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Syed Khurram Iqbal System Architect (Pakistan and Central Asia) O3B Networks
08/10/10 Link Budget Overview ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Learning Steps for Link Budget ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Link Budget Parameters ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Transponder Bandwidth Thaicom 1A , 2 and 5  Standard C-Band Transponders: 12 ( each 36 MHz) Thaicom 5 Extended C-Band Regional : 6 (each 36 MHz) Extended C-Band Global: 7 (each 36MHz) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Satellite G/T Thaicom 5 Standard C-Band G/T G/T  Sat ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Satellite ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Required Uplink Power : EIRPup ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HPA TP EIRPup G/T  Sat EIRP up  (dBw) = 10 log  P  T  + G  Ant  - L F P T   : Input Power to Tx Antenna (Watts) G  Ant : Transmit Antenna Gain (dBi) L F  : Feeder Loss (dB) P  T G  Ant L  F
08/10/10 HPA Sizing Case Study:  Determine the HPA size required to uplink one 128kbsp and one 64kbps carriers. Tx antenna size is 2.4m. EIRPup 1  (for 128k) = 45.6dBw EIRPup 2  (for 64k)  = 42.6dBw EIRPup Total =  10log[10 (EIRPup1/10)  + 10 (EIRPup2/10) ] = 47.4 dBw G Ant   = 41.6 dBi  (from antenna spec) L F = 1dB  (actual loss may be higher    need more uplink power) P out = EIRPup Total  –G Ant  + L F  = 6.8 dBw More than one carrier from HPA, needs to back off to avoid intermods. ( see.  HPA Characteristic ) OBO hpa  = 3dB Saturated output power , P S  = P out  + OBO hpa  = 9.8 dBw Required HPA Size = 10^ (P S /10) =  9.55 Watts  HPA G  Ant L  F P out EIRP up P T
08/10/10 Transponder EIRPdn EIRPdn Thaicom 5 Standard C-Band EIRPdn Contour [ All standard c-band transponders on T5 have same contour pattern] ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Satellite ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Transponder EIRPdn (continue) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],TP SFD EIRP dn  TP PFD Total EIRP up  Loss Atten Input Output B i B o
08/10/10 Carrier EIRPdn ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],36MHz 18MHz 18MHz
08/10/10 Simplified Link Model EIRP up C/I  Intermod C/I  x-pol C/I  adjacent C/N  Downlink C/N Uplink uplink downlink transponder external ,[object Object],C/N  Total Received Signal (C/N  Total  ) C/I  Intermod C/I  x-pol C/I  x-pol 1 C/N  Total 1 C/I  Intermod C/N Uplink 1 C/N  Downlink 1 C/I  adjacent 1 = + + + + 1 C/I  x-pol TP EIRP dn
08/10/10 Symbol Rate and Bandwidth ,[object Object],Bandwidth  = Information Rate x ( 1/ FEC) x (1/ Mod Type) x (1 / RS) x BT Product  BT  (Bandwidth Time) Product  = 1 + Roll-off  = { 1.2 , 1.25, 1.35} ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Symbol Rate ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Carrier Modulation Type Modulation Types BPSK  : 1 bit per symbol QPSK  : 2 bits per symbol 8PSK  : 3 bits per symbol 16 QAM  : 4 bits per symbol Higher modulation types needs less bandwidth but need more uplink power Bandwidth Requirement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Carrier Modulation Type (continue) Case Study:  Customer A has lease capacity X MHz which is fully occupied with 6 QPSK carriers. Customer A wants to put one more link ( 2 carriers) without leasing more bandwidth. Solution : Change the modulation from QPSK to 8-PSK for all carriers Advantage  : solution for limited bandwidth option Disadvantage : Need higher uplink power ->  HPA/ODU size need to recheck if enough AND check power utilization on transponder is within limit
08/10/10 Carrier FEC    1/2 FEC: Data Bit Extra Bit 3/4 FEC: 7/8 FEC: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Carrier FEC ( continue ) DVB  : Viterbi + RS VSAT  : Viterbi or Turbo Viterbi  : { 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8 } Turbo :  { 5/6, 3/4, 7/8 } RS  :  { 188/204 , 112/126 , …} Bandwidth Power ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Carrier FEC ( continue ) Relates to  Service Quality BER (Bit Error Rate) “ Higher FEC rate requires higher Eb/No” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],BER Eb/No
08/10/10 Carrier FEC (continue) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Eb/No Margin : 2dB ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
08/10/10 Carrier FEC (continue) Case Study:  A broadcast carrier of  4.5MHz bandwidth (QPSK- 3/4) is operating with maximum allowable EIRPdn level. A group of viewers from location X cannot receive well due to low EIRPdn at their location and thus face low link margin.  CND does not allow the customer to increase uplink power because it will overuse power on transponder.  Solution 1 : Using bigger receive antenna size ( >=3m) will increase link margin. This solution may be hard to implement if many receive sites (home users) involved. Solution 2 : Reducing FEC from 3/4  to 1/2 will improve link margin Advantage :  Link margin improves without overusing transponder power. Disadvantage : Needs to reduce information rate to keep same symbol rate ( and bandwidth). Bandwidth  =  Symbol Rate x BT Product =  Information Rate  x ( 1/ FEC) x (1/ Mod Type) x (1 / RS) x BT Product
08/10/10 Summary Up Link EIRP Up Link Pattern Advantage Transponder  Gain Step Down Link Pattern Advantage Receive Antenna Gain Free Space Losses Waveguide Losses Atmospheric Losses Rain Attenuation E/S and satellite Intermodulation Up Link Thermal Noise Down Link Thermal Noise Adjacent Satellite Cross-pol Interference + - - Service Quality : BER    C/N Total
Thank You!
08/10/10 HPA Characteristics Input Output Linear Region Single Carrier Response Multiple Carrier  Response Saturation Points Operating Points B o B i B o  : Output Back-off B i   : Input Back-off ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Go Back

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Link Budget

  • 1. Syed Khurram Iqbal System Architect (Pakistan and Central Asia) O3B Networks
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. 08/10/10 HPA Sizing Case Study: Determine the HPA size required to uplink one 128kbsp and one 64kbps carriers. Tx antenna size is 2.4m. EIRPup 1 (for 128k) = 45.6dBw EIRPup 2 (for 64k) = 42.6dBw EIRPup Total = 10log[10 (EIRPup1/10) + 10 (EIRPup2/10) ] = 47.4 dBw G Ant = 41.6 dBi (from antenna spec) L F = 1dB (actual loss may be higher  need more uplink power) P out = EIRPup Total –G Ant + L F = 6.8 dBw More than one carrier from HPA, needs to back off to avoid intermods. ( see. HPA Characteristic ) OBO hpa = 3dB Saturated output power , P S = P out + OBO hpa = 9.8 dBw Required HPA Size = 10^ (P S /10) = 9.55 Watts HPA G Ant L F P out EIRP up P T
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. 08/10/10 Carrier Modulation Type (continue) Case Study: Customer A has lease capacity X MHz which is fully occupied with 6 QPSK carriers. Customer A wants to put one more link ( 2 carriers) without leasing more bandwidth. Solution : Change the modulation from QPSK to 8-PSK for all carriers Advantage : solution for limited bandwidth option Disadvantage : Need higher uplink power -> HPA/ODU size need to recheck if enough AND check power utilization on transponder is within limit
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. 08/10/10 Carrier FEC (continue) Case Study: A broadcast carrier of 4.5MHz bandwidth (QPSK- 3/4) is operating with maximum allowable EIRPdn level. A group of viewers from location X cannot receive well due to low EIRPdn at their location and thus face low link margin. CND does not allow the customer to increase uplink power because it will overuse power on transponder. Solution 1 : Using bigger receive antenna size ( >=3m) will increase link margin. This solution may be hard to implement if many receive sites (home users) involved. Solution 2 : Reducing FEC from 3/4 to 1/2 will improve link margin Advantage : Link margin improves without overusing transponder power. Disadvantage : Needs to reduce information rate to keep same symbol rate ( and bandwidth). Bandwidth = Symbol Rate x BT Product = Information Rate x ( 1/ FEC) x (1/ Mod Type) x (1 / RS) x BT Product
  • 21. 08/10/10 Summary Up Link EIRP Up Link Pattern Advantage Transponder Gain Step Down Link Pattern Advantage Receive Antenna Gain Free Space Losses Waveguide Losses Atmospheric Losses Rain Attenuation E/S and satellite Intermodulation Up Link Thermal Noise Down Link Thermal Noise Adjacent Satellite Cross-pol Interference + - - Service Quality : BER  C/N Total
  • 23.