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Football: 10 rules
of the Business
Francisco Hernández-Marcos
11 Goals & Associates
Moscow
March 26th, 2015
This document has been produced by 11 Goals & Associates. It is not complete unless
supported by the underlying detailed analyses and oral presentation.
About me SHAMELESS
SELF-PROMOTION
Education: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UNED,
London Business School, University of Chicago – Fundaciò
“laCaixa” & Fundación Rafael del Pino scholarships.
Firms worked for: Abengoa, McKinsey&Co, ABN AMRO,
Real Madrid C.F.
Entrepreneurship: Crisalia
Social Media & Internet consulting: 11goals.com
Lectures & Speaker in 4 continents: The Wall Street Journal, UP Madrid, London
Business School, Cornell, Politecnico Milano, CEIBS (Shanghai), Kungliga Tekniska
högskolan, The Business Factory, Fulbright Spain, ESCP Europe, UIMP, Harvard,
Moscow SU, and several private companies.
Full profile: linkedin.com/in/franciscohm
22
Views are our own. All information and
insights contained in this presentation are
either public or common knowledge
Disclaimer
33
About Football
Source: Wikipedia; FanPageList; UEFA; Reuters; IBT
 First played in England in 1863, Football had had its roots in
several ball games played in different parts of Europe for
centuries.
 World’s most popular sport: 250 mill. players in 200
countries.
 FIFA has more member countries than the United Nations.
 Some players are among the most respected celebrities in
their countries, and Worldwide.
‐ Didier Drogba is credited with brokering a Cease-Fire in
Ivory Coast that ended a 5-year civil war.
‐ Cristiano Ronaldo is the most followed person in Social
Media (141 mill. in FB+TW).
 Global TV audience (mill. people):
‐ European Champions League final: 380
‐ “El Clásico” (Real Madrid-Barcelona): 200~400
‐ Super Bowl: 160
44
Football lifts the spirit…
Source: Footballnomics
World Cup -> Less suicides not only
in June, but for the whole year
…and saves lives!
55
Revenue ranking by sport leagues
Source: Wikipedia
6.600
5.867
3.667
3.200
2.971
2.000
1.900
1.700
1.300
980
919
896
551
National Football League
Major League Baseball
National Basketball Association
Premier League
National Hockey League
Bundesliga
La Liga
Serie A
Ligue 1
Nippon Professional Baseball
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
Russian Premier League
Süper Lig
Revenue
EUR mill.
Combined, football is
probably the highest
revenue-generating
professional sport in
the World
206,3
195,6
122,2
160,0
99
111,1
95
85
65
81,7
45,9
56
30,6
Football leagues
Revenue per team
66
Most valuable sport clubs
Source: The World's 50 Most Valuable Sports Teams 2014 (Forbes)
3,44
3,20
2,81
2,50
2,30
2,00
1,85
1,80
1,70
1,55
1,50
1,45
1,40
1,38
1,35
1,33
1,31
1,25
1,23
1,22
1,20
1,20
Real Madrid
FC Barcelona
Manchester United
New York Yankees
Dallas Cowboys
Los Angeles Dodgers
Bayern Munich
New England Patriots
Washington Redskins
New York Giants
Boston Red Sox
Houston Texans
New York Knicks
New York Jets
Los Angeles Lakers
Arsenal
Philadelphia Eagles
Chicago Bears
Baltimore Ravens
San Francisco 49ers
Chicago Cubs
Ferrari F1
Team value
USD bill.
4,2%
Football clubs
1-Year growth
23,1%
-11,2%
8,7%
9,5%
23,8%
41,3%
10,1%
6,3%
5,6%
14,3%
27,3%
11,1%
7,5%
35,0%
0,3%
4,0%
5,0%
6,3%
3,8%
20,0%
4,3%
77
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
88
Football clubs revenue ranking
Source: Deloitte Football Money League (2015); UEFA (2012)
550
518
488
485
474
414
388
359
306
279
262
250
216
214
170
165
164
162
155
144
Real Madrid
Manchester United
Bayern Munich
FC Barcelona
Paris Saint-Germain
Manchester City
Chelsea
Arsenal
Liverpool
Juventus
Borussia Dortmund
AC Milan
Tottenham Hotspur
Schalke 04
Atlético de Madrid
Napoli
Internazionale
Galatasaray
Newcastle United
Everton
Revenue (13/14)
EUR mill.
First
56%
Second
21%
Third
8%
Other
15%
Revenue matters. Securing a significant amount
of recurring revenue is the most important
factor for succeeding in the pitch.
Finishing position of highest-
spending club in players wages
(UEFA domestic leagues)
99
Some research shows that league position is strongly
correlated (R2=89%) with wage expenditure
Source: Footballnomics
BACK-UP
…but same research tells us that correlation with transfer spending is low (R2=16%)
Are wealthier clubs profiting
from the non-existence of
superior options for over-
performing players?
1010
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by
market wage), the better the team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
1111
Sources of revenues
Top 20 teams in 2013/14 season
Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis
Commercial is king:
larger and growing faster
Matchday
19,8%
Broadcast
39,1%
Commercial
41,1%
5yr-CAGR: 7,9%
5yr-CAGR: 14,7%
5yr-CAGR: 3,6%
1212
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue:
larger and growing faster
1313
Revenue breakdown and key drivers
Source: Various
Revenue
Matchday
Broadcast
Commercial
Domestic
International
(Champions League,
Europa League)
Drivers
• Stadium ownership
• Stadium size
• Income per capita
• VIP facilities
• Dynamic pricing (when possible)
Actionable by the club
Drivers
• Lobbying & bargaining to the league
• Team performance
• League salesforce skills
Drivers
• Team performance
• League salesforce skills
Drivers
• Historical Team Performance
• Brand positioning
• Fan base
• Big Ticket contracts bargaining
• Long-tail contracts salesforce
• Loyalty card
• Summer tours
1414
Matchday revenue drivers
BACK-UP
15%
25%
40%
Standard
VIP (2015)
Top VIP
(2015)
New
generation
99.786
85.000
84.412
81.044
80.667
80.093
80.018
80.000
78.838
78.360
76.092
75.731
75.000
60.338
60.234
54.907
47.805
45.276
41.798
Camp Nou (FC Barcelona)
Stade 5 Juillet 1962 (MC Alger)
Azadi Stadium (Esteghlal FC, Persepolis FC)
Santiago Bernabéu (Real Madrid)
Signal Iduna Park (Borussia Dortmund)
Monumental "U" (Universitario de…
San Siro (AC Milan, Internazionale)
Stade des Martyrs (Vita Club)
Maracaná (CR Flamengo, Fluminense FC,…
Luzhniki Stadium
Atatürk (İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor)
Old Trafford (Manchester United)
Allianz Arena (Bayern Munich, TSV 1860…
…
Emirates Stadium (Arsenal)
Stadio San Paolo (Napoli)
Vicente Calderón (Atlético de Madrid)
City of Manchester (Manchester City)
Anfield (Liverpool)
Stamford Bridge (Chelsea)
Capacity
Seats
Source: Wikipedia; Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis
Annual Matchday revenue per seat
EUR/seat/yr (13/14)
1.171€
1.404€
695€
311€
1.707€
1.173€
1.985€
347€
592€
1.188€
1.347€
2.031€
235€
VIP Matchday revenue
% of total Matchday revenues
No Ownership
Affluent fans
VIP capacity
1515
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing
faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
1616
Broadcast revenue distribution
BACK-UP
La Liga
Source: Roberto Bayón; UEFA; other
Premier League Champions League
140
140
48
42
32
32
32
30
28
25
25
25
22
22
22
18
18
18
18
18
Real Madrid
FC Barcelona
Valencia
Atlético de…
Sevilla FC
Athletic Bilbao
Villarreal
Real Betis
RCD Español
Real Sociedad
Málaga
Getafe
CA Osasuna
RC Celta de…
Levante
Granada CF
Elche CF
Real…
Rayo…
UD Almería
•Negotiated deal. Static over the
contract’s term
•Unequal distribution (Gini: 0,365)
•Short term win, long term loss?
•Dynamic. Moderately depends on
team’s performance
•Equal distribution (Gini: 0,083)
•Ensures regular income to small teams
•Dynamic and aggressively dependant
on team’s performance
•Unequal distribution (Gini: 0,274)
•Performance bonus. Invest it wisely
EUR Mill.; 2013/14 season
117
116
113
111
108
107
102
93
92
91
89
88
88
87
86
80
79
77
76
74
Liverpool
ManCity
Chelsea
Arsenal
Tottenham
ManUnited
Everton
Newcastle
Southampton
Stoke
Swansea
West Ham
Crystal Palace
Aston Villa
Sunderland
Hull
West…
Norwich
Fulham
Cardiff
Total: 755 Total: 1.875 Total: 905
57
54
50
45
45
43
43
42
39
38
35
35
32
27
27
26
24
22
21
21
19
18
17
15
15
15
14
14
13
13
12
11
Real Madrid
PSG
Atlético Madrid
ManUnited
Bayern Munich
Chelsea
Juventus
FC Barcelona
Napoli
AC Milan
ManCity
Borussia
O. Marseille
Olimpiakos
Arsenal
B. Leverkusen
Shalke04
Kovenhaun
Ajax
Galatasaray
FC Zenit
Celtic
Real Sociedad
Benfica
CSKA Moskva
Steaua
Porto
S. Donetsk
Basel
Wien
Anderlecht
Viktoria Plzen
7,8x 1,6x 5,2x
1717
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing
faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value
and team distribution, and success on international
tournaments
1818
Football big-ticket sponsorships
Shirt
Source: Forbes; The Economist; other
Note: Stadium ranking is not exhaustive
BACK-UP
80
45
40
39
31
Manchester United
(Chevrolet)
FC Barcelona
(Qatar Airways)
Bayern Munich
(Deutsche Telekom)
Real Madrid
(Fly Emirates)
Liverpool
(Standard Chartered)
Kit
41
39
38
38
37 88
Real Madrid
(Adidas)
Liverpool
(Warrior)
FC Barcelona
(Nike)
Bayern Munich
(Adidas)
Manchester United
(Nike)
Signed
Adidas for
USD 88
mill. for 13
seasons
beginning
15/16
•Manchester United -and other English teams- are pushing hard by signing very profitable big-ticket contracts. The reason behind
why they sell at higher price might be that the English Premier League has more TV eyeballs.
•We may infer that RM, FCB and BM must be very good at the rest of the Comercial revenue drivers: long-tail contracts, loyalty
cards, summer tournaments, etc. or that part of the revenues of the players are invoiced through the club.
•Stadium’s naming rights deals are a great potential source of new revenues in the future. However clubs are reluctant to hear
offers that are not large and long enough (Real Option framework).
Yokohama just
signed with
Chelsea for USD
61 mill.
beginning
15/16
Stadium
8,8
5,5
Emirates
(Arsenal)
Etihad
(ManCity)
EPIC
(Real Madrid)
Allianz
(Bayern Munich)
Veltins
(Shalke 04)
USD mill./year
Real Madrid
signed pre-
deal with IPIC
(terms not
disclosed)
Joint deal
with Shirt
?
?
?
1919
Stadium Naming Rights in the USA as of 2013
Source: New York Times
BACK-UP
•75% of US clubs have sold stadium naming rights.
•Business much more developed than in Europe. Perhaps because sponsors have developed a better ROI framework.
•Best deals in recent years.
•European Football teams can and should be able to reach similar deals for their global audience.
Interactive chart (NYT)
2020
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing
faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution,
and success on international tournaments
7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV
audience) are key. Stadium naming rights will bring
significant growth soon
2121
Top Football clubs revenue breakdown
2013/14; EUR mill.
0 €
100 €
200 €
300 €
400 €
500 €
600 €
Commercial
Broadcast
Matchday
Source: Deloitte Football Money League, 11 Goals & Associates
Arsenal stadium (Emirates) is
considered as the most VIP facility,
with high Matchday revenue
~50% of home broadcast
revenues in Spain go to Real
Madrid and FC Barcelona
Being UEFA CL finalist made
Atlético to increase Broadcast
revenue by 86% in 1 year
PL’s large broadcast
contract, and its flat
distribution, secure
smaller teams with
enough income
RM’s and ManU’s
international focus
and strong
salesforce pays-off
Milan teams do not
own the stadium
PSG huge
commercial inflow
since Qatar
Investments Office
took over
Income per capita drives Matchday
revenue. Chelsea Vs Napoli
Bayern Munich big-ticket
sponsors are strong, and
shareholders of the club…
2222
Cost drivers
Source: own analysis based on Annual Statements (2013/14); UEFA (2012)
ILLUSTRATIVE
EXAMPLES
Ratios to revenue
44% 48%
74% 69% 69% 69% 61%
51%
65%
17% 12%
Real
Madrid
FC
Barcelona
Average
Turkey
Average
Italy
Average
England
Average
Russia
Average
Spain
Average
Germany
Average
UEFA
Other
Amortization
Wages
•Team wages account for the most part of an average club costs
•There are significant differences in cost management among clubs (e.g. wage steps)
•57% of UEFA member clubs are loss-making
•Cost is the main driver of a Club’s profitability. Most Clubs are loss-making because
they are not enough diligent on the cost base
•UEFA is concern about these issues and is implementing “Financial Fair Game” policies
0%-8%-11% 2% -8%
Net profit to revenue ratio
EBITDA:
164 M.€
EBITDA:
134 M.€
-9%-22%
2323
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing
faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution,
and success on international tournaments
7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key.
Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon
8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines
(un)profitability
2424
Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis
Note: Some transfers data are estimations
Player transfers of selected clubs
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
Profile 1: Super-Investors
Ronaldo;
Kaká;
Alonso;
Benzema
Departures income (GBP mill.)
Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.)
Net income (GBP mill.)
Real Madrid CF
05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14Season
473
998
-525
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
FC Barcelona
281
640
-359
Total 05/06 to 13/14
Ramos;
Robinho
Diarra;
Gago
Robben;
Pepe;
Sneijder
Huntelar
DiMAría;
Özil;
Khedira
Coentrão
Modric
Bale;
Isco James;
Kroos
Suárez
14/15
Henry;
Milito
Alves
Ronaldinho Ibrahimovic
Villa;
Masch.
Fábregas;
Sánchez
Neymar
2525
Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis
Note: Some transfers data are estimations
-50
0
50
100
150
Profile 2: Net investors profiting from opportunistic sales
Departures income (GBP mill.)
Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.)
Net income (GBP mill.)
Atlético Madrid
Season
336
426
-90
-50
0
50
100
150
Valencia CF
280 291
-11
Total 05/06 to 13/1405/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14 14/15
Agüero
Forlán;
Simão
Torres
Falcao
Costa
Villa
Joaquín
Albiol
Mata
Soldado
Mathieu
Player transfers of selected clubs
2626
Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis
Note: Some transfers data are estimations
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Profile 3: Capital generators (concentrated in few players)
Departures income (GBP mill.)
Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.)
Net income (GBP mill.)
Real Sociedad
Season
77
46
31
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
Athletic Bilbao
84
49
35
Total 05/06 to 13/1405/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14 14/15
Griezmann;
Bravo
Illarramendi
Del Horno
Aduritz
Martínez Herrera
Player transfers of selected clubs
2727
Football business models
• Large, well-established teams with a long track record on
the pitch and a large fanbase all over the world.
• Revenues, large and stable, finance team.
• Key to profitability is being able to contain the payroll cost
of the players.
• Usually have successful junior academies, but it is difficult
for a player to walk all the steps onto the first team.
Description
• Real Madrid
• Manchester United
• Bayern Munich
• FC Barcelona
• Manchester City
• Paris Saint-Germain
• Chelsea
Examples
• Mid-sized teams with strong junior academies or a key
long-term investor, working to build a Commercial stream
and an international brand.
• Transfer fees come not only from the junior academy, but
from trading players who become stars in 2-3 years.
• From time to time succeed in Europe and get significant
revenues. Money buys time to build-up Commercial.
• Revenues are volatile and cash must be watched.
• Atlético de Madrid
• Shalke 04
• Valencia CF
• Fiorentina
• Ajax
• Monaco
• Small local teams with little chances to build-up a
Comercial revenue stream.
• Best source of revenue are transfer fees from players
coming from their junior school.
• Teams that do not succeed in developing talent are usually
money-losing clubs.
• Real Sociedad
• Villareal CF
• Elche CF
• Stade Rennais
• Atalanta B.C.
• FC Sochaux-Montbéliard
• Many Latam clubs
Factory of
players
“Lucky striker”
(prizes, trades, or
key investor)
Commercial
funds team
(wages & capex)
• Very small and small clubs that live almost exclusively on
tickets. Adapt budget to revenues (Cash In-Cash Out).
• Usually no formal business plan
Survival mode
Top ~1%
Next ~5%
Next ~20%
Source: 11 Goals & Associates; UEFA (2012)
Most clubs
2828
Digital Business Model?
Factory of
players
“Lucky striker”
(prizes, trades, or
key investor)
Commercial
funds team
(wages & capex)
Survival mode
Digitally-enabled
Business Model?
D+Factory of
players
D+“Lucky striker”
(prizes, trades, or
key investor)
D+Commercial
funds team
(wages & capex)
D+Survival mode
How the new BM
would look like?
Strategic DT
Performance DT
2929
What kind of Digital Transformation?
Strategic Digital Transformation in Football (SlideShare)
• Same Business Model, different processes
• Incremental innovation
• Seeking efficiency, but not always
• Low risk, medium return
• Suboptimal strategy, but creates value
• Ex.: Most large commercial banks such as BBVA or Grupo
Santander
Performance DT
Strategic DT
• New Business Model
• Disruptive innovation, but it does not have to affect the core
business if execution plan is well shaped
• Seeking revenue growth
• High risk, high return
• Optimal strategy, but not easy to execute
• Ex.: Netflix, Coursera (~Stanford), edX (MIT, Harvard)
3030
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing
faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution,
and success on international tournaments
7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key.
Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon
8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines (un)profitability
9) Business models: Survival->Factory->”Lucky”->Commercial-
>Digital?
3131
Is the current model mature enough? Exhausted?
YoY growth rate by revenue source; World’s top football 20 teams of each year
-5%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14
Matchday Broadcast Commercial Total
•Revenues growth rates are not only not maturing, but accelerating
•Growth is specially driven by Commercial
•Matchday is maturing
•The marginally decreasing rates until 08/09 are explained by the crisis
23,8%
14,2%
11,6%
3,6%
Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis
3232
YoY growth rate by revenue source; World’s top 4 teams (RM, MU, BM and FCB)
-5%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14
Matchday Broadcast Commercial Total
•Taking only the 4 most “advanced” teams
we see no pattern of exhaustion
•Total revenues grow strong again after the
crisis, driven specially by Commercial
•Matchday is maturing
-0,7%
9,0%
9,9%
16,4%
Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis
Is the current model mature enough? Exhausted?
3333
Digital value creation
BU Sport
Cost center
Championships
BU Stadium
Profit/Inv. center
BU Commercial
Revenue/Profit center
BU Digital
Cost center?
Revenue center?
Fan base and
engagement
Revenue
Attribution model
Titles -> Revenue
Attribution model
Fans -> Revenue
Without an attribution
model someone could
even argue BU sport is
not a revenue
generating activity…
When externalities among BUs exist,
attribution models (Bayesian, Big Data,
etc.) should serve to understand
interrelations and to assign transfer
costs and revenues among BUs (BU’s
P&L; cost accounting).
Attribution model
Titles ->Fans
Attribution model
TV ->Commercial
3434
Football: The rules of the Business
1) Football has social value, and business value too
2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the
team does on the pitch
3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster
5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and
success on international tournaments
7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key.
Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon
8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines (un)profitability
9) Business models: Survival->Factory->”Lucky”->Commercial->Digital?
10)Commercial Biz Model yet to grow, but Digital ready
to disrupt like Stadium, TV and Commercial did in the
past
•Strategic consulting services in technology and digital marketing for top executives
•We advise companies on digital transformation
Francisco Hernández
•MBA London Business School.
•IEP University of Chicago.
•11 years of digital experience.
•Ex Director Online Strategy Real
Madrid C.F.
•Other companies: ABN Amro,
Abengoa, McKinsey&Company.
•Professor at ESCP Europe.
•Lecturer in Europe, Latam and
Asia
•PWC: 10 e-Business talents in
Spain.
Sonia Fernández
•MBA Stanford.
•15 years of digital experience.
•Ex CEO Vindico Europe.
•Ex CEO Match.com Spain.
•Ex CEO MercadoLibre Spain.
•Other companies: Fon, Grupo
Prisa, 3i, Lehman Brothers.
•Professor at OBS-UB, EOI and MIB
•Lecturer at universities and in-
company training
•Author of two books on
networking and social networks
published in 2004 and 2001 franciscohm
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Francisco Hernández
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Football: 10 Rules of the Business

  • 1. Football: 10 rules of the Business Francisco Hernández-Marcos 11 Goals & Associates Moscow March 26th, 2015 This document has been produced by 11 Goals & Associates. It is not complete unless supported by the underlying detailed analyses and oral presentation.
  • 2. About me SHAMELESS SELF-PROMOTION Education: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UNED, London Business School, University of Chicago – Fundaciò “laCaixa” & Fundación Rafael del Pino scholarships. Firms worked for: Abengoa, McKinsey&Co, ABN AMRO, Real Madrid C.F. Entrepreneurship: Crisalia Social Media & Internet consulting: 11goals.com Lectures & Speaker in 4 continents: The Wall Street Journal, UP Madrid, London Business School, Cornell, Politecnico Milano, CEIBS (Shanghai), Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, The Business Factory, Fulbright Spain, ESCP Europe, UIMP, Harvard, Moscow SU, and several private companies. Full profile: linkedin.com/in/franciscohm
  • 3. 22 Views are our own. All information and insights contained in this presentation are either public or common knowledge Disclaimer
  • 4. 33 About Football Source: Wikipedia; FanPageList; UEFA; Reuters; IBT  First played in England in 1863, Football had had its roots in several ball games played in different parts of Europe for centuries.  World’s most popular sport: 250 mill. players in 200 countries.  FIFA has more member countries than the United Nations.  Some players are among the most respected celebrities in their countries, and Worldwide. ‐ Didier Drogba is credited with brokering a Cease-Fire in Ivory Coast that ended a 5-year civil war. ‐ Cristiano Ronaldo is the most followed person in Social Media (141 mill. in FB+TW).  Global TV audience (mill. people): ‐ European Champions League final: 380 ‐ “El Clásico” (Real Madrid-Barcelona): 200~400 ‐ Super Bowl: 160
  • 5. 44 Football lifts the spirit… Source: Footballnomics World Cup -> Less suicides not only in June, but for the whole year …and saves lives!
  • 6. 55 Revenue ranking by sport leagues Source: Wikipedia 6.600 5.867 3.667 3.200 2.971 2.000 1.900 1.700 1.300 980 919 896 551 National Football League Major League Baseball National Basketball Association Premier League National Hockey League Bundesliga La Liga Serie A Ligue 1 Nippon Professional Baseball Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Russian Premier League Süper Lig Revenue EUR mill. Combined, football is probably the highest revenue-generating professional sport in the World 206,3 195,6 122,2 160,0 99 111,1 95 85 65 81,7 45,9 56 30,6 Football leagues Revenue per team
  • 7. 66 Most valuable sport clubs Source: The World's 50 Most Valuable Sports Teams 2014 (Forbes) 3,44 3,20 2,81 2,50 2,30 2,00 1,85 1,80 1,70 1,55 1,50 1,45 1,40 1,38 1,35 1,33 1,31 1,25 1,23 1,22 1,20 1,20 Real Madrid FC Barcelona Manchester United New York Yankees Dallas Cowboys Los Angeles Dodgers Bayern Munich New England Patriots Washington Redskins New York Giants Boston Red Sox Houston Texans New York Knicks New York Jets Los Angeles Lakers Arsenal Philadelphia Eagles Chicago Bears Baltimore Ravens San Francisco 49ers Chicago Cubs Ferrari F1 Team value USD bill. 4,2% Football clubs 1-Year growth 23,1% -11,2% 8,7% 9,5% 23,8% 41,3% 10,1% 6,3% 5,6% 14,3% 27,3% 11,1% 7,5% 35,0% 0,3% 4,0% 5,0% 6,3% 3,8% 20,0% 4,3%
  • 8. 77 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too
  • 9. 88 Football clubs revenue ranking Source: Deloitte Football Money League (2015); UEFA (2012) 550 518 488 485 474 414 388 359 306 279 262 250 216 214 170 165 164 162 155 144 Real Madrid Manchester United Bayern Munich FC Barcelona Paris Saint-Germain Manchester City Chelsea Arsenal Liverpool Juventus Borussia Dortmund AC Milan Tottenham Hotspur Schalke 04 Atlético de Madrid Napoli Internazionale Galatasaray Newcastle United Everton Revenue (13/14) EUR mill. First 56% Second 21% Third 8% Other 15% Revenue matters. Securing a significant amount of recurring revenue is the most important factor for succeeding in the pitch. Finishing position of highest- spending club in players wages (UEFA domestic leagues)
  • 10. 99 Some research shows that league position is strongly correlated (R2=89%) with wage expenditure Source: Footballnomics BACK-UP …but same research tells us that correlation with transfer spending is low (R2=16%) Are wealthier clubs profiting from the non-existence of superior options for over- performing players?
  • 11. 1010 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance
  • 12. 1111 Sources of revenues Top 20 teams in 2013/14 season Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis Commercial is king: larger and growing faster Matchday 19,8% Broadcast 39,1% Commercial 41,1% 5yr-CAGR: 7,9% 5yr-CAGR: 14,7% 5yr-CAGR: 3,6%
  • 13. 1212 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster
  • 14. 1313 Revenue breakdown and key drivers Source: Various Revenue Matchday Broadcast Commercial Domestic International (Champions League, Europa League) Drivers • Stadium ownership • Stadium size • Income per capita • VIP facilities • Dynamic pricing (when possible) Actionable by the club Drivers • Lobbying & bargaining to the league • Team performance • League salesforce skills Drivers • Team performance • League salesforce skills Drivers • Historical Team Performance • Brand positioning • Fan base • Big Ticket contracts bargaining • Long-tail contracts salesforce • Loyalty card • Summer tours
  • 15. 1414 Matchday revenue drivers BACK-UP 15% 25% 40% Standard VIP (2015) Top VIP (2015) New generation 99.786 85.000 84.412 81.044 80.667 80.093 80.018 80.000 78.838 78.360 76.092 75.731 75.000 60.338 60.234 54.907 47.805 45.276 41.798 Camp Nou (FC Barcelona) Stade 5 Juillet 1962 (MC Alger) Azadi Stadium (Esteghlal FC, Persepolis FC) Santiago Bernabéu (Real Madrid) Signal Iduna Park (Borussia Dortmund) Monumental "U" (Universitario de… San Siro (AC Milan, Internazionale) Stade des Martyrs (Vita Club) Maracaná (CR Flamengo, Fluminense FC,… Luzhniki Stadium Atatürk (İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor) Old Trafford (Manchester United) Allianz Arena (Bayern Munich, TSV 1860… … Emirates Stadium (Arsenal) Stadio San Paolo (Napoli) Vicente Calderón (Atlético de Madrid) City of Manchester (Manchester City) Anfield (Liverpool) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) Capacity Seats Source: Wikipedia; Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis Annual Matchday revenue per seat EUR/seat/yr (13/14) 1.171€ 1.404€ 695€ 311€ 1.707€ 1.173€ 1.985€ 347€ 592€ 1.188€ 1.347€ 2.031€ 235€ VIP Matchday revenue % of total Matchday revenues No Ownership Affluent fans VIP capacity
  • 16. 1515 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP
  • 17. 1616 Broadcast revenue distribution BACK-UP La Liga Source: Roberto Bayón; UEFA; other Premier League Champions League 140 140 48 42 32 32 32 30 28 25 25 25 22 22 22 18 18 18 18 18 Real Madrid FC Barcelona Valencia Atlético de… Sevilla FC Athletic Bilbao Villarreal Real Betis RCD Español Real Sociedad Málaga Getafe CA Osasuna RC Celta de… Levante Granada CF Elche CF Real… Rayo… UD Almería •Negotiated deal. Static over the contract’s term •Unequal distribution (Gini: 0,365) •Short term win, long term loss? •Dynamic. Moderately depends on team’s performance •Equal distribution (Gini: 0,083) •Ensures regular income to small teams •Dynamic and aggressively dependant on team’s performance •Unequal distribution (Gini: 0,274) •Performance bonus. Invest it wisely EUR Mill.; 2013/14 season 117 116 113 111 108 107 102 93 92 91 89 88 88 87 86 80 79 77 76 74 Liverpool ManCity Chelsea Arsenal Tottenham ManUnited Everton Newcastle Southampton Stoke Swansea West Ham Crystal Palace Aston Villa Sunderland Hull West… Norwich Fulham Cardiff Total: 755 Total: 1.875 Total: 905 57 54 50 45 45 43 43 42 39 38 35 35 32 27 27 26 24 22 21 21 19 18 17 15 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 11 Real Madrid PSG Atlético Madrid ManUnited Bayern Munich Chelsea Juventus FC Barcelona Napoli AC Milan ManCity Borussia O. Marseille Olimpiakos Arsenal B. Leverkusen Shalke04 Kovenhaun Ajax Galatasaray FC Zenit Celtic Real Sociedad Benfica CSKA Moskva Steaua Porto S. Donetsk Basel Wien Anderlecht Viktoria Plzen 7,8x 1,6x 5,2x
  • 18. 1717 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP 6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and success on international tournaments
  • 19. 1818 Football big-ticket sponsorships Shirt Source: Forbes; The Economist; other Note: Stadium ranking is not exhaustive BACK-UP 80 45 40 39 31 Manchester United (Chevrolet) FC Barcelona (Qatar Airways) Bayern Munich (Deutsche Telekom) Real Madrid (Fly Emirates) Liverpool (Standard Chartered) Kit 41 39 38 38 37 88 Real Madrid (Adidas) Liverpool (Warrior) FC Barcelona (Nike) Bayern Munich (Adidas) Manchester United (Nike) Signed Adidas for USD 88 mill. for 13 seasons beginning 15/16 •Manchester United -and other English teams- are pushing hard by signing very profitable big-ticket contracts. The reason behind why they sell at higher price might be that the English Premier League has more TV eyeballs. •We may infer that RM, FCB and BM must be very good at the rest of the Comercial revenue drivers: long-tail contracts, loyalty cards, summer tournaments, etc. or that part of the revenues of the players are invoiced through the club. •Stadium’s naming rights deals are a great potential source of new revenues in the future. However clubs are reluctant to hear offers that are not large and long enough (Real Option framework). Yokohama just signed with Chelsea for USD 61 mill. beginning 15/16 Stadium 8,8 5,5 Emirates (Arsenal) Etihad (ManCity) EPIC (Real Madrid) Allianz (Bayern Munich) Veltins (Shalke 04) USD mill./year Real Madrid signed pre- deal with IPIC (terms not disclosed) Joint deal with Shirt ? ? ?
  • 20. 1919 Stadium Naming Rights in the USA as of 2013 Source: New York Times BACK-UP •75% of US clubs have sold stadium naming rights. •Business much more developed than in Europe. Perhaps because sponsors have developed a better ROI framework. •Best deals in recent years. •European Football teams can and should be able to reach similar deals for their global audience. Interactive chart (NYT)
  • 21. 2020 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP 6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and success on international tournaments 7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key. Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon
  • 22. 2121 Top Football clubs revenue breakdown 2013/14; EUR mill. 0 € 100 € 200 € 300 € 400 € 500 € 600 € Commercial Broadcast Matchday Source: Deloitte Football Money League, 11 Goals & Associates Arsenal stadium (Emirates) is considered as the most VIP facility, with high Matchday revenue ~50% of home broadcast revenues in Spain go to Real Madrid and FC Barcelona Being UEFA CL finalist made Atlético to increase Broadcast revenue by 86% in 1 year PL’s large broadcast contract, and its flat distribution, secure smaller teams with enough income RM’s and ManU’s international focus and strong salesforce pays-off Milan teams do not own the stadium PSG huge commercial inflow since Qatar Investments Office took over Income per capita drives Matchday revenue. Chelsea Vs Napoli Bayern Munich big-ticket sponsors are strong, and shareholders of the club…
  • 23. 2222 Cost drivers Source: own analysis based on Annual Statements (2013/14); UEFA (2012) ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES Ratios to revenue 44% 48% 74% 69% 69% 69% 61% 51% 65% 17% 12% Real Madrid FC Barcelona Average Turkey Average Italy Average England Average Russia Average Spain Average Germany Average UEFA Other Amortization Wages •Team wages account for the most part of an average club costs •There are significant differences in cost management among clubs (e.g. wage steps) •57% of UEFA member clubs are loss-making •Cost is the main driver of a Club’s profitability. Most Clubs are loss-making because they are not enough diligent on the cost base •UEFA is concern about these issues and is implementing “Financial Fair Game” policies 0%-8%-11% 2% -8% Net profit to revenue ratio EBITDA: 164 M.€ EBITDA: 134 M.€ -9%-22%
  • 24. 2323 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP 6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and success on international tournaments 7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key. Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon 8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines (un)profitability
  • 25. 2424 Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis Note: Some transfers data are estimations Player transfers of selected clubs -200 -100 0 100 200 300 Profile 1: Super-Investors Ronaldo; Kaká; Alonso; Benzema Departures income (GBP mill.) Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.) Net income (GBP mill.) Real Madrid CF 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14Season 473 998 -525 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 FC Barcelona 281 640 -359 Total 05/06 to 13/14 Ramos; Robinho Diarra; Gago Robben; Pepe; Sneijder Huntelar DiMAría; Özil; Khedira Coentrão Modric Bale; Isco James; Kroos Suárez 14/15 Henry; Milito Alves Ronaldinho Ibrahimovic Villa; Masch. Fábregas; Sánchez Neymar
  • 26. 2525 Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis Note: Some transfers data are estimations -50 0 50 100 150 Profile 2: Net investors profiting from opportunistic sales Departures income (GBP mill.) Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.) Net income (GBP mill.) Atlético Madrid Season 336 426 -90 -50 0 50 100 150 Valencia CF 280 291 -11 Total 05/06 to 13/1405/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14 14/15 Agüero Forlán; Simão Torres Falcao Costa Villa Joaquín Albiol Mata Soldado Mathieu Player transfers of selected clubs
  • 27. 2626 Source: Transfer Markt; own analysis Note: Some transfers data are estimations -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Profile 3: Capital generators (concentrated in few players) Departures income (GBP mill.) Arrivals expenditure (GBP mill.) Net income (GBP mill.) Real Sociedad Season 77 46 31 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Athletic Bilbao 84 49 35 Total 05/06 to 13/1405/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14 14/15 Griezmann; Bravo Illarramendi Del Horno Aduritz Martínez Herrera Player transfers of selected clubs
  • 28. 2727 Football business models • Large, well-established teams with a long track record on the pitch and a large fanbase all over the world. • Revenues, large and stable, finance team. • Key to profitability is being able to contain the payroll cost of the players. • Usually have successful junior academies, but it is difficult for a player to walk all the steps onto the first team. Description • Real Madrid • Manchester United • Bayern Munich • FC Barcelona • Manchester City • Paris Saint-Germain • Chelsea Examples • Mid-sized teams with strong junior academies or a key long-term investor, working to build a Commercial stream and an international brand. • Transfer fees come not only from the junior academy, but from trading players who become stars in 2-3 years. • From time to time succeed in Europe and get significant revenues. Money buys time to build-up Commercial. • Revenues are volatile and cash must be watched. • Atlético de Madrid • Shalke 04 • Valencia CF • Fiorentina • Ajax • Monaco • Small local teams with little chances to build-up a Comercial revenue stream. • Best source of revenue are transfer fees from players coming from their junior school. • Teams that do not succeed in developing talent are usually money-losing clubs. • Real Sociedad • Villareal CF • Elche CF • Stade Rennais • Atalanta B.C. • FC Sochaux-Montbéliard • Many Latam clubs Factory of players “Lucky striker” (prizes, trades, or key investor) Commercial funds team (wages & capex) • Very small and small clubs that live almost exclusively on tickets. Adapt budget to revenues (Cash In-Cash Out). • Usually no formal business plan Survival mode Top ~1% Next ~5% Next ~20% Source: 11 Goals & Associates; UEFA (2012) Most clubs
  • 29. 2828 Digital Business Model? Factory of players “Lucky striker” (prizes, trades, or key investor) Commercial funds team (wages & capex) Survival mode Digitally-enabled Business Model? D+Factory of players D+“Lucky striker” (prizes, trades, or key investor) D+Commercial funds team (wages & capex) D+Survival mode How the new BM would look like? Strategic DT Performance DT
  • 30. 2929 What kind of Digital Transformation? Strategic Digital Transformation in Football (SlideShare) • Same Business Model, different processes • Incremental innovation • Seeking efficiency, but not always • Low risk, medium return • Suboptimal strategy, but creates value • Ex.: Most large commercial banks such as BBVA or Grupo Santander Performance DT Strategic DT • New Business Model • Disruptive innovation, but it does not have to affect the core business if execution plan is well shaped • Seeking revenue growth • High risk, high return • Optimal strategy, but not easy to execute • Ex.: Netflix, Coursera (~Stanford), edX (MIT, Harvard)
  • 31. 3030 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP 6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and success on international tournaments 7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key. Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon 8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines (un)profitability 9) Business models: Survival->Factory->”Lucky”->Commercial- >Digital?
  • 32. 3131 Is the current model mature enough? Exhausted? YoY growth rate by revenue source; World’s top football 20 teams of each year -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 Matchday Broadcast Commercial Total •Revenues growth rates are not only not maturing, but accelerating •Growth is specially driven by Commercial •Matchday is maturing •The marginally decreasing rates until 08/09 are explained by the crisis 23,8% 14,2% 11,6% 3,6% Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis
  • 33. 3232 YoY growth rate by revenue source; World’s top 4 teams (RM, MU, BM and FCB) -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 Matchday Broadcast Commercial Total •Taking only the 4 most “advanced” teams we see no pattern of exhaustion •Total revenues grow strong again after the crisis, driven specially by Commercial •Matchday is maturing -0,7% 9,0% 9,9% 16,4% Source: Deloitte Football Money League; own analysis Is the current model mature enough? Exhausted?
  • 34. 3333 Digital value creation BU Sport Cost center Championships BU Stadium Profit/Inv. center BU Commercial Revenue/Profit center BU Digital Cost center? Revenue center? Fan base and engagement Revenue Attribution model Titles -> Revenue Attribution model Fans -> Revenue Without an attribution model someone could even argue BU sport is not a revenue generating activity… When externalities among BUs exist, attribution models (Bayesian, Big Data, etc.) should serve to understand interrelations and to assign transfer costs and revenues among BUs (BU’s P&L; cost accounting). Attribution model Titles ->Fans Attribution model TV ->Commercial
  • 35. 3434 Football: The rules of the Business 1) Football has social value, and business value too 2) The better players the team has (measured by market wage), the better the team does on the pitch 3) Revenue drives long-term team’s performance 4) Commercial the most important source of revenue: larger and growing faster 5) Matchday revenue drivers: Stadium ownership, VIP 6) Broadcast revenue drivers: domestic league value and team distribution, and success on international tournaments 7) Commercial: Big-ticket contracts (dependant on TV audience) are key. Stadium naming rights will bring significant growth soon 8) Main cost driver is team wages. It determines (un)profitability 9) Business models: Survival->Factory->”Lucky”->Commercial->Digital? 10)Commercial Biz Model yet to grow, but Digital ready to disrupt like Stadium, TV and Commercial did in the past
  • 36. •Strategic consulting services in technology and digital marketing for top executives •We advise companies on digital transformation Francisco Hernández •MBA London Business School. •IEP University of Chicago. •11 years of digital experience. •Ex Director Online Strategy Real Madrid C.F. •Other companies: ABN Amro, Abengoa, McKinsey&Company. •Professor at ESCP Europe. •Lecturer in Europe, Latam and Asia •PWC: 10 e-Business talents in Spain. Sonia Fernández •MBA Stanford. •15 years of digital experience. •Ex CEO Vindico Europe. •Ex CEO Match.com Spain. •Ex CEO MercadoLibre Spain. •Other companies: Fon, Grupo Prisa, 3i, Lehman Brothers. •Professor at OBS-UB, EOI and MIB •Lecturer at universities and in- company training •Author of two books on networking and social networks published in 2004 and 2001 franciscohm francisco.hernandez@11goals.com | (+34) 605 58 66 55 soniafernandez sonia.fernandez@11goals.com | (+34) 619 721 781