheres (MAP) Retail and bulk gas flushing
  6. 6. Problems Associated with Meat Packaging(First level packaging)Exposure to oxygen:Systems generally not hermeticMeat products exposed to varying levels of oxygenMoisture loss:Fresh muscle foods lose moisture in the form of drip-lossDrip-loss in packs can reduce product shelf-lifeCompartmentalised odour/flavour:Development occurs principally through the production ofvolatile gaseous compounds via product-package-gasinteractions
  7. 7. Introduction to Active Packaging(Second level packaging)Active packaging: Incorporation of certain additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending product quality and shelf-life or Active when it performs some desired role in food preservation other than providing an inert barrier to external conditions (Hutton, 2003) or Active when the packaging elements change the condition of the packed food to extend shelf-life or improve safety or sensory properties, while maintaining quality of packaged food (Ahvenainen, 2003)
  8. 8. Active packaging applications:Absorbing/scavenging oxygen, carbon dioxide, moisture, ethylene, flavours, taints, UV lightReleasing/emitting ethanol, carbon dioxide, antioxidants, preservatives, sulphur dioxide, flavours, pesticidesRemoving catalysing food component removal: lactose, cholesterolTemperature control insulating materials, self-heating and self-cooling packaging, microwave susceptors and modifiers, temperature-sensitive packagingMicrobial control UV and surface-treated packaging materials
  9. 9. Moisture Control- Moisture absorbent pads and trays with applications for meat and poultry- Lowering of water activity to suppress microbial growth- Systems consist of super-absorbent polymers located between two other plastic layersCommercial Examples: Dri-Loc® Absorbent pads, CRYOVAC®, Sealed Air Corporation • Pads perforated with tiny one-way valves • Juices absorbed from the bottom • Prevents meat from drying Fresh-R-Pax™ Absorbent pads, Fresh-R-Pax™ Absorbent trays, Maxwell Chase Technologies, LLC.
  10. 10. Moisture ControlAdvantages:Enhanced product appearance and freshness – shelf life extensionRemoves and retains spoilage bacteriaReduces costly rewraps and product downgradesReduces product and packaging wastePads protect product display cases – enhanced visual appeal to customers
  11. 11. Oxygen ScavengersElevated O2 levels in food packages may facilitate: Microbial growth Off-odour and off-flavour development Colour changes Nutritional losses A significant reduction in product shelf-lifeTraditional MAP or vacuum packaging may not facilitate complete removal of O2 => Residual O2 may be removed using oxygen scavenging technologyExisting technology based on: iron powder oxidation, ascorbic acid oxidation,photosensitive dye oxidation, enzymatic oxidation (e.g. glucose oxidase), unsaturatedfatty acids, rice extract or immobilised yeast on a solid substrate
  12. 12. Oxygen ScavengersMajority of commerically available O2 scavengers based on the principle of ironoxidation: Fe → Fe2+ + 2e- ½ O2 + H2O + 2e- → 2OH- Fe2+ + 2OH- → Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)2 + ¼ O2 + ½ H2O → Fe(OH)3 Ageless® SachetEffective with a variety of packaging materialsReduce and maintains O2 to < 0.01%De-oxygenation time ~ 1 to 4 daysAvailable as labels, sachets, cards or films(incorporation of scavenging agent into the packaging film) Ageless® Label Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co.
  13. 13. Oxygen ScavengersAdvantages:- Significantly reduces oxygen levels in packs- Reduces oxidation reactions (pigments, lipids)- Reduces aerobic microbial growth FreshPax® Sachets FreshPax® Labels Multisorb Technologies Inc.Disadvantages:- Concerns regarding anaerobic pathogens- Activation - moisture dependent- Sachet leakage/consumption Atco® SachetApplications in sliced cooked meats (e.g. hams)Prevent discoloration in fresh beef(Allen et al., 1996; Tewari et al., 2001) Atco® Labels Emco Packaging Systems.
  14. 14. Oxygen ScavengersUV light activated films composed of anO2 scavenger layer extruded into a multilayer filmReduce headspace O2 from 1% to ppmlevels in 4-10 days ~ comparable with O2scavenging sachetsApplications: Dried or smoked meat products, processed and sliced meatsCommercial examples: Cryovac® OS2000™ polymer based oxygen scavenging film ZERO2TM developed by CSIRO and VisyPak Food Packaging
  15. 15. Carbon Dioxide Emitters and ScavengersFunction of CO2 to inhibit microbial growth and extend product shelf-lifeRemoval of O2 or dissolution of CO2 in the product creates a partial vacuumwhich may cause collapse of flexible packaging ⇒ Dual action CO2 generators / O2 scavengersCO2 emitting sachets or labels can also be used aloneFurther research required - safety risks of CO2 in packaging systems e.g. C. botulinum type BCommercial examples: Ageless® G FreshPax® M Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co. Multisorb Technologies Inc. Based on either ferrous carbonate or a mixture of ascorbic acid and sodium bicarbonate
  16. 16. Carbon Dioxide Emitters and ScavengersVerifrais™ package (SARL Codimer) extends shelf-life of fresh red meatsStandard tray with a false, perforated bottom containing sachet of sodiumbicarbonate/ascorbateJuice dripping from the meat onto the sachet results in CO2 emission ⇒ Replacement of CO2 absorbed by the meat ⇒ Prevention of package collapseCO2 absorbers (sachets) consisting of either calcium hydroxide and sodiumhydroxide or potassium hydroxide, calcium oxide and silica gel ⇒ Removal of CO2 during storage to prevent bursting of package ⇒ Applications in dehydrated poultry products and beef jerkey
  17. 17. Antimicrobial PackagingAntimicrobial agents: acid anhydride, alcohol, bacteriocins, chelators, enzymes,organic acids and polysaccharidesAntimicrobial agents - may be coated, incorporated, immobilised or surface-modified onto package materialsAntimicrobial films classified into two types:⇒ films containing an antimicrobial agent which migrates to the food surface⇒ films effective without migration
  18. 18. Antimicrobial PackagingAntimicrobial coatingsNisin coated films – reduction of S. typhimurium on surface of fresh broiler skinand drumsticks (Natrajan and Sheldon, 2000)Alginate coatings containing organic acids reduced levels of L. monocytogenes, S.typhimurium and E. coli 0157:H7 on beef carcasses (Siragusa and Dickson, 1993)Incorporation of antimicrobial agentsFilms containing acetic or propionic acid in a chitosan matrix with/without lauricacid or cinnamaldehyde applied to bologna, cooked ham or pastrami (Ouattara etal., 2000)Grapefruit seed extract incorporated into multilayer polyethylene films reducedaerobic and coliform bacteria in minced beef (Ha et al., 2001)
  19. 19. Antimicrobial PackagingImmobilisationNisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced L. innocua and S. aureus in hams(Scannell et al., 2000)Pack insertsSachets of oregano essential oil in combination with MAP extended the shelf-life of fresh beef (Skandamis and Nychas, 2002)Commercial examples:AgION™ (concentrate) Nisaplin® (extract) Microgard™ (film) Zeomic™ (powder)AgION Technologies LLC Integrated Ingredients Rhone-Poulenc Sinanen ZeomicFew commercial successes – Ag-substituted zeolite incorporated into plastics inJapan
  20. 20. Introduction to Intelligent Packaging (Second Level Packaging)Packaging systems which monitor the condition of packaged foods to give informationabout the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage (Ahvenainen, 2003)Intelligent packaging in some way senses properties of the food it encloses or theenvironment in which it is kept and which is able to inform the manufacturer, retailerand consumer of the state of these propertiesInformation extensive, though much of it is conceptualLimited commercial application to date
  21. 21. Intelligent Packaging ApplicationsTamper evidence/pack integrity - breach of pack containmentSafety/quality indicators - time-temperature indicators (TTIs) - gas sensing devices - microbial growth - pathogen detectionTraceability/anti-theft devices - radio frequency identification (RFID) labels/tags/chipsProduct authenticity - holographic images, logos - hidden design print elements - RFID
  22. 22. Indicators Substances that indicate the presence, absence, or concentration of another substance or the degree of reaction between two or more substances by means of a characteristic change, especially with respect to colourIntegrity (leak) indicatorsVisual O2 indicators: use in low O2 packs Number of patents (redox dyes) – MAP mince steaks, mince pizzasDisadvantages High sensitivity to residual O2 in MAP Reversibility - undesirable where O2 is consumed during bacterial growthFew commercial devices availableAgeless-Eye®, Vitalon®, Samso-Checker®
  23. 23. Freshness IndicatorsProvide direct product quality information resulting frommicrobial growth or chemical changes within a meat productPotential indicator metabolitesOrganic acids, ethanol, biogenic amines, CO2, H2S,microbesDisadvantagesBased in broad-spectrum colour changesTarget metabolites do not necessarily indicate poor quality Toxin Alert – ToxinguardTM Freshness indicator measures Pseudomonas sp. Antibodies in polyethylene-based packaging - can also detect pathogens
  24. 24. Time-Temperature Indicators (TTIs)Small tag or label used to show time-temperature history to whicha perishable product has been exposedDiffusion-based, enzymatic and polymer-based TTIs offer most potentialVITSAB®, Fresh-Check® and 3M Monitor® - effective indicators of meat quality ‘Do not use if circle is pink’ CheckPoint® (Vitsab International, Sweden)TTIs: Price estimates from €0.02 to €0.15
  25. 25. Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID)Wireless data collection technology that uses electronic tags for storing data and identificationof people, animals or objects.Tags affixed to assets (cattle, pallets, meat bins, packs) to transmit information to a readerTags - transponder and antenna with unique number or identifier - non-contact, non-line-of-sight, can penetrate bio-matter including meat (~ 125 kHz)
  26. 26. Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID)Tags • passive: simple, cheap, short-range, powered by energy from reader • active: battery powered, more info (temp, RH, nutritional info, cooking instructions etc), longer rangeApplications to meat • trial stage • tracking of beef from Namibia to UK • birth to beef: RFID/bar code tracking • ‘iBoS’ transport crate for meat products • Wal-Mart, Tesco, Target, Metro AGCosts • ~ €0.40 and €0.75 per tag (passive) ; ‘€0.07 in volumes of 106’ RFID on boxes of frozen meat • to cost ~ €0.01 after 2007? (TrolleyponderTM) • decrease in cost critical to implementation
  27. 27. SensorsDevices used to detect, locate or quantify energy or matter, giving a signal forthe detection of a physical or chemical property to which the device responds Most contain two functional units: Receptor - physical or chemical information transformed into a form of energy Transducer - device that transforms this energy into a useful analytical signal R&D mainly in biomedical and environmental applications Used to determine a primary measurable or a secondary physical, chemical or biological variable – ‘the marker concept’ High development costs, exacting industry specifications and safety considerations have limited commercial realisation although significant steps have been made Need for traceability, guaranteed quality and safety is promoting development
  28. 28. Gas SensorsRecent developments in optical oxygen sensors based onfluorescence quenchingNon-invasive technique for gas analysis through translucent materialsFluorescent or phosphorescent dye encapsulated in a polymer matrix=> O2 penetrates dye-polymer coating and quenches luminescence (energy transferred to O2)=> quantified against pre-determined calibrationRuthenium, palladium(II)-, platinum-porphyrin and porphyrin-ketone complexesshow promise for intelligent packaging useRelatively long emission lifetimes (~40-500 μs) best forfood packaging applicationsFabrication – dissolution of indicator dye and polymer supportin organic solvent followed by dryingLarge scale, continuous production possible
  29. 29. Gas SensorsOperating criteria for optical O2 sensors in intelligent packaging: Working range: 0 to 100 kPa O2; detection limits 0.01- 0.1 kPa. Temperature dependence: Effective from -20 to +70 °C Response: < 10-3 s, ideal for rapid on-line screening Stability: Effective time/temperature/light/migration stability Toxicity: Single pack sensor ~ 1 mg, of which > 95% support matrix: non-hazardousOxySense® - first commercially available fluorescence quenching sensor • > 98% correlation with GC • Stable to 150 °C without loss of sensitivity • Rapid (< 5 s per measurement) • Headspace and liquid measurements
  30. 30. Oxygen SensorsPlatinum-based O2 sensors as quality control instruments for meat products Fitzgerald et al. (2001)Effects of residual oxygen in anaerobic MAP chicken and beef Smiddy et al. (2002a,b,c)Use of O2 sensors for headspace analysis of commercial ham products Papkovsky et al. (2002)Use of O2 sensors printed directly onto packaged sous vide beef lasagne O’Mahony et al. (2004)Migration of active components of O2 sensors in food packaging applications O’Riordan et al. (2005)Current research - new sensing materials and detection systems
  31. 31. Vacuum packed beef with O2 sensing membraneO2 sensing equipment
  32. 32. Bio-Sensors Compact analytical devices that detect, record and transmit information pertaining to biological reactions• Bioreceptor specific to a target analyte (enzymes, antigens, microbes, hormones etc.)• Transducer to convert biological signals to an electrical response (electrochemical, optical etc.)Few commercially available systems but more widespread use predicted Contaminating bacteria render bar-code unreadable SIRA Technologies Inc. Food Sentinel SystemTM
  33. 33. Active and Intelligent Packaging – The FutureThese packaging technologies anticipated to grow significantly over the next 10 years,due principally to:- Consumer demands for meat and other food products which are premium quality and whichprovide adequate shelf-life, safety, convenience and information- Reduction in packaging material costs as formats grow in popularity/sales volume, and asnewer and cheaper formats emerge through research and development- Greater demands by retailing outlets for extended product shelf-life- Concerns regarding product authenticity and bio-terrorism- Growing efforts to reduce unnecessary product/package wastes
  34. 34. Acknowledgements My sincerest thanks to: Dr Sean Hogan & Dr Michael O’Gradyfor their invaluable assistance and support throughout this entire project Thanks for your attention
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