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E-Commerce
Marketing and E-Commerce
International Master in Industrial Management




Francisco Hernández Marcos
fran.me


Madrid, 19th January 2012
About me                                              SHAMELESS
                                                   SELF-PROMOTION

Education:
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UNED, London
Business School, University of Chicago

Firms I worked for full-time :
Abengoa, McKinsey&Co, ABN AMRO, Real Madrid C.F.

Entrepreneurship: Crisalia

Consulting requests (Social Media & Internet):
francisco_hernandez@11goals.com

Full profile:
linkedin.com/in/franciscohm
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Definition of E-Commerce


    “Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce,
    ecommerce or e-comm, refers to the buying and selling of
    products or services over electronic systems such as the
    Internet and other computer networks. However, the
    term may refer to more than just buying and selling
    products online. It also includes the entire online process
    of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing
    and paying for products and services.”

                                                     We will focus on
                                                      the Internet




Source: Wikipedia
E-Commerce timeline
                               Netscape browser & 1st Internet
                                 purchase (netmarket.com)
                                                                       “Dot Com”       Amazon buys
  Online shopping                                                        burst         Zappos.com
      concept
                            1st Browser                                                              Amazon ->Diapers.com
                                                        Alibaba.com                                  eBay -> GSI Commerce
                                CERN




                    1984                            1995                                             2010
      1979                     1990        1994            1998           2000            2009                2011

             1st Electronic Mall                 Amazon.com                                     Groupon rejects
                CompuServe                        eBay.com                                       Google offer




                                                       Highly-funded startups         Small-funded startups
             Tech&Concept development
                                                                 (KSF: Tech)               (KSF: Biz Model)




                                                                                   Jeff Bezos: “I am more worried about 2 guys
                                                                                     in a garage than about Barnes&Noble ”
Types of E-Commerce/E-Business
1 of 2                                                        Not easy to classify
                                                              Many real models fall into multiple categories


  B2B                          B2C                     B2G
  Business to Business         Business to Consumer    Business to Government

  •PayPal (and B2C, “B2B2C”)   •Amazon                 “E-Procurement”
  •Optize (and B2C)            •FreshDirect
  •Alibaba Group               •Zynga (and C2C)


  C2B                          C2C                     C2G
  Consumer to Business         Consumer to Consumer    Citizen to Government

  •Zonzoo                      •Prosper (“P2P”)        •Agencia Tributaria (Tax agency
  •Fotolia                     •eBay                   online)
  •Google Adsense              •Facebook


  G2B                          G2C                     G2G
  Government to Business       Government to Citizen   Government to Government
  “E-Government”               “E-Government”
                                                       •Government Gateway
  •AEPM                        •eDNI                   •Schengen Information System
  •Certificado Digital         •USA.gov (also G2B)
Types of E-Commerce
2 of 2


                                    B2E
         Non-Internet      “Business 2 Employee”
         E-Commerce



                  Social    Mobile
                Commerce   Commerce




                              Social
                             Mobile
                            Commerce
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Global and European online population




                             About one fourth of World’s population is online



Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research , comScore
E-Commerce takes off in a country when broadband
becomes widely available.


      Total number of broadband subscribers                                  Broadband subscribers added in Q2 2011
      Millions                                                               Millions




Source: Point Topic Ltd., World Broadband Statistics: Short Report Q2 2011
Who buys online?




                              In the U.S. people of about all ages buy online




Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research
E-Commerce sales are very large and grow strongly



                             19%




Source: Internet Retailer, Goldman Sachs
Where are the largest E-Commerce markets?


           E-Commerce sales by region                          % of online consumers who
           in 2010                                             made a web purchase in 2009




Source: Internet Retailer, Goldman Sachs, Forrester Research
What markets are expected to grow more?
E-retail sales
                                                                 CAGR

                 U.S.A.                         EU 17   Brazil




                   10%                          10%     18%

       In 2015 it would account 11% of
            retail sales in the USA




Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research
GAGR= Compounded Annual Growth Rate
Who are the top E-Commerce players?




Source: Internet Retailer , comScore
How do E-Comm companies perform?




Source: Internet Retailer
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Frontend E-Commerce features


  1. Catalogue navigation (categories,   10.Payment system
     tags, etc.)                         11.Integrated Shipping & Tracking
  2. Search engine (box, advanced)         system
  3. Ratings & Reviews                   12.Customer accounts
  4. Recommendations & Referrals         13.SEO friendly
  5. Up-selling & Cross-selling          14.Social Media integration
  6. Whish list & Purchase-later list    15.Customer service (Live chat,
  7. Shopping cart                         automatic robot, etc.)
  8. Gift certificates                   16.Forums & Communities
  9. Checkout                            17.….
E-Commerce is more than the act of buying online,
it’s the whole system of information and
reputation, which makes it a highly social activity




                                                Social Shopping




Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Two key questions when doing E-Business


               How do I make money
                 from my website?




                     How can I market
                       my website?
                       (Online MKT, day 2;
                        Social MKT, day 3)
Business models on the web (Professor Michael Rappa)
Page 1 of 2
  1. Brokerage:                                                3. Infomediary:
        •   Marketplace Exchange [Orbitz, ChemConnect]                   •   Advertising Networks [DoubleClick]
        •   Buy/Sell Fulfillment [CarsDirect, Respond.com]               •   Audience Measurement Services [Nielsen//Netratings]
        •   Demand Collection System [Priceline.com]                     •   Incentive Marketing [Coolsavings]
        •   Auction Broker [eBay]                                        •   Metamediary [Edmunds]
        •   Transaction Broker [PayPal, Escrow.com]
        •   Distributor                                        4. Merchant:
        •   Search Agent                                                 •   Virtual Merchant [Amazon.com]
        •   Virtual Marketplace [Amazon.com]                             •   Catalog Merchant [Lands' End]
                                                                         •   Click and Mortar [Barnes & Noble]
  2. Advertising:                                                        •   Bit Vendor [Apple iTunes Music Store]
        •   Portal [Yahoo!]
        •   Classifieds [Monster.com, Craigslist]              5. Manufacturer (Direct):
        •   User Registration [NYTimes]                                  •   Purchase [Dell Computer]
        •   Query-based Paid Placement [Google, Overture]                •   Lease
        •   Contextual Advertising / Behavioral Marketing                •   License
        •   Content-Targeted Advertising [Google]                        •   Brand Integrated Content
        •   Intromercials [CBS MarketWatch]
        •   Ultramercials [Salon]




Source: Michael Rappa, http://digitalenterprise.org/models/models.html
Business models on the web (Professor Michael Rappa)
Page 2 of 2
  6. Affiliate:
        • Banner Exchange
        • Pay-per-click                                                     Check out detailed
        • Revenue Sharing
                                                                            descriptions here
  7. Community:
        •   Open Source [Red Hat]
        •   Open Content [Wikipedia]                                     • Classifying is difficult, on Internet is
        •   Public Broadcasting [The Classical Station (WCPE.org)]         even more difficult.
        •   Social Networking Services [Flickr, Friendster, Orkut]
                                                                         • Some companies fall into multiple
                                                                           categories. Real business companies
  8. Subscription:                                                         can have traits of several models.
        •   Content Services [Listen.com, Netflix]
        •   Person-to-Person Networking Services [Classmates]
        •   Trust Services [Truste]
        •   Internet Services Providers [America Online]

  9. Utility:
        • Metered Usage
        • Metered Subscriptions [Slashdot]


Source: Michael Rappa, http://digitalenterprise.org/models/models.html
Amazon.com
Virtual Merchant / Marketplace / Bit vendor

                                              • Founded: 1994 as a “Long tail
                                                ”concept
                                              • Revenue model: margin/fee on
                                                seller
                                              • Sales (2010): ~USD 34 billion (#1
                                                E-retailer)
                                              • Books → CDs → All types of
                                                physical goods → Amazon Web
                                                Services → eBooks (Kindle)
                                              • 8 regional websites
                                              • Heavy investment in CRM (ej.
                                                Recommendation system).
                                              • First profit year in 2003
                                              • Evolved from reseller into E-
                                                Commerce platform (like e-Bay’s)
                                              • Heavy acquirer: CD Now,
                                                Joyo.com, Zappos (USD 1.2 bill.),
                                                Diapers (USD 550 mill.), BuyVIP
                                                (EUR 70 mill), etc.




  www.amazon.com
Long-Tail business concept                                                           ILUSTRATIVE


“Selling many marginal products in small quantities ”

The sum can be much higher than the sum of few top-selling products, and no
brick-and-mortar shop can offer such a broad catalogue on their shelves.



    Q               Top sellers



                     HEAD → Brick-and-mortar sellers’ focus



                                                                                       Weird
                                                                                      products
                                                                              TAIL




                              Products

   A market in itself + a way to attract a customer at some point of time
Weirdest items sold on Amazon




      Uranium Ore
                                  Wolf Urine




                                               Dagobert Wooden
                                                 Toilet Throne


          Fat replica demonstration models
Amazon’s performance, compared




Source: Internet Retailer
eBay.com
Auction Broker / Virtual Marketplace

                                       • Founded: 1995 as “2-sided
                                         auction network” concept
                                       • Revenue model: fee on
                                         seller
                                       • Sales (2010): ~USD 9 billion
                                       • 37 regional websites
                                         (integrated and not
                                         integrated)
                                       • Heavy investment in fraud
                                         detection.
                                       • PR for cheap, smart
                                         marketing
                                       • Evolved from individual’s
                                         auction site into biz E-
                                         Commerce platform (like
                                         Amazon’s)
                                       • Heavy acquirer: PayPal
                                         (USD 1.6 bill.), Skype (USD
                                         2.6 bill.), BillMeLater (USD
                                         1.2 bill.), GSI Commerce
                                         (USD 2.4 bill.) etc.




   www.ebay.com
iTunes Store & App Store
Bit vendor (Merchant), Virtual Marketplace   • Launched in 2003 (iTunes) and 2008
                                               (App) based on a
                                               hardware&software, closed
                                               ecosystem (iPod, iPhone, iPad, iTV?)
                                             • Revenue model: fee on content sales
                                             • Music → Podcasts → TV Shows →
                                               Movies (rent&buy) → Games → Apps
                                               → Books
                                             • Ping in 2010
                                             • iCloud in 2011
                                             • iTunes:
                                               • ~20 mill. songs (10 bill. songs sold)
                                               • ~3.000 TV shows
                                               • ~2.500 movies
                                             • AppStore:
                                              • >500.000 apps (<140.000 for iPad)
                                              • ~74% paid apps (70% for author)
                                              • >18 bill. downloads
Spotify
Subscription → Freemium

                          • Founded in 2006 in Sweden
                            as a music streaming
                            service.
                          • “Open Music Model”
                          • Revenue model: Ads +
                            subscription – fee to
                            content providers based on
                            usage
                          • 15 mill. songs
                          • Available in 13 countries
                            (USA in 2011)
                          • Social playlists
                          • 2011: Close integration
                            with new Facebook social
                            APIs
                          • Desktop → Mobile




  www.spotify.com
Spotify
Subscription → Freemium




                                                           In the past there was
                                                             also a 1-day pass
                                                          (unlimited for 24 hours)




Source: http://www.spotify.com/se/get-spotify/overview/
Freemium model                                                                                ILUSTRATIVE

Venture Capital favourite’s model

FREEMIUM = FREE + PREMIUM
“Attract audience with free versions of the product, introduce them to paying with
 affordable versions of the product, and monetize them with premium versions of the
 product”



                                                                Examples:

                        FREE                                        •Spotify:
                                                                         •Free: Listen with ads
                                                                         •Cheap: 1 day pass/Unlimited
                                                                         •Premium: monthly subscription
                                                                    •Social games:
                                                                         •Free: Play
                                                                         •Cheap/Premium: Virtual goods
                                                 CHEAP              •Most Open-Source Software
                                                 (Affordable)            •Free: base software
                                                                         •Cheap: modules, extensions
                                         PREMIUM                         •Premium: professional services
                                                                    •Adult content
Is this Freemium?

                    • Free: 2 Paragraphs
                    • Premium: rest of the article
                    • “Coitus-interruptus user
                      experience” is not good for
                      the user nor for the brand.
                    • Smartest Freemium models
                      do not compromise
                      between user experience
                      and monetizing. Otherwise
                      you may stop attracting
                      users, and therefore
                      monetizing them.
                    • Every time you think there
                      is such a tradeoff, test,
                      retest, and retest again the
                      model with a sample of
                      users before implementing
                      it.




 www.wsj.com
Expedia
Travel agent

                     • Founded in 1996 as a
                       Microsoft division.
                     • Expedia Inc. operates
                       Expedia.com, Hotels.com
                       & Hotwire.com
                     • More than 60 countries,
                       1000s affiliates
                     • Revenue model: margin on
                       sales
                     • Revenue: ~ USD 3.3 bill./yr
                     • Largest online travel agent




   www.expedia.com
Plenty Of Fish
Infomediary / Advertising


                            • Founded in Canada by
                              Markus Frind and girlfriend
                              in 2003 as a free online
                              dating website
                            • “free version” of
                              Match.com, Meetic
                            • Revenue model: advertising
                            • >38 mill. registered users
                            • ~3,000 mill.
                              pageviews/month
                            • Estimated revenue: > USD
                              10 mill /yr




  www.pof.com
easyJet, "The Web's Favourite Airline"
Manufacturer (Direct)




 • Founded in 1995 after European skies
   became partially liberalized.
 • 1998: First to implement online real time
   booking in Europe
 • ~99% of booking is online
 • ~55 mill. Passenger/year
 • It took only 6 months in Europe for Low-
   Cost carriers to penetrate in the market
   because of Internet, while in the USA it
   took 10 years in the 70s because they
   had to convince brick-and-mortar travel
   agents.



 www.easyjet.com
Vente Privee
Group buying – Private shopping club




                                       • Founded in France in 2001,
                                         invented the model which was
                                         later going to be followed by
                                         copycat websites.
                                       • Brands at discount prices (up to
                                         70%), for a limited period of time.
                                       • First it served to sell season
                                         leftovers. Later it is used as a low
                                         cost marketing model for branded
                                         goods.
                                       • Revenue model: margin on sales.
                                       • Negative financial working capital.
                                       • ~13 mill. members in Europe
                                       • Revenues: ~ EUR 970 mill. (2010)




   www.vente-privee.com
Groupon                               www.groupon.com
Group buying – Deal coupons
                              • Founded in 2008 in Chicago
                              • City-based deals-of-the-day, by
                                daily email to members.
                              • Revenue model: margin on
                                coupon’s value
                              • 500 markets in 44 countries
                              • 85 mill. subscribers
                              • Rejected USD 6 bill. offer from
                                Google
                              • >500 copycats, including Google
                                offers. Groupon sort of well
                                protected itself.
                              • Revenues: USD 760 mill.
                              • IPO in Nov 2011 (5% float on
                                NASDAQ)
                              • Value: ~ USD 12 bill.
                              • Value proposition to providers:
                                client acquisition through
                                aggressive discount.
                              • Retailers: Use with caution!
Farmville | Zynga          www.zynga.com
Community

                    • Zynga was founded in San
                      Francisco in 2007 by serial
                      entrepreneur Mark Pincus
                    • 232 mill. monthly active users
                    • Revenue model: virtual goods
                    • Revenue: USD 600 mill. (2010)
                    • Main games: Farmville,
                      Frontierville, Zynga Poker,
                      Castleville, Mafia Wars, etc.
                    • IPO: Dec 2011 (14% float on
                      NASDAQ)
                    • Value: ~ USD 6 bill.
Virtual goods                                                                             Virtual Goods Market 2011:
                                                                                            USA: USD 2.2 bill. (+38%)
                                                                                            China: USD 6.8 bill. (+32%)

 Virtual gifts                                Game decoration                          Avatars
                       0,00 – 3,99 $                                   2.500 pts.                                100,00 $
                                                                         (5,00 $)




                                                                                                      • Identification
                                                                    • Identification
                       • Socialise                                                                   • Self-Expression
                                                                   • Self-Expression
                       • Interact
                                                                        • Thank


 Virtual collections                          Game functionality                       Game energy
                          5-20 coins                                   5000 coins                           175 cafe cash
                       (0,50-2,00 $)                                         (? $)                               (0,03 $)




                       • Self-Expression                               • Time-Saving                            • Time-Saving
                                                                    • Improved game




                                     Each virtual good has an specific utility for the users
Monetizing a social game [on Facebook]                                                                                ILUSTRATIVE




                        No Ads
                                                                                                      Revenues
                                                                                                                 Advertising (10%)
                                         Few Ads
                                                           Many Ads
                                                                                                                  Virtual goods (90%)
                                                                  Virtual goods buyers
            100%




                     Users try the   Sporadic        Frequent players          1-3 %
                        game          players




                                           Key success factors

                   • Ads.       • Critical player   • Improved game       • Usefulness of             Freemium again!
                                  base                based on              virtual goods.
                   • Virality                         analytics and
                     (harder on • Game                user tests.
                     FB).         concept.
                   • Cross      • Growth
                     promotion.   speed.




Source: “Inside Virtual Goods. The future of social gaming 2010”; Facebook Inc; insidefacebook.com;
Skype
Utility – Metered usage and subscription + Freemium
                                               • Founded in 2003 by Swedish and
                                                 Danish partners, as a P2P VoIP
                                                 service provider.
                                               • Headquartered in Luxembourg,
                                                 developed in Estonia.
                                               • Freemium (Free service is mainly
                                                 computer-to-computer calls and
                                                 videoconferencing).
                                               • Revenue model: pay for premium
                                                 service (e.g. call to telephone);
                                                 subscription for extra features (e.g.
                                                 multi-person videoconference,
                                                 telephone number, business console,
                                                 etc.).
                                               • >650 mill. registered users.
                                               • 13% of international calls
                                               • Revenues: ~USD 800 mill./yr.
                                               • TelCOs accuse Skype of piggybacking.
                                               • 2005: eBay buys for USD 2.6-3.1 bill.
                  Piggybacking?                • 2011: Microsoft buys for USD 8.5 bill.




  www.skype.com
The 6 dimensions to social commerce success according
to Syzygy
Social Commerce : Sharing your purchase experience before, during, and after buying.

                                                                           •Twitter.com/Dell
                                                                           •Groupon

  •My Starbucks Idea                                   SCARCITY
  •Blendetc                                             Less is more
                                                      (perceived value)                             •Vente-privee.com
                                                                                                    •Twitter.com/Dell
                                                                            AFFINITY
                           CONSISTENCY                                     Shop with like-
                             One step at a time
                                                                           minded people




                                                                                                         •Adidas Social Coupons
                             AUTHORITY                                                                   •Starbucks @ 4S
                             Follow the leader
                                                                          RECIPROCITY
                                                                          Payback favours
                                 (experts)


                                                     POPULARITY
                                                      Follow the crowd
    •Vente-privee.com
    •Apple Expert Forums
                                                                             •Facebook.com/1800flowers




Source: The 6 Dimensions of Social Commerce - Mark Ellis, Syzygy
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Some interesting data about mobile and e-commerce
        % of mobile phone users who regularly use          Main mobile shopping activities (U.S.A.)
        the mobile web




        Type of products purchased over mobile             Reasons why consumers buy on Mobile (U.S.A.)
        Internet (U.S.A.)




Source: Internet Retailer, Pew Research Center, comScore
Smartphones taking over                                                                       700.000 Android activations/day
                                                                                              ~ 200.000 iPhones/day
                                                                                              > 40 mill. iPads




Source: Internet Retailer, Pew Research Center, comScore, The Nielsen Co., Yankee Group Research
M-Commerce taking-off right now in the USA


                                                            In 2015 it would
                                                           account more than
                                                            10% of E-Comm




Source: Internet Retailer, eMarketer, Forrester Research
Key questions about M-Commerce

  • Will it really take off as projected? Faster? Slower?
      • Mobile payments development: revenue models, M-wallet,
        etc.
      • Programming & browsing standards: HTML5…
  • Adaptation of website business models? (App versions of a
    website)
  • New business models? Based on GPS, accelerometer, touch screen,
    etc.
  • Social M-Commerce? Will Foursquare monetize?
  • Any examples? Information services, Tickets, Banking, Media,
    Physical goods (Amazon)
Agenda




          Introduction
          Market analysis
          E-Comm website features
          E-Business models
          M-Commerce
Today’s main takeaways
 ¶ E-Commerce, E-Business… difficult to define and classify. Do not waste much time in
   figure-out where your model fits.
 ¶ 17-year history but still growing strong, now specially on emerging markets
   (broadband penetration, purchasing power), but maybe on mobile channels soon.
 ¶ E-Commerce is an intrinsically social activity. It evolved to the social space even before
   the social media phenomenon started.
 ¶ Generic types of business models on the web.
 ¶ Technology not a problem anymore; success is many times driven by innovative
   business models, sometimes easily copycatted if one does not protect oneself.
 ¶ 6 dimensions to social E-Commerce success.
 ¶ Takes time to refine an innovative business model. Test and error based on analytics is
   the best way to refine a model. Be patient, imaginative, and analytical.
 ¶ Long tail concept
 ¶ Freemium concept
 ¶ “Piggyback” concept
Thanks!

Francisco Hernández Marcos

fran.me
@franciscohm

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E-Commerce

  • 1. E-Commerce Marketing and E-Commerce International Master in Industrial Management Francisco Hernández Marcos fran.me Madrid, 19th January 2012
  • 2. About me SHAMELESS SELF-PROMOTION Education: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UNED, London Business School, University of Chicago Firms I worked for full-time : Abengoa, McKinsey&Co, ABN AMRO, Real Madrid C.F. Entrepreneurship: Crisalia Consulting requests (Social Media & Internet): francisco_hernandez@11goals.com Full profile: linkedin.com/in/franciscohm
  • 3. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 4. Definition of E-Commerce “Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, ecommerce or e-comm, refers to the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. However, the term may refer to more than just buying and selling products online. It also includes the entire online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing and paying for products and services.” We will focus on the Internet Source: Wikipedia
  • 5. E-Commerce timeline Netscape browser & 1st Internet purchase (netmarket.com) “Dot Com” Amazon buys Online shopping burst Zappos.com concept 1st Browser Amazon ->Diapers.com Alibaba.com eBay -> GSI Commerce CERN 1984 1995 2010 1979 1990 1994 1998 2000 2009 2011 1st Electronic Mall Amazon.com Groupon rejects CompuServe eBay.com Google offer Highly-funded startups Small-funded startups Tech&Concept development (KSF: Tech) (KSF: Biz Model) Jeff Bezos: “I am more worried about 2 guys in a garage than about Barnes&Noble ”
  • 6. Types of E-Commerce/E-Business 1 of 2  Not easy to classify  Many real models fall into multiple categories B2B B2C B2G Business to Business Business to Consumer Business to Government •PayPal (and B2C, “B2B2C”) •Amazon “E-Procurement” •Optize (and B2C) •FreshDirect •Alibaba Group •Zynga (and C2C) C2B C2C C2G Consumer to Business Consumer to Consumer Citizen to Government •Zonzoo •Prosper (“P2P”) •Agencia Tributaria (Tax agency •Fotolia •eBay online) •Google Adsense •Facebook G2B G2C G2G Government to Business Government to Citizen Government to Government “E-Government” “E-Government” •Government Gateway •AEPM •eDNI •Schengen Information System •Certificado Digital •USA.gov (also G2B)
  • 7. Types of E-Commerce 2 of 2 B2E Non-Internet “Business 2 Employee” E-Commerce Social Mobile Commerce Commerce Social Mobile Commerce
  • 8. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 9. Global and European online population About one fourth of World’s population is online Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research , comScore
  • 10. E-Commerce takes off in a country when broadband becomes widely available. Total number of broadband subscribers Broadband subscribers added in Q2 2011 Millions Millions Source: Point Topic Ltd., World Broadband Statistics: Short Report Q2 2011
  • 11. Who buys online? In the U.S. people of about all ages buy online Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research
  • 12. E-Commerce sales are very large and grow strongly 19% Source: Internet Retailer, Goldman Sachs
  • 13. Where are the largest E-Commerce markets? E-Commerce sales by region % of online consumers who in 2010 made a web purchase in 2009 Source: Internet Retailer, Goldman Sachs, Forrester Research
  • 14. What markets are expected to grow more? E-retail sales CAGR U.S.A. EU 17 Brazil 10% 10% 18% In 2015 it would account 11% of retail sales in the USA Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research GAGR= Compounded Annual Growth Rate
  • 15. Who are the top E-Commerce players? Source: Internet Retailer , comScore
  • 16. How do E-Comm companies perform? Source: Internet Retailer
  • 17. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 18. Frontend E-Commerce features 1. Catalogue navigation (categories, 10.Payment system tags, etc.) 11.Integrated Shipping & Tracking 2. Search engine (box, advanced) system 3. Ratings & Reviews 12.Customer accounts 4. Recommendations & Referrals 13.SEO friendly 5. Up-selling & Cross-selling 14.Social Media integration 6. Whish list & Purchase-later list 15.Customer service (Live chat, 7. Shopping cart automatic robot, etc.) 8. Gift certificates 16.Forums & Communities 9. Checkout 17.….
  • 19. E-Commerce is more than the act of buying online, it’s the whole system of information and reputation, which makes it a highly social activity Social Shopping Source: Internet Retailer, Forrester Research
  • 20. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 21. Two key questions when doing E-Business How do I make money from my website? How can I market my website? (Online MKT, day 2; Social MKT, day 3)
  • 22. Business models on the web (Professor Michael Rappa) Page 1 of 2 1. Brokerage: 3. Infomediary: • Marketplace Exchange [Orbitz, ChemConnect] • Advertising Networks [DoubleClick] • Buy/Sell Fulfillment [CarsDirect, Respond.com] • Audience Measurement Services [Nielsen//Netratings] • Demand Collection System [Priceline.com] • Incentive Marketing [Coolsavings] • Auction Broker [eBay] • Metamediary [Edmunds] • Transaction Broker [PayPal, Escrow.com] • Distributor 4. Merchant: • Search Agent • Virtual Merchant [Amazon.com] • Virtual Marketplace [Amazon.com] • Catalog Merchant [Lands' End] • Click and Mortar [Barnes & Noble] 2. Advertising: • Bit Vendor [Apple iTunes Music Store] • Portal [Yahoo!] • Classifieds [Monster.com, Craigslist] 5. Manufacturer (Direct): • User Registration [NYTimes] • Purchase [Dell Computer] • Query-based Paid Placement [Google, Overture] • Lease • Contextual Advertising / Behavioral Marketing • License • Content-Targeted Advertising [Google] • Brand Integrated Content • Intromercials [CBS MarketWatch] • Ultramercials [Salon] Source: Michael Rappa, http://digitalenterprise.org/models/models.html
  • 23. Business models on the web (Professor Michael Rappa) Page 2 of 2 6. Affiliate: • Banner Exchange • Pay-per-click Check out detailed • Revenue Sharing descriptions here 7. Community: • Open Source [Red Hat] • Open Content [Wikipedia] • Classifying is difficult, on Internet is • Public Broadcasting [The Classical Station (WCPE.org)] even more difficult. • Social Networking Services [Flickr, Friendster, Orkut] • Some companies fall into multiple categories. Real business companies 8. Subscription: can have traits of several models. • Content Services [Listen.com, Netflix] • Person-to-Person Networking Services [Classmates] • Trust Services [Truste] • Internet Services Providers [America Online] 9. Utility: • Metered Usage • Metered Subscriptions [Slashdot] Source: Michael Rappa, http://digitalenterprise.org/models/models.html
  • 24. Amazon.com Virtual Merchant / Marketplace / Bit vendor • Founded: 1994 as a “Long tail ”concept • Revenue model: margin/fee on seller • Sales (2010): ~USD 34 billion (#1 E-retailer) • Books → CDs → All types of physical goods → Amazon Web Services → eBooks (Kindle) • 8 regional websites • Heavy investment in CRM (ej. Recommendation system). • First profit year in 2003 • Evolved from reseller into E- Commerce platform (like e-Bay’s) • Heavy acquirer: CD Now, Joyo.com, Zappos (USD 1.2 bill.), Diapers (USD 550 mill.), BuyVIP (EUR 70 mill), etc. www.amazon.com
  • 25. Long-Tail business concept ILUSTRATIVE “Selling many marginal products in small quantities ” The sum can be much higher than the sum of few top-selling products, and no brick-and-mortar shop can offer such a broad catalogue on their shelves. Q Top sellers HEAD → Brick-and-mortar sellers’ focus Weird products TAIL Products A market in itself + a way to attract a customer at some point of time
  • 26. Weirdest items sold on Amazon Uranium Ore Wolf Urine Dagobert Wooden Toilet Throne Fat replica demonstration models
  • 28. eBay.com Auction Broker / Virtual Marketplace • Founded: 1995 as “2-sided auction network” concept • Revenue model: fee on seller • Sales (2010): ~USD 9 billion • 37 regional websites (integrated and not integrated) • Heavy investment in fraud detection. • PR for cheap, smart marketing • Evolved from individual’s auction site into biz E- Commerce platform (like Amazon’s) • Heavy acquirer: PayPal (USD 1.6 bill.), Skype (USD 2.6 bill.), BillMeLater (USD 1.2 bill.), GSI Commerce (USD 2.4 bill.) etc. www.ebay.com
  • 29. iTunes Store & App Store Bit vendor (Merchant), Virtual Marketplace • Launched in 2003 (iTunes) and 2008 (App) based on a hardware&software, closed ecosystem (iPod, iPhone, iPad, iTV?) • Revenue model: fee on content sales • Music → Podcasts → TV Shows → Movies (rent&buy) → Games → Apps → Books • Ping in 2010 • iCloud in 2011 • iTunes: • ~20 mill. songs (10 bill. songs sold) • ~3.000 TV shows • ~2.500 movies • AppStore: • >500.000 apps (<140.000 for iPad) • ~74% paid apps (70% for author) • >18 bill. downloads
  • 30. Spotify Subscription → Freemium • Founded in 2006 in Sweden as a music streaming service. • “Open Music Model” • Revenue model: Ads + subscription – fee to content providers based on usage • 15 mill. songs • Available in 13 countries (USA in 2011) • Social playlists • 2011: Close integration with new Facebook social APIs • Desktop → Mobile www.spotify.com
  • 31. Spotify Subscription → Freemium In the past there was also a 1-day pass (unlimited for 24 hours) Source: http://www.spotify.com/se/get-spotify/overview/
  • 32. Freemium model ILUSTRATIVE Venture Capital favourite’s model FREEMIUM = FREE + PREMIUM “Attract audience with free versions of the product, introduce them to paying with affordable versions of the product, and monetize them with premium versions of the product” Examples: FREE •Spotify: •Free: Listen with ads •Cheap: 1 day pass/Unlimited •Premium: monthly subscription •Social games: •Free: Play •Cheap/Premium: Virtual goods CHEAP •Most Open-Source Software (Affordable) •Free: base software •Cheap: modules, extensions PREMIUM •Premium: professional services •Adult content
  • 33. Is this Freemium? • Free: 2 Paragraphs • Premium: rest of the article • “Coitus-interruptus user experience” is not good for the user nor for the brand. • Smartest Freemium models do not compromise between user experience and monetizing. Otherwise you may stop attracting users, and therefore monetizing them. • Every time you think there is such a tradeoff, test, retest, and retest again the model with a sample of users before implementing it. www.wsj.com
  • 34. Expedia Travel agent • Founded in 1996 as a Microsoft division. • Expedia Inc. operates Expedia.com, Hotels.com & Hotwire.com • More than 60 countries, 1000s affiliates • Revenue model: margin on sales • Revenue: ~ USD 3.3 bill./yr • Largest online travel agent www.expedia.com
  • 35. Plenty Of Fish Infomediary / Advertising • Founded in Canada by Markus Frind and girlfriend in 2003 as a free online dating website • “free version” of Match.com, Meetic • Revenue model: advertising • >38 mill. registered users • ~3,000 mill. pageviews/month • Estimated revenue: > USD 10 mill /yr www.pof.com
  • 36. easyJet, "The Web's Favourite Airline" Manufacturer (Direct) • Founded in 1995 after European skies became partially liberalized. • 1998: First to implement online real time booking in Europe • ~99% of booking is online • ~55 mill. Passenger/year • It took only 6 months in Europe for Low- Cost carriers to penetrate in the market because of Internet, while in the USA it took 10 years in the 70s because they had to convince brick-and-mortar travel agents. www.easyjet.com
  • 37. Vente Privee Group buying – Private shopping club • Founded in France in 2001, invented the model which was later going to be followed by copycat websites. • Brands at discount prices (up to 70%), for a limited period of time. • First it served to sell season leftovers. Later it is used as a low cost marketing model for branded goods. • Revenue model: margin on sales. • Negative financial working capital. • ~13 mill. members in Europe • Revenues: ~ EUR 970 mill. (2010) www.vente-privee.com
  • 38. Groupon www.groupon.com Group buying – Deal coupons • Founded in 2008 in Chicago • City-based deals-of-the-day, by daily email to members. • Revenue model: margin on coupon’s value • 500 markets in 44 countries • 85 mill. subscribers • Rejected USD 6 bill. offer from Google • >500 copycats, including Google offers. Groupon sort of well protected itself. • Revenues: USD 760 mill. • IPO in Nov 2011 (5% float on NASDAQ) • Value: ~ USD 12 bill. • Value proposition to providers: client acquisition through aggressive discount. • Retailers: Use with caution!
  • 39. Farmville | Zynga www.zynga.com Community • Zynga was founded in San Francisco in 2007 by serial entrepreneur Mark Pincus • 232 mill. monthly active users • Revenue model: virtual goods • Revenue: USD 600 mill. (2010) • Main games: Farmville, Frontierville, Zynga Poker, Castleville, Mafia Wars, etc. • IPO: Dec 2011 (14% float on NASDAQ) • Value: ~ USD 6 bill.
  • 40. Virtual goods Virtual Goods Market 2011: USA: USD 2.2 bill. (+38%) China: USD 6.8 bill. (+32%) Virtual gifts Game decoration Avatars 0,00 – 3,99 $ 2.500 pts. 100,00 $ (5,00 $) • Identification • Identification • Socialise • Self-Expression • Self-Expression • Interact • Thank Virtual collections Game functionality Game energy 5-20 coins 5000 coins 175 cafe cash (0,50-2,00 $) (? $) (0,03 $) • Self-Expression • Time-Saving • Time-Saving • Improved game Each virtual good has an specific utility for the users
  • 41. Monetizing a social game [on Facebook] ILUSTRATIVE No Ads Revenues Advertising (10%) Few Ads Many Ads Virtual goods (90%) Virtual goods buyers 100% Users try the Sporadic Frequent players 1-3 % game players Key success factors • Ads. • Critical player • Improved game • Usefulness of Freemium again! base based on virtual goods. • Virality analytics and (harder on • Game user tests. FB). concept. • Cross • Growth promotion. speed. Source: “Inside Virtual Goods. The future of social gaming 2010”; Facebook Inc; insidefacebook.com;
  • 42. Skype Utility – Metered usage and subscription + Freemium • Founded in 2003 by Swedish and Danish partners, as a P2P VoIP service provider. • Headquartered in Luxembourg, developed in Estonia. • Freemium (Free service is mainly computer-to-computer calls and videoconferencing). • Revenue model: pay for premium service (e.g. call to telephone); subscription for extra features (e.g. multi-person videoconference, telephone number, business console, etc.). • >650 mill. registered users. • 13% of international calls • Revenues: ~USD 800 mill./yr. • TelCOs accuse Skype of piggybacking. • 2005: eBay buys for USD 2.6-3.1 bill. Piggybacking? • 2011: Microsoft buys for USD 8.5 bill. www.skype.com
  • 43. The 6 dimensions to social commerce success according to Syzygy Social Commerce : Sharing your purchase experience before, during, and after buying. •Twitter.com/Dell •Groupon •My Starbucks Idea SCARCITY •Blendetc Less is more (perceived value) •Vente-privee.com •Twitter.com/Dell AFFINITY CONSISTENCY Shop with like- One step at a time minded people •Adidas Social Coupons AUTHORITY •Starbucks @ 4S Follow the leader RECIPROCITY Payback favours (experts) POPULARITY Follow the crowd •Vente-privee.com •Apple Expert Forums •Facebook.com/1800flowers Source: The 6 Dimensions of Social Commerce - Mark Ellis, Syzygy
  • 44. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 45. Some interesting data about mobile and e-commerce % of mobile phone users who regularly use Main mobile shopping activities (U.S.A.) the mobile web Type of products purchased over mobile Reasons why consumers buy on Mobile (U.S.A.) Internet (U.S.A.) Source: Internet Retailer, Pew Research Center, comScore
  • 46. Smartphones taking over 700.000 Android activations/day ~ 200.000 iPhones/day > 40 mill. iPads Source: Internet Retailer, Pew Research Center, comScore, The Nielsen Co., Yankee Group Research
  • 47. M-Commerce taking-off right now in the USA In 2015 it would account more than 10% of E-Comm Source: Internet Retailer, eMarketer, Forrester Research
  • 48. Key questions about M-Commerce • Will it really take off as projected? Faster? Slower? • Mobile payments development: revenue models, M-wallet, etc. • Programming & browsing standards: HTML5… • Adaptation of website business models? (App versions of a website) • New business models? Based on GPS, accelerometer, touch screen, etc. • Social M-Commerce? Will Foursquare monetize? • Any examples? Information services, Tickets, Banking, Media, Physical goods (Amazon)
  • 49. Agenda  Introduction  Market analysis  E-Comm website features  E-Business models  M-Commerce
  • 50. Today’s main takeaways ¶ E-Commerce, E-Business… difficult to define and classify. Do not waste much time in figure-out where your model fits. ¶ 17-year history but still growing strong, now specially on emerging markets (broadband penetration, purchasing power), but maybe on mobile channels soon. ¶ E-Commerce is an intrinsically social activity. It evolved to the social space even before the social media phenomenon started. ¶ Generic types of business models on the web. ¶ Technology not a problem anymore; success is many times driven by innovative business models, sometimes easily copycatted if one does not protect oneself. ¶ 6 dimensions to social E-Commerce success. ¶ Takes time to refine an innovative business model. Test and error based on analytics is the best way to refine a model. Be patient, imaginative, and analytical. ¶ Long tail concept ¶ Freemium concept ¶ “Piggyback” concept