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Able to define and know about:
 The meaning of leadership
 The main leadership theories
 The main leadership style
 The purpose of managing
 Characteristics of an effective manager
 The relationship between leadership and
management
 How people learn
 Different learning styles
 7 habits of highly effective people
 Leadership is the process of getting people
to do their best to achieve desired result.
 Leadership involves developing and
communicating a vision for the future,
motivating people and securing their
engagement to the task they are expected to
do.
 Trait Theory – defines leadership in terms of the
traits (enduring characteristics of behavior) all
leaders are said to possess, was amongst the
earliest approaches to describing leaders and
leadership.
 Leadership behaviour studies
Studies at the Survey Research Centre in
Michigan (Katz et al, 1950) identified two
dimensions of leadership behaviour:
1. Employee-centred behaviour - focusing on relationships
and employee needs.
2. Job-centred behaviour – focuses on getting the job done.
 Contingent Leadership –developed by Fiedler
(1967) states that the type of leadership
exercised depends to a large extent on the
situation and the ability of the leader to
understand it and act accordingly.
 Situational Leadership – as described by
Hersey and Blanchard (1974), leaders move
between four different styles – directing,
coaching, supporting and delegating – in ways
that depend on the situation in terms of the
development level of the subordinate and their
own competence and commitment .
 The path-goal model – developed by House
(1971) states that leaders are there to define
the path that should be followed by their
team to achieve its goals.
4 leadership styles:
1. achievement-oriented
2. directive
3. participative
4. supportive
 Leader/follower theory- states that , ultimately,
leaders depend on the followers they lead.
 Leader-member exchange theory –formulated
by Graen (1976) focuses on the two-way
(dyadic) relationship between leaders and the
people they lead. LMX theory suggests that
effective leaders develop exchange relationship
with each of their subordinates based on trust
and respect which influences the decisions and
performance of team members.
 Leadership and emotional intelligence
According to Goleman (2001),
emotional intelligence (the capacity of
leaders to understand the emotional
makeup of people in order to relate to
them effectively), is a critical ingredient in
leadership.
 Leadership brand
 Ulrich and Smallwood (2007) stressed
that businesses are responsible for
establishing a leadership brand as an
organizational capability by
introducing and maintaining
processes that help leaders to grow and
develop.
 Social Intelligence – developed by Gardner
(2011), defined as the capacity to get along
well with others, and to get them cooperate
with you.
 3 essential roles of leaders by Adair (1973)
1. Define the task
2. Achieve the task
3. Maintain effective relationships
 Fig. 1.1 John Adair’s model of leadership
Task
Needs
Individual Group
Needs Maintenance
Needs
 The Hay/Mcber research reported by
Goleman (2000) identified the following six
styles and indicated when they might be
used.
1. Coercive – demands compliance (use in
crisis or with problem people)
2. Authoritative – mobilizes people (use when
new vision and direction is needed)
3. Affiliative – creates harmony (use to heal
wounds and to motivate people under stress).
4. Democratic – forges consensus (use to build
agreement and get contributions)
5. Pacesetting- sets high standards ((use to get
fast results from a motivated team).
6. Coaching - develops people (to improve
performance and develop strengths).
 Charismatic leaders – rely on their
personality , their inspirational qualities and
their ‘aura’ to get people to follow them
(Burns, 1978).
Conger and Kanungo(1998)
described charismatic leadership as
a process of formulating an inspiring
vision of the future and then
demonstrating the importance of the
articulated vision.
 Visionary leaders – are inspired by a clear
vision of an exciting future and inspire their
followers by successfully conveying that
vision to them.
Kouzes and Posner (2003) claimed
that: ‘One of the most important practices
of leadership is giving life and work a sense of
meaning and purpose by offering an exciting
vision.’
 Transformational leaders - are able by their
force of personality to make significant
changes in the behaviour of their followers in
order to achieve the leader’s vision or goals.
 Transactional leaders - trade money, jobs
and security for compliance. As Burns (1978:
19) noted: ‘Such leadership occurs when a
person takes the initiative in making contact
with others for the purpose of an exchange
of valued things.
 Authentic leaders –
Authentic leadership is based on a
positive moral perspective characterized by
high ethical standards that guide decision
making and behaviour (May et al, 2003). As
Avolio et al (2004) explained, authentic leaders
act in accordance with deep personal values
and convictions to build credibility and win the
respect and trust of followers. By encouraging
diverse viewpoints and building networks of
collaborative relationships with followers, they
lead in a manner that followers perceive and
describe as authentic.
 Relational leaders – see leadership as a
practice and process based on establishing
good relationships with all stakeholders.
They regard it as a service to the business
rather than as an exercise of individual
power and understand that people follow and
trust leaders with whom they can relate.
 The reality of leadership is that many first
line managers and supervisors are
appointed or promoted to their posts with
some idea, possibly, of what their managerial
or supervisory duties are, but with no
appreciation of the leadership skills they
need to get the results they want with the
help of their team.
 Leadership development programmes
prepare people for leadership roles and
situations beyond their current experience.
‘Leadership development in the widest sense
involves the acquisition, development and
utilization of leadership capability or the
potential for it’ (Burgoyne, 2010: 43).
 Management is the process of making things
happen. Managers define goals, determine
and obtain the resources required to achieve
the goals, allocate those resources to
opportunities and planned activities and
ensure that those activities take place as
planned in order to achieve predetermined
objectives.
 To satisfy stakeholders
 Making profit and create value for shareholder
(private sector)
 Produce and deliver valued products/services at
reasonable cost for customers (private sector)
 Effective service delivery to the community
(public sector)
 Exercise social responsibility and provide
rewarding employment and developing
opportunities for employees (In all sectors)
 Dynamic, life-giving element in every business. (Drucker,
1955)
 Get results through effective operations
 Manage people, time and resources
 Accountable for attaining goals
 Plan, organise, motivate (lead) and control
 Ability to cope with conflicting and unclear requirements
 They are doers and deal with events as they occur
 Develop sense of purpose and framework for defining
intentions and future directions as strategic thinkers
 Involve in process of strategic management
 Characteristics that managers need:
1. Clear sense of purpose.
2. Strong values and personal integrity.
3. Commitment to developing others through
coaching and mentoring.
4. Champion of diversity
5. Ability to engage and communicate across all
levels
6. Self-awareness and taking time to reflect.
7. Collaborative, networked and non-hierarchical
8. Agile and innovative, technologically curious
and savvy.
9. Personal reselient and grit
10. Excellent track record of delivery
 Strategic management is an approach to
management that involves taking a broad
and longer-term view of where the business
or part of the business is going and
managing activities in ways that ensure this
strategic thrust is maintained.
 It involves the formulation and
implementation of strategy.
 Strategy
Strategies define longer-term goals; they
also cover how those goals will be attained
(strategic planning). They guide purposeful
action to deliver the required result. Strategy
formulation is not necessarily a deterministic,
rational and continuous process.
 Core competencies
Core competencies or distinctive
capabilities describe what the
organization is specially or uniquely
capable of doing.
 The resource-based view of strategy
A firm is a bundle of distinctive resources
that are the keys to developing
competitive advantage – the strategic
capability of a firm depends on its resource
capability. Boxall (1996) pointed out that: ‘The
resource-based view of the firm provides a
conceptual basis, if we needed one, for
asserting that key human resources are
sources of competitive advantage.
 Strategic fit
To maximize competitive advantage a firm
must match its capabilities and resources to the
opportunities available in the external
environment.
 Strategic capability
The ability of an organization to develop
and implement strategies that will achieve
sustained competitive advantage.
Leadership is a process of social influence, concerned
with the traits, styles and behaviours of individuals that
cause others to follow them. Management is the act of
getting people together to accomplish desired goals.
 Developing people is the process of
providing them with learning opportunities to
acquire knowledge and skills needed to
achieve life long learning.
 People learn by doing (experiential learning)
and to a much lesser extent by instruction. They
learn from other people – their managers and
co-workers (social learning). Discretionary, self-
directed, learning takes place when individuals
of their own volition actively seek to acquire the
knowledge and skills they need to carry out
their work. The way in which individuals learn
depends largely on how well they are motivated
and is explained by learning theory and
neuroscience.
 People will learn more effectively if they are
motivated to learn.
2 motivation theories
1. Expectancy Theory – goal-directed behaviour
is driven by the expectation of achieving
something that individual regards as desirable
2. Goal Theory – motivation is higher when
individual aim to achieve specific goals and
when there is feedback on performance.
 Reinforcement Theory - this expresses the
belief that changes in behaviour take place as a
result of an individual’s response to events or
stimuli and the ensuing consequences (rewards
or punishments).
 Cognitive Learning Theory - learning involves
gaining knowledge and understanding by
absorbing information in the form of principles,
concepts and facts and then internalizing it
 Experiential learning theory - experiential
learning takes place when people learn from
their experience by absorbing and reflecting
on it so that it can be understood and
applied.
 Social Learning Theory - this states that
effective learning requires social interaction.
 Fig. 2.1 The Kolb learning cycle
Concrete
experience
 Habit 1 – Be Proactive
› Proactive people recognize that they are "response-
able." They don't blame genetics, circumstances,
conditions, or conditioning for their behavior. They
know they choose their behavior.
 Habit 2 – Begin with the end of mind
› Based on imagination - the ability to envision in your
mind what you cannot at present see with your eyes.
It is based on the principle that all things are created
twice. There is a mental (first) creation, and a
physical (second) creation. The physical creation
follows the mental, just as a building follows a
blueprint.
 Habit 3 – Put first things first
› This is about life management – your purpose,
values, roles and priorities.
 Habit 4 – Think win-win
› Win-win sees life as a cooperative arena, not a
competitive one. Win-win is a frame of mind and
heart that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all
human interactions. Win-win means agreements
or solutions are mutually beneficial and
satisfying.
 Habit 5 – Seek First to Understand, then to
be understood
 Habit 6 – Synergize
› synergy means "two heads are better than one."
Synergize is the habit of creative cooperation.
 Habit 7 – Sharpen the Saw
› Sharpen the Saw means preserving and
enhancing the greatest asset you have--you. It
means having a balanced program for self-
renewal in the four areas of your life: physical,
social/emotional, mental, and spiritual.
Leading, managing and developing fundamentals

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Leading, managing and developing fundamentals

  • 1.
  • 2. Able to define and know about:  The meaning of leadership  The main leadership theories  The main leadership style  The purpose of managing  Characteristics of an effective manager  The relationship between leadership and management  How people learn  Different learning styles  7 habits of highly effective people
  • 3.
  • 4.  Leadership is the process of getting people to do their best to achieve desired result.  Leadership involves developing and communicating a vision for the future, motivating people and securing their engagement to the task they are expected to do.
  • 5.  Trait Theory – defines leadership in terms of the traits (enduring characteristics of behavior) all leaders are said to possess, was amongst the earliest approaches to describing leaders and leadership.  Leadership behaviour studies Studies at the Survey Research Centre in Michigan (Katz et al, 1950) identified two dimensions of leadership behaviour: 1. Employee-centred behaviour - focusing on relationships and employee needs. 2. Job-centred behaviour – focuses on getting the job done.
  • 6.  Contingent Leadership –developed by Fiedler (1967) states that the type of leadership exercised depends to a large extent on the situation and the ability of the leader to understand it and act accordingly.  Situational Leadership – as described by Hersey and Blanchard (1974), leaders move between four different styles – directing, coaching, supporting and delegating – in ways that depend on the situation in terms of the development level of the subordinate and their own competence and commitment .
  • 7.  The path-goal model – developed by House (1971) states that leaders are there to define the path that should be followed by their team to achieve its goals. 4 leadership styles: 1. achievement-oriented 2. directive 3. participative 4. supportive
  • 8.  Leader/follower theory- states that , ultimately, leaders depend on the followers they lead.  Leader-member exchange theory –formulated by Graen (1976) focuses on the two-way (dyadic) relationship between leaders and the people they lead. LMX theory suggests that effective leaders develop exchange relationship with each of their subordinates based on trust and respect which influences the decisions and performance of team members.
  • 9.  Leadership and emotional intelligence According to Goleman (2001), emotional intelligence (the capacity of leaders to understand the emotional makeup of people in order to relate to them effectively), is a critical ingredient in leadership.
  • 10.  Leadership brand  Ulrich and Smallwood (2007) stressed that businesses are responsible for establishing a leadership brand as an organizational capability by introducing and maintaining processes that help leaders to grow and develop.  Social Intelligence – developed by Gardner (2011), defined as the capacity to get along well with others, and to get them cooperate with you.
  • 11.  3 essential roles of leaders by Adair (1973) 1. Define the task 2. Achieve the task 3. Maintain effective relationships
  • 12.  Fig. 1.1 John Adair’s model of leadership Task Needs Individual Group Needs Maintenance Needs
  • 13.  The Hay/Mcber research reported by Goleman (2000) identified the following six styles and indicated when they might be used. 1. Coercive – demands compliance (use in crisis or with problem people) 2. Authoritative – mobilizes people (use when new vision and direction is needed)
  • 14. 3. Affiliative – creates harmony (use to heal wounds and to motivate people under stress). 4. Democratic – forges consensus (use to build agreement and get contributions) 5. Pacesetting- sets high standards ((use to get fast results from a motivated team). 6. Coaching - develops people (to improve performance and develop strengths).
  • 15.  Charismatic leaders – rely on their personality , their inspirational qualities and their ‘aura’ to get people to follow them (Burns, 1978). Conger and Kanungo(1998) described charismatic leadership as a process of formulating an inspiring vision of the future and then demonstrating the importance of the articulated vision.
  • 16.  Visionary leaders – are inspired by a clear vision of an exciting future and inspire their followers by successfully conveying that vision to them. Kouzes and Posner (2003) claimed that: ‘One of the most important practices of leadership is giving life and work a sense of meaning and purpose by offering an exciting vision.’
  • 17.  Transformational leaders - are able by their force of personality to make significant changes in the behaviour of their followers in order to achieve the leader’s vision or goals.  Transactional leaders - trade money, jobs and security for compliance. As Burns (1978: 19) noted: ‘Such leadership occurs when a person takes the initiative in making contact with others for the purpose of an exchange of valued things.
  • 18.  Authentic leaders – Authentic leadership is based on a positive moral perspective characterized by high ethical standards that guide decision making and behaviour (May et al, 2003). As Avolio et al (2004) explained, authentic leaders act in accordance with deep personal values and convictions to build credibility and win the respect and trust of followers. By encouraging diverse viewpoints and building networks of collaborative relationships with followers, they lead in a manner that followers perceive and describe as authentic.
  • 19.  Relational leaders – see leadership as a practice and process based on establishing good relationships with all stakeholders. They regard it as a service to the business rather than as an exercise of individual power and understand that people follow and trust leaders with whom they can relate.
  • 20.  The reality of leadership is that many first line managers and supervisors are appointed or promoted to their posts with some idea, possibly, of what their managerial or supervisory duties are, but with no appreciation of the leadership skills they need to get the results they want with the help of their team.
  • 21.  Leadership development programmes prepare people for leadership roles and situations beyond their current experience. ‘Leadership development in the widest sense involves the acquisition, development and utilization of leadership capability or the potential for it’ (Burgoyne, 2010: 43).
  • 22.
  • 23.  Management is the process of making things happen. Managers define goals, determine and obtain the resources required to achieve the goals, allocate those resources to opportunities and planned activities and ensure that those activities take place as planned in order to achieve predetermined objectives.
  • 24.  To satisfy stakeholders  Making profit and create value for shareholder (private sector)  Produce and deliver valued products/services at reasonable cost for customers (private sector)  Effective service delivery to the community (public sector)  Exercise social responsibility and provide rewarding employment and developing opportunities for employees (In all sectors)
  • 25.  Dynamic, life-giving element in every business. (Drucker, 1955)  Get results through effective operations  Manage people, time and resources  Accountable for attaining goals  Plan, organise, motivate (lead) and control  Ability to cope with conflicting and unclear requirements  They are doers and deal with events as they occur  Develop sense of purpose and framework for defining intentions and future directions as strategic thinkers  Involve in process of strategic management
  • 26.  Characteristics that managers need: 1. Clear sense of purpose. 2. Strong values and personal integrity. 3. Commitment to developing others through coaching and mentoring. 4. Champion of diversity 5. Ability to engage and communicate across all levels 6. Self-awareness and taking time to reflect. 7. Collaborative, networked and non-hierarchical 8. Agile and innovative, technologically curious and savvy. 9. Personal reselient and grit 10. Excellent track record of delivery
  • 27.  Strategic management is an approach to management that involves taking a broad and longer-term view of where the business or part of the business is going and managing activities in ways that ensure this strategic thrust is maintained.  It involves the formulation and implementation of strategy.
  • 28.  Strategy Strategies define longer-term goals; they also cover how those goals will be attained (strategic planning). They guide purposeful action to deliver the required result. Strategy formulation is not necessarily a deterministic, rational and continuous process.  Core competencies Core competencies or distinctive capabilities describe what the organization is specially or uniquely capable of doing.
  • 29.  The resource-based view of strategy A firm is a bundle of distinctive resources that are the keys to developing competitive advantage – the strategic capability of a firm depends on its resource capability. Boxall (1996) pointed out that: ‘The resource-based view of the firm provides a conceptual basis, if we needed one, for asserting that key human resources are sources of competitive advantage.  Strategic fit To maximize competitive advantage a firm must match its capabilities and resources to the opportunities available in the external environment.
  • 30.  Strategic capability The ability of an organization to develop and implement strategies that will achieve sustained competitive advantage. Leadership is a process of social influence, concerned with the traits, styles and behaviours of individuals that cause others to follow them. Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.
  • 31.
  • 32.  Developing people is the process of providing them with learning opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills needed to achieve life long learning.
  • 33.  People learn by doing (experiential learning) and to a much lesser extent by instruction. They learn from other people – their managers and co-workers (social learning). Discretionary, self- directed, learning takes place when individuals of their own volition actively seek to acquire the knowledge and skills they need to carry out their work. The way in which individuals learn depends largely on how well they are motivated and is explained by learning theory and neuroscience.
  • 34.  People will learn more effectively if they are motivated to learn. 2 motivation theories 1. Expectancy Theory – goal-directed behaviour is driven by the expectation of achieving something that individual regards as desirable 2. Goal Theory – motivation is higher when individual aim to achieve specific goals and when there is feedback on performance.
  • 35.  Reinforcement Theory - this expresses the belief that changes in behaviour take place as a result of an individual’s response to events or stimuli and the ensuing consequences (rewards or punishments).  Cognitive Learning Theory - learning involves gaining knowledge and understanding by absorbing information in the form of principles, concepts and facts and then internalizing it
  • 36.  Experiential learning theory - experiential learning takes place when people learn from their experience by absorbing and reflecting on it so that it can be understood and applied.  Social Learning Theory - this states that effective learning requires social interaction.
  • 37.  Fig. 2.1 The Kolb learning cycle Concrete experience
  • 38.  Habit 1 – Be Proactive › Proactive people recognize that they are "response- able." They don't blame genetics, circumstances, conditions, or conditioning for their behavior. They know they choose their behavior.  Habit 2 – Begin with the end of mind › Based on imagination - the ability to envision in your mind what you cannot at present see with your eyes. It is based on the principle that all things are created twice. There is a mental (first) creation, and a physical (second) creation. The physical creation follows the mental, just as a building follows a blueprint.
  • 39.  Habit 3 – Put first things first › This is about life management – your purpose, values, roles and priorities.  Habit 4 – Think win-win › Win-win sees life as a cooperative arena, not a competitive one. Win-win is a frame of mind and heart that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions. Win-win means agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial and satisfying.  Habit 5 – Seek First to Understand, then to be understood
  • 40.  Habit 6 – Synergize › synergy means "two heads are better than one." Synergize is the habit of creative cooperation.  Habit 7 – Sharpen the Saw › Sharpen the Saw means preserving and enhancing the greatest asset you have--you. It means having a balanced program for self- renewal in the four areas of your life: physical, social/emotional, mental, and spiritual.