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Vacuum Packaging

Vacuum packaging is an effective way to increase the shelf life of food products. Here the product is placed in an air-tight pack, the air sucked out and the package sealed.

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Vacuum Packaging

  1. 1. “VACUUM PACKAGING AND EQUIPMENTS” Submitted by, Shahnaz mol .A
  2. 2. VACUUM PACKAGING & EQUIPMENTS
  3. 3. VACUUM ? A vacuum is simply the absence of air.
  4. 4. VACUUM PACKAGING “Vacuum packagng is a method of packaging that removes air from the package and hermetically sealing it.”
  5. 5. WHY VACUUM PACKAGING ? ● The single most important reason for creating a vacuum in food packaging is to remove oxygen from around the thing that we are going to store.
  6. 6. BECAUSE, ● Air is made up of about 21% oxygen. Most bacteria associated with food spoilage need oxygen to grow (aerobic). If less oxygen is available they can't able to survive.
  7. 7. ● Oxygen is a highly reactive element and many of the organic compounds in the food reacts with oxygen and cause negative changes in the color, flavor and odour. In the absence of oxygen the food can retain its natural properties. 2
  8. 8. AIM OF VACUUM PACKAGING “To extend the shelf life of foods and, with flexible package forms, to reduce the volume of the contents and package.”
  9. 9. BENEFITS OF VACUUM PACKAGING ● It eliminates oxidation. ● It preserves delicate oils. ● It prevents freezer burn. ● It maintains natural moisture. ● It prevents moisture contamination.
  10. 10. ➔ ELIMINATING OXIDATION ● Certain enzymes that are naturally present in food are known as oxidizing enzymes. These enzymes catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions between oxygen and food components, and this leads to food spoilage. ● There are many oxidizing enzymes,that can cause darkening in sliced vegetables are catalase and peroxidase.
  11. 11. ● For example banana and apple quickly show signs of oxidation by browning. ● Vacuum packing eliminates contact with the air and therefore eliminates oxidation.
  12. 12. ➔PRESERVING DELICATE OILS ● Rancidification is the process which causes a substance to become rancid, that is, having a rank, unpleasant smell or taste. ● It is due to the Autooxidation of fat using oxygen. ● Vacuum packaging prevents oxidation and preserves delicate oil,
  13. 13. ➔PREVENTING FREEZER BURN ● Freezer burn is the loss of flavor and texture of food due to oxidation, dehydration, and slow bacterial growth. ● These process all need oxygen to occur. ● Vacuum packing eliminates oxygen and therefore freezer burn.
  14. 14. “VACUUM PACKAGING PREVENTS FREEZER BURN AND MAKE THEM RELIABLE TO CONSUMERS!!!”
  15. 15. ➔MAINTAINING NATURAL MOISTURE ● we pack or wrap food is to keep it from drying out; air causes moisture to evaporate. ● By removing the air with vacuum packing the foods natural moisture is maintained along with all its flavour and texture.
  16. 16. ➔STOPPING MOISTURE CONTAMINATION ● Dehydrated foods, unless they are kept in an airtight container quickly spoil as moisture in the air softens them. ● Vacuum packing these types of foods in useable quantities is far superior in maintaining the natural textures and flavours as it not only removes the air but the moisture it carries as well.
  17. 17. “VACUUM PACKAGED FOOD IS FREE FROM MOISTURE CONTAMINATION!!!”
  18. 18. TYPES OFVACUUM PACKING MACHINES EXTERNAL BAG MACHINES VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES
  19. 19. EXTERNAL BAG MACHINES ● External vacuum sealers involve a bag being attached to the vacuum-sealing machine externally. ● The machine will remove the air and seal the bag, which is all done outside the machine. ● A heat sealer is often used to seal the pack.
  20. 20. ● A heated surface presses the bag closed while applying sufficient heat to slightly melt the plastic of the bag. ● This melting is carefully controlled so that it creates an airtight seal that can’t be pulled apart. ● Once a vacuum bag has been sealed like this, the only way to reopen the bag is to cut it open beneath the seal. HEAT SEALER
  21. 21. ● A good air-tight seal depends on three things: Bag Thickness:Thicker bags need more heat that thinner ones. A bag that is too thin may just burn through whereas one that is too thick will not seal properly. Bag Material: Vacuum bags are made from a polyamide (PA) air impenetrable exterior and a poly-ethylene (PE) food approved interior. The relative proportions of each will affect the amount of heat needed to make a good seal. Number of Bags Being Sealed: If you are sealing a number of bags one after another then the bag sealer on the machine itself will heat up. This means that by the time you get to the second or third bag the machine may be too hot and just burn through the next bag.
  22. 22. ● The machine will remove the air and seal the bag, which is all done outside the machine.
  23. 23. VACUUM PACKAGING IN “CONTAINERS” USING EXTERNAL SEALER ● These are hard plastic containers with special lids. ● By connecting a hose to the vacuum packing machine and to a special valve on the lid of the container you can suck out all the air. ● When the hose is removed, the valve on the top of the container stops the air from going in.
  24. 24. ● To open the container you first need to release the valve to let the air back in. ● Vacuum Packing containers are reusable, and can be used in the dishwasher, microwave, fridge or freezer. ● They are perfect for keeping salads, soft fruit and chopped vegetables in top condition for up to five times longer than they would normally keep. ● Stainless steel vacuum bowls are very versatile and perfect for storing salads and soft food items which are not suitable for vacuum packing in pouches.
  25. 25. VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINE These machines resemble a stainless steel box into which them vacuum pouch and contents are placed and the lid closed over them. The entire chamber is then vacuumed and the pouch is heat sealed.
  26. 26. SINGLE VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES ● Single chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed within the machine. ● Like external sealers, a plastic bag is typically used for packaging. Once the product is placed in the machine, the lid is closed and air is removed. ● Then, there is a heat seal inside the chamber that will seal the bag, after sealing the bag the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag.
  27. 27. ● The lid is then opened and the product removed. Chamber sealers are typically used for low-to- medium-volume packaging, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids.
  28. 28. DOUBLE VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES ● Double chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed in a plastic bag within the machine. Once the product is placed in the machine on the seal bar, the lid is closed and air is removed. ● Then a seal bar inside the chamber seals the product in the bag, after sealing the bag the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag. The lid is then opened and the product removed.
  29. 29. ● Double chamber sealers are typically used for medium-volume packaging, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids. The lid generally swings from one side to another, increasing production speed over a single chamber model. ● Double chamber vacuum packaging machines generally have either spring-weighted lids or fully automatic lids.
  30. 30. ➔ Double chamber vacuum packaging machines are commonly used for: ● Fresh Meat ● Processed Meat ● Cheese (hard and soft) ● Candy & Chocolate ● Empty Cans (it's a cool example of atmospheric pressure)
  31. 31. DOUBLE VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINE
  32. 32. AUTOMATIC BELT VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES ● Automatic belt chamber sealers require the entire product to be placed in a plastic bag or flow wrapped pouch within the machine. ● The product travels on the conveyor belt, it is automatically positioned in the machine on the seal bar, the lid is closed and air is removed.
  33. 33. ● Then a seal bar inside the chamber seals the product in the bag. After sealing the bag, the chamber is refilled with air by the automatic opening of a vent to the outside. This oncoming pressure squeezes all remaining air in the bag. The lid is then opened and the product removed. ● Automatic belt vacuum chamber machines are typically used for high-speed packaging of large items, and also have the capability to vacuum seal liquids. The lid generally travels straight up and down.
  34. 34. ➔ Automatic belt vacuum chamber packaging machines are commonly used for: ● Fresh Meat (large portions) ● Processed Meat ● Large Sausage logs ● Cheese (hard and soft)
  35. 35. AUTOMATIC BELT VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES
  36. 36. THERMOFORMING (ROLLSTOCK) VACUUM PACKAGING MACHINES ● Vacuum Packaging in large production facilities can be done with thermoforming machines. ● These are Form-Fill-Seal style machines that form the package from rolls of packaging film (webbing). ● Products are loaded into the thermoformed pockets, the top web is laid and sealed under a vacuum, producing vacuum packaged products.
  37. 37. ● Thermoforming can greatly increase packaging production speed. Thermoformed plastics can be customized for size, color, clarity, and shape to fit products perfectly, creating a consistent appearance.
  38. 38. ➔ Some common uses for Thermoforming in vacuum packaging include: ● Fresh & Marinated Meat ● Sausage ● Cheese ● Candy / Chocolate ● Grain ● Grab-and-Go Snacks (beef jerky, snack sticks) ● Pharmaceutical and Medical Products ● Coins / Collectables
  39. 39. THERMOFORMING (ROLLSTOCK) VACUUM PACKAGING MACHINES
  40. 40. GAS FLUSH CHAMBER MACHINES ● Some packaging applications need to have all of the air removed but cannot have a tight package that a vacuum normally produces—think of potato crisps and sandwiches. ● The solution is to remove the air and to replace it with something else which does not allow the product to oxidise. ● Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are both inert gasses which can be used to produce an environment where all of the air has been removed but where the packaging is not drawn down tight on to the product.
  41. 41. GAS FLUSH CHAMBER MACHINES
  42. 42. PROS AND CONS OF EXTERNAL BAG MACHINES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE Lower Initial Cost Higher Bag Cost Small Footprint Higher Bag Cost Can Use Big Bags No gas flush Easy to Move Cheap to Maintain Can use containers
  43. 43. PROS AND CONS OF VACUUM CHAMBER MACHINES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Lower Bag Cost Higher Initial Cost Gas Flush Available Large Footprint/Bulky Max Bag Size Limited Hard to Move Expensive to Maintain Cannot Use Containers
  44. 44. FACTORS AFFECTING VACUUM PACKAGING ● The success of vacuum packaging depends on 1. Characteristics of the food product to be packaged. 2. Reliability of the packaging machine. and packaging material.
  45. 45. Characteristics of the food product to be packaged. ● Sometimes the form, nature and consistency of food products can be a problem for the packaging operation. ● This is the case for granular or porous products. Due to their structure, they comprise and hold a discreet quantity of air in the gaps between one particle and another or in the pores. ● To effectively evacuate the package of these types of products, it may be necessary to prolong the packaging time or arrange the products in such a way as to facilitate the air extraction.
  46. 46. ● The same problem can be applied to oversized products with unusual forms that are characterised by pockets of “dead air”. It is necessary to arrange the product in such a way as to ensure that no air is trapped in these critical points. ● Powder products also cause problems in the packaging phase. During air evacuation,the lighter powder particles can be dragged by the outgoing airflow creating problems in the sealing phase of packaging. The solution in this case may be found by regulating the filling level.
  47. 47. Choice of packaging material ● Vacuum packaging effectiveness can be rendered useless by an inadequate choice of packaging material. ● For long term preservation of the vacuum effects, “barrier” materials are needed to impede the entrance of oxygen for the time required. ● the thicker the material, the slower (proportionally) the entrance of oxygen will be. ● Also, the less package surface area there is, there will be a proportionally slower permeation of gas. ● Finally, the entrance of the oxygen has different speeds as a function of the temperature and the lower it is, the slower the phenomenon.
  48. 48. “APPLICATION OF VACUUM PACKAGING”
  49. 49. FRUITS ● There are two main reasons and associated benefits for vacuum packing fresh fruit 1. Prolong the shelf life in the refrigerator 2. for freezing for future consumption. ● Without the presence of oxygen the growth of bacteria and the breakdown of enzymes are greatly reduced resulting in a longer shelf life. Many other soft fruits including all soft berries will benefit from the vacuum process.
  50. 50. VACUUM PACKED APPLES
  51. 51. FRESH MEAT Fresh meat can deteriorated by Multiplication of aerobic bacteria Red meat turning to brown Spoling of damaged parts Surface dehydration
  52. 52. ● Vacuum packaging prevents the attack of damaging bacteria and allows the multiplication of lactic bacteria which improves the flavor and consistency of meat. ● The exclusion of oxygen dramatically slows down the breakdown of enzymes present in meat itself. ● Freezer burn a common problem that occurs if meat is stored in a freezer for a long period, will be totally eliminated along with surface crystallization.
  53. 53. PREPARING THE MEAT TO BE VACUUM PACKED ● Before butchering the meat for vacuum packing it is advisable to chill the meat down to about 4 degrees. ● This will make the meat easier to cut and the meat will also retain itshape better when being vacuum packed. ● When vacuum packing larger joints it is very important to note and eliminate any sharp protruding bones which will puncture the bag when the vacuum packing process begins. This can occur with other cuts like chops or ribs.
  54. 54. ● The vacuum packed products must be stored at or below 8°C at all times during its shelf life (3°C or below is recommended as a target temperature). ● Temperatures above 8°C will encourage growth of Clostridium botulinum and other bacteria.
  55. 55. FISH ● To preserve, retain colour, taste and prevent freezer burn, there is no better way of storing fish than vacuum packaging. ● To get the best results, it is important that the fish is as fresh as possible. ● The length of time that fish have been held on ice or in chilled storage greatly affects the storage time of the frozen product. ● Experiments have shown that lean fish held for two days on ice will last up to 12 months in a freezer before any loss in quality is noticeable.
  56. 56. VACUUM PACKED FISH
  57. 57. ● The vacuum packing process will prevent loss of flavour and will improve the appearance of products which have been frozen. ● There are very large differences between the permeability of packaging materials, with cellophane and polyethylene (used in cheap plastic bags) offering very little protection to seafood products compared to quality vacuum bags. ● All seafood products should be stored in the fridge or freezer even if they have been vacuum packed. SEAFOOD
  58. 58. VACUUM PACKED SEAFOOD
  59. 59. VACUUM PACKING OF COOKED PRODUCTS ● Cooked meats and vegetables must be produced under hygienic conditions and should be packed as soon as possible after cooling has been completed. ● The vacuum packed products must be stored at or below 8°C at all times during its shelf life (3°C or below is recommended as a target temperature). ● Temperatures above 8°C will encourage growth of Clostridium botulinum and other bacteria. ● A shelf life of no greater than 10 days from the day of cooking are ensured by vacuum packaging.
  60. 60. Salt-baked chicken feet sold in China: vacuum-packed and ready to eat!!!
  61. 61. CHEESE ● All cheese, hard or soft are easily subject to fungus contamination. ● Mould spores are always present in ambient air and they can easily proliferate on cheese surface due to high humidity content of these products.
  62. 62. ● Vacuum packaging allows avoiding this inconvenience that can deteriorate the aspect and flavour of cheese products, by the almost complete elimination of oxygen which is indispensable for the growth of these micro-organisms.
  63. 63. ● Vacuum packaging impedes the drying out of the cheese surface and the oxidative changes that can compromise flavour and aroma of cheese derivatives. ● Vacuum packaging and preservation at refrigeration temperatures can extend the shelf life of cheeses.
  64. 64. REFERENCE ● Paul Newton & Andrew Gillespie “A Practical Guide to Vacuum Packing.pdf ” pp no: 2- 42 ● Phil Danielson “Recent advances in vacuum sealing techniques”-A Journal of Practical and Useful Vacuum Technology.

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