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Requirement Analysis on a
Virtual Reality Training System for
CBRN Crisis Preparedness
Annette Mossel, Andreas Peer, Johannes Göllner, Hannes Kaufmann
International Society for the Systems Sciences
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Motivation
 Effective training is cornerstone of disaster
preparedness
 Disaster readiness of first responders influenced by
– Quality,
– Consistency,
– Frequency of training
 Extent of real-life drills limited by
– Time, cost and safety
– Especially for training of integrated disaster teams
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Training in Virtual Reality (VR)
 Can overcome limitations of existing training (i.e CBRN)
 Important factor is immersion
(1) To increase presence; (2) to create stressful training situations
-> Thus training effect
 Only few solutions provide immersive VR training
– Solely designed for military training
– Highly cost-intensive (more than $100.000)
– Require extensive technical knowledge for system setup
 First responder agencies require flexible immersive VR system
– Multi-user, interdisciplinary team training
– At different command levels
– In various training scenarios
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Contribution
 Comprehensive state of the art analysis
– Focus: Capabilities of existing VR systems for multi-
user training.
 A requirement analysis of two stakeholders
– Stakeholders
• Austrian Federal Ministry of Defense and Sports (BMLVS)
• Red Cross Innsbruck, Austria
– Focus: CBRN training tasks
– 3 training use cases for future training in VR
 Final Analysis
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
State of the Art Analysis
 Aim: Analyze available VR training systems
– Military applications
– First responders, civil use
 Criteria & Aspects
– Intended use/application scenarios
– Flexibility
• Applicability for different deployment scenarios
• Freedom of movement for user
– State of the art of proposed hard- and software
– Content generation/editor capabilities
– Training performance evaluation
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Analysis of the State of the Art
 Not studied
– Single user training systems
– Training for negotiation & language skills
• Bilateral Negotiation Trainer (BiLAT), US ARMY
• Operational Language and Culture Training System (Iraqi, Dari,
Pashto), US Army
– Augmented Reality for Live Exercises
• Using GPS tracking and Head up Displays
• Applied Research Associates, DARPA
 Focus on
– Virtual reality training systems (desktop based, immersive)
– Capable of multi-user training
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Single Task but Multiple Users
 Aircraft simulators (> 1600 military aircraft simulators in
service)
– Full Flight Simulators (FFS)
• Navy MH-60 Romeo
• Eurofighter Aircrew Synthetic Training Aids (ASTA)
– Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) simulators
• Predator Mission Aircrew Training System (PMATS)
• MQ-8 Fire Scout Unmanned Helicopter (Northrop Grumman)
 Training for shooting/gun operation
– Simulated Weapon Environment Testbed (SWeET)
– Small Arms Trainer with 180 Degree Visuals (180SAT) / ameldefense
 Tank operation training
– LEOPARD Gunnery Skills Trainers (LGST) / Rheinmetall Defence
 Naval operations
– Maritime Composite Training System (MCTS), UK
– VR Team Trainer / Szenaris GmbH
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Multiple Scenarios and Multiple Users
 Virtual Battle Space 3
 Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares)
 Dismounted Soldier Training System
 VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military
 XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3)
 Bohemia Interactive, Australia
 Available: March 2014 (US Army), July 2014 (commercial use)
 Costs: upon request
Intended Use • Soldier Training (tactical, mission rehearsal)
• cost-effective training tool in the "crawl" phase of soldier training
• train unit tactics, techniques and procedures in Decisive Actions
Used by • U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps
• UK Ministry of Defence, Australia Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, and New Zealand Defense Force
• Bundeswehr, Italian Army
• NATO
Example Systems
based on VBS3
• eurosimtec GmbH (Düsseldorf, D) uses VBS since 2008 to develop a number of projects for Bundeswehr, i.e.
UAS-TS (Unmanned Aircraft System Training) for tactic drone LUNA
• Bundeswehr Atellerieschule: C3I-TS (Command, Control, Communication Training System) for JFST (Joint Fire
Support Team) for classroom education
• GefSimZH (Gefechtssimulationszentrum der Bundeswehr) in Wildflecken uses VB-Edit as real-time editor for fast
and easy 3D object creation, i.e. to populate terrain data
• GefÜbZH: MALE UAS (Medium Altitude Long Endurance - Unmanned Aircraft Systems):
• joined training of air force and ground-based forces
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
VBS3 Hardware
• Desktop-based non-immersive VR
• 2D monitor
• Stereo sound + microphone
• Keyboard + mouse (egocentric controlling of virtual avatar)
• Multiuser
• Enables complex training scenarios, more than 100 users
• Optimized for large networked scenarios
VBS3 Software
Software Architecture • Open software platform
• Enables 3rd party products to extend the simulation environment and functionality.
• Comes with several built-in applications that support development training capabilities
• mission editors, after-action review module, development suite, content library
• Connects VBS with other military simulations or interconnects many VBS servers together
3D Content Creation • 3D modeling software Oxygen 2
• create buildings, edit terrains and convert 3D models to the VBS3
• Procedural generation of terrain
• create terrain features from source data
• on-the-fly generation of biotopes (i.e., vegetation) as they are needed
3D Content & Editor • High-Quality Rendering and Physics (Game Engine Real Virtuality 3 + Nvidia's PhysX)
• Offline mission editor (OME) to create scenarios
• At air, land, sea
• Prepare terrain, objects, avatars, vehicles, weather (weather, sun, etc)
• Real-time editor (RTE)
• Influence scenario during training
• Simulation module:
• First person environment that supports mounted and dismounted operations.
• Ground and air vehicles, small arms and vehicle mounted weapons, communications, and
interactive opposing forces.
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
VBS3
Performance/Evaluation After Action Review Module (AAR)
• Conduct post-training analysis with the ability to fast-forward or rewind to events
• Track Statistics: statistics on casualties, engagement time, rounds fired, etc
• Review scenarios from any perspective within VBS3:
• trainers and trainees can view scenario from any perspective including 3D, 2D, and from any
player's perspective.
• Administrators can switch from a bird's eye view of a battle to the enemy's perspective or
follow the path of a bullet to a target.
• The field-of-view feature allows to check where squads or individual soldiers are observing
during a scenario.
• After-action review timeline to visualize timely dependent all statistics
Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios
• Very high
• Freedom of movement for user
• Low: only sitting in real environment
Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares)
 Rheinmetall Defence, Germany
 Available: unclear information, exhibited at ITSEC 2013
 Costs: upon request
Intended Use • Land, air, naval weapon system simulator for tactical training
operations
• Main battle tanks
• Transport helicopters
• Ground control stations for unmanned aerial vehicles
• Modular training system in a networked environment
• crew-coordination training
• tactical mission rehearsal of complex operations
Used by • Deutsche Bundeswehr (planned)
Hardware Modular cubicle concept with individual simulation cubicles
• can be arranged as plug-and- play components
• in any customer-defined configuration
• set up in a classroom environment or mobile container
Simulation cubicles use
• 2D screens, HMDs
• Keyboard, mouse, joysticks, force-feedback devices
• Fully equipped maneuver stations with actual hardware
Open architecture provides for the integration of different systems to
form a complex networked mission scenario.
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares)
3D Content & Creation • Uses TacSi Reloaded + Virtual Battle Space 2 (VBS2)
• Rheinmetall TacSi Reloaded: provides computer generated forces and game engine
Performance/Evaluation • Uses VBS2 system
Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios
• High
• Freedom of movement for user
• Medium: Sitting, standing
DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System
 Intelligent Decisions, USA
– Available: since 2012
– Costs: ~ $ 500.000 (one suite)
Intended Use • Multiuser Dismounted Soldier Training (Infantry)
• Simulation of vehicle, plan and rocket systems
Used by • U.S. Army’s Program Executive Office for Simulation,
Training and Instrumentation
• Army plans with 102 test sites for 2012
Hardware DSTS suite:
• Covers area of approx. 170 sqm
• Setup in approx. 4h
• 5x Virtual Soldier Multifunction Workstations
• 9x Virtual Soldier Manned Modules
• 1x Staff Control Station
• 1x After Review Space
Virtual Soldier Manned Module (fully wearable)
• Helmet with HMD and headset (audio, microphone)
• 3DOF head tracking (Intersense)
• Vest with attached mobile (notebook) processing unit
• 3DOF Torso tracking (Intersense)
• Gun with 3DOF tracking target (Intersense)
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System
 Intelligent Decisions, USA
– Available: since 2012
– Costs: ~ $ 500.000 (one suite)
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System
3D Content & Editor • High Quality Rendering & Physics (CryEngine)
• Content Editor:
• Unlimited training scenarios with semi-automated forces and live participants
• Training scenarios can be modified in real-time
• Simulation Module:
• Movement of ground vehicles, aircraft, dismounted infantry
• Day time, weather effects
Performance/Evaluation • After Action Review (AAR)
• Records all relevant data during the training scenario
• tactical voice and radio communications
• movement techniques
• weapons positions
• critical events
• engagements (i.e. Situational Decision Points)
• immediate feedback can be provided to soldiers
Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios
• High
• Freedom of movement for user
• Good: orientation tracking, standing, sitting, crouching,
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military
 Motion Reality, Inc. , USA (created by US defense contractor Raytheon in 2009)
– Available
– Costs: > $100.000
Intended Use • Training for officer, clearing teams, active shooter drills and SWAT team missions.
Used by US agencies, i.e. FBI
Hardware • Multi-user wearable immersive VR
• Egocentric stereoscopic 3D scene viewing (standard HMD)
• Optical outside in tracking (Vicon)
• Head, Body, Gun
• Real walking
• larger sized physical spaces (20x20m)
• User-carried notebook
• Performs processing, rendering and networking.
• Hardware setup is complex, bulky and costly
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military
3D Content & Creation • Content Editor
• Provides range of reconfigurable environments
• Law Enforcement: User- customizable scenarios within these environments to train individuals
in weapon discipline, making deadly force decisions, covering danger areas, team clearing
techniques, use of cover and concealment, and communications among team members.
• Military: User-customizable scenarios within these environments to train individuals in direct
action, counter-terrorism, react to contact, or other Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs)
based on the Current Operating Environment (COE)
Performance/Evaluation VIRTSIM After Action Report (AAR)
• basic individual maneuvers of participants
• team and squad maneuvers
• playback of all actions and shots from every angle, and from each participant’s perspective
• All trainee body motions and all shots fired by every participant are recorded and displayed
• Every training session is automatically catalogued and stored
• Sessions are available for replay at any time.
Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios
• Medium
• Freedom of movement for user
• High: free to run, jump, or crawl throughout the full volume
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security
 E-Semble, Netherlands
– Available
– Costs: > € XX.000
Intended Use • Train & Exercise emergency response professionals.
• Scenarios:
• Scene command level up to strategic decision makers
• Single users and multiple users
Used by • Emergency services, industry, critical infrastructure
Hardware • Single to multi user desktop-based VR
• Each PC displays a single link in the emergency services chain.
• Mostly 2D screens
• Keyboard, mouse
• Joysticks, 6DOF interaction devices
• Scenarios
• 1 on 1 training – i.e. for on scene commanders
• Team Training – single & multi agency
• On Site – mobile and remote training
• Hybrid – combine live and virtual reality training scenarios
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security
3D Content & Creation • Combination of 3D virtual simulation, map-based information, photography and videos
• Egocentric view of participant on the information allocated to its specific role
• Content Editor
• Configuration of a region, incident or disaster scene
• Type, scale and location of an incident can be determined
• Realistic configurations of countries, regions, emergency services stations by drag and drop
• Customer-specific settings (i.e. number of rescue vehicles, personal on call, etc)
• -> participants are forced to take into account logistic aspects (call-up and transport times)
• Simulation Module for Students:
• Use joystick to navigate around the XVR environment (walk, drive, fly)
• Assess risks and dangers of an incident in a created scenario
• Decide on measures and which procedures to apply
• Simulation Module for Instructors:
• Can give instant feedback to challenge students with questions throughout the exercise
• Can respond to a student’s decision by activating events in the virtual scenario
Performance/Evaluation Creation of assessment scenarios (predictable, repeatable) for unbiased assessment of participants
Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios
• High
• Freedom of movement for user
• Low: only sitting in real environment
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Requirement Analysis
 Two stakeholders for disaster relief
– Austrian Federal Ministry of Defense and Sports (BMLVS)
– Ambulance Team of the Red Cross Innsbruck, Austria.
 Identification of requirements of both stakeholders’
CBRN defense elements
 Development of use cases
– To derive demands on VR training system
– Within scenarios we focus on
• Involved command levels
• Target groups
• Required training content.
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Requirement Analysis
NBC defense skill catalogue as base
Skill bundles
Urban search
and rescue Water
purification
CBRN Defense Recce
Urban Search and
Rescue
Aircraft Rescue and
CBRN Defense
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
USE CASE 1: CBRN Defense Recce
Major mission tasks are Observation, Detection
and decontamination
 30 km² virtual area
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
USE CASE 1: CBRN Defense Recce
 Single user, team, group up to platoon training
 Decision making process training for all levels
 Specific areas and surroundings (hazards,
weather conditions, …) easy to implement
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
USE CASE 2: Urban Search and Rescue
Major mission tasks are Exploration & Searching,
Rescue of persons and Clearing
 urban area; buildings, lifelines, …
cultural realities !!
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
USE CASE 2: Urban Search and Rescue
 Training and education of decision makers of all
levels of an USAR platoon
 Easy to simulate various damages
 Easy to implement
various hazards and
other conditions
(weather, daytime, …) as
well as the number of
casualties and the kind
and grade of injuries
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Use Case 3: Aircraft Rescue and CBRN
Defense
 be on site within 90 seconds after crash
 finish fire fighting after 2-3 minutes after crash
 rescue the pilot
 Various parameters of
different aircraft types
 Large number of different
on site hazards
 Safety devices must be
known
 DRILL TRAINING
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Summarization of Requirements 1/2
 Demands on VR Training Environment
– Fully immersive to exploit the advantages of learning in VR
– 3D object interaction (selection and manipulation)
– Natural walking for navigation and to realistically simulate
exhaustion
– Multi-user capable to allow for collaborative training.
 Demand on Hardware Setup
– Fully wearable
– Quick to setup
– Requires a small amount of hardware to lower price and
system complexity.
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Summarization of Requirements 2/2
 Demands on Software System
– Creation of new 3D training scenarios
– Customization of scenario parameters before and
during the training,
– High quality 3D rendering with physics support
– After action reviewing for trainee evaluation.
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Comparison
 Stakeholder requirements are not met entirely by
any existing system
– Dismounted Solder Training System
• Fully immersed multi-user training
• No natural walking and no 3D object interaction
– VirtSim
• Full immersion multi-user training
• 3D interaction and natural walking
• No unbound creation of new training scenarios
– Virtual Battle Space & XVR
• 3D scenario generation, parameter customization, after action
review
• Work with standard hardware, system can be extended with VR
hardware
• Not fully immersive, no natural walking
Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at
Conclusion
 No existing system focuses on immersive VR
training for CBRN crisis preparedness
– Immersive VR systems offer tactical training for soldier
or police squad units
– Desktop-based systems for crisis preparedness provide
training for different command levels
 On-Site squad members are subject to stress and
exhaustion in reality
– Natural walking should be included into VR training
simulation
– Future research efforts are necessary to meet the
stakeholders’ requirement
Thank you!
kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at

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#isss2016 Berlin - Kaufmann - Requirement Analysis on a virtual reality training system for CBRN Crisis Preparedness

  • 1. Requirement Analysis on a Virtual Reality Training System for CBRN Crisis Preparedness Annette Mossel, Andreas Peer, Johannes Göllner, Hannes Kaufmann International Society for the Systems Sciences
  • 2. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Motivation  Effective training is cornerstone of disaster preparedness  Disaster readiness of first responders influenced by – Quality, – Consistency, – Frequency of training  Extent of real-life drills limited by – Time, cost and safety – Especially for training of integrated disaster teams
  • 3. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Training in Virtual Reality (VR)  Can overcome limitations of existing training (i.e CBRN)  Important factor is immersion (1) To increase presence; (2) to create stressful training situations -> Thus training effect  Only few solutions provide immersive VR training – Solely designed for military training – Highly cost-intensive (more than $100.000) – Require extensive technical knowledge for system setup  First responder agencies require flexible immersive VR system – Multi-user, interdisciplinary team training – At different command levels – In various training scenarios
  • 4. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Contribution  Comprehensive state of the art analysis – Focus: Capabilities of existing VR systems for multi- user training.  A requirement analysis of two stakeholders – Stakeholders • Austrian Federal Ministry of Defense and Sports (BMLVS) • Red Cross Innsbruck, Austria – Focus: CBRN training tasks – 3 training use cases for future training in VR  Final Analysis
  • 5. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at State of the Art Analysis  Aim: Analyze available VR training systems – Military applications – First responders, civil use  Criteria & Aspects – Intended use/application scenarios – Flexibility • Applicability for different deployment scenarios • Freedom of movement for user – State of the art of proposed hard- and software – Content generation/editor capabilities – Training performance evaluation
  • 6. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Analysis of the State of the Art  Not studied – Single user training systems – Training for negotiation & language skills • Bilateral Negotiation Trainer (BiLAT), US ARMY • Operational Language and Culture Training System (Iraqi, Dari, Pashto), US Army – Augmented Reality for Live Exercises • Using GPS tracking and Head up Displays • Applied Research Associates, DARPA  Focus on – Virtual reality training systems (desktop based, immersive) – Capable of multi-user training
  • 7. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Single Task but Multiple Users  Aircraft simulators (> 1600 military aircraft simulators in service) – Full Flight Simulators (FFS) • Navy MH-60 Romeo • Eurofighter Aircrew Synthetic Training Aids (ASTA) – Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) simulators • Predator Mission Aircrew Training System (PMATS) • MQ-8 Fire Scout Unmanned Helicopter (Northrop Grumman)  Training for shooting/gun operation – Simulated Weapon Environment Testbed (SWeET) – Small Arms Trainer with 180 Degree Visuals (180SAT) / ameldefense  Tank operation training – LEOPARD Gunnery Skills Trainers (LGST) / Rheinmetall Defence  Naval operations – Maritime Composite Training System (MCTS), UK – VR Team Trainer / Szenaris GmbH
  • 8. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Multiple Scenarios and Multiple Users  Virtual Battle Space 3  Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares)  Dismounted Soldier Training System  VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military  XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security
  • 9. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3)  Bohemia Interactive, Australia  Available: March 2014 (US Army), July 2014 (commercial use)  Costs: upon request Intended Use • Soldier Training (tactical, mission rehearsal) • cost-effective training tool in the "crawl" phase of soldier training • train unit tactics, techniques and procedures in Decisive Actions Used by • U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps • UK Ministry of Defence, Australia Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, and New Zealand Defense Force • Bundeswehr, Italian Army • NATO Example Systems based on VBS3 • eurosimtec GmbH (Düsseldorf, D) uses VBS since 2008 to develop a number of projects for Bundeswehr, i.e. UAS-TS (Unmanned Aircraft System Training) for tactic drone LUNA • Bundeswehr Atellerieschule: C3I-TS (Command, Control, Communication Training System) for JFST (Joint Fire Support Team) for classroom education • GefSimZH (Gefechtssimulationszentrum der Bundeswehr) in Wildflecken uses VB-Edit as real-time editor for fast and easy 3D object creation, i.e. to populate terrain data • GefÜbZH: MALE UAS (Medium Altitude Long Endurance - Unmanned Aircraft Systems): • joined training of air force and ground-based forces
  • 10. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at VBS3 Hardware • Desktop-based non-immersive VR • 2D monitor • Stereo sound + microphone • Keyboard + mouse (egocentric controlling of virtual avatar) • Multiuser • Enables complex training scenarios, more than 100 users • Optimized for large networked scenarios
  • 11. VBS3 Software Software Architecture • Open software platform • Enables 3rd party products to extend the simulation environment and functionality. • Comes with several built-in applications that support development training capabilities • mission editors, after-action review module, development suite, content library • Connects VBS with other military simulations or interconnects many VBS servers together 3D Content Creation • 3D modeling software Oxygen 2 • create buildings, edit terrains and convert 3D models to the VBS3 • Procedural generation of terrain • create terrain features from source data • on-the-fly generation of biotopes (i.e., vegetation) as they are needed 3D Content & Editor • High-Quality Rendering and Physics (Game Engine Real Virtuality 3 + Nvidia's PhysX) • Offline mission editor (OME) to create scenarios • At air, land, sea • Prepare terrain, objects, avatars, vehicles, weather (weather, sun, etc) • Real-time editor (RTE) • Influence scenario during training • Simulation module: • First person environment that supports mounted and dismounted operations. • Ground and air vehicles, small arms and vehicle mounted weapons, communications, and interactive opposing forces.
  • 12. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at VBS3 Performance/Evaluation After Action Review Module (AAR) • Conduct post-training analysis with the ability to fast-forward or rewind to events • Track Statistics: statistics on casualties, engagement time, rounds fired, etc • Review scenarios from any perspective within VBS3: • trainers and trainees can view scenario from any perspective including 3D, 2D, and from any player's perspective. • Administrators can switch from a bird's eye view of a battle to the enemy's perspective or follow the path of a bullet to a target. • The field-of-view feature allows to check where squads or individual soldiers are observing during a scenario. • After-action review timeline to visualize timely dependent all statistics Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios • Very high • Freedom of movement for user • Low: only sitting in real environment
  • 13. Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares)  Rheinmetall Defence, Germany  Available: unclear information, exhibited at ITSEC 2013  Costs: upon request Intended Use • Land, air, naval weapon system simulator for tactical training operations • Main battle tanks • Transport helicopters • Ground control stations for unmanned aerial vehicles • Modular training system in a networked environment • crew-coordination training • tactical mission rehearsal of complex operations Used by • Deutsche Bundeswehr (planned) Hardware Modular cubicle concept with individual simulation cubicles • can be arranged as plug-and- play components • in any customer-defined configuration • set up in a classroom environment or mobile container Simulation cubicles use • 2D screens, HMDs • Keyboard, mouse, joysticks, force-feedback devices • Fully equipped maneuver stations with actual hardware Open architecture provides for the integration of different systems to form a complex networked mission scenario.
  • 14. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Advanced Network Trainer (ANTares) 3D Content & Creation • Uses TacSi Reloaded + Virtual Battle Space 2 (VBS2) • Rheinmetall TacSi Reloaded: provides computer generated forces and game engine Performance/Evaluation • Uses VBS2 system Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios • High • Freedom of movement for user • Medium: Sitting, standing
  • 15. DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System  Intelligent Decisions, USA – Available: since 2012 – Costs: ~ $ 500.000 (one suite) Intended Use • Multiuser Dismounted Soldier Training (Infantry) • Simulation of vehicle, plan and rocket systems Used by • U.S. Army’s Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation • Army plans with 102 test sites for 2012 Hardware DSTS suite: • Covers area of approx. 170 sqm • Setup in approx. 4h • 5x Virtual Soldier Multifunction Workstations • 9x Virtual Soldier Manned Modules • 1x Staff Control Station • 1x After Review Space Virtual Soldier Manned Module (fully wearable) • Helmet with HMD and headset (audio, microphone) • 3DOF head tracking (Intersense) • Vest with attached mobile (notebook) processing unit • 3DOF Torso tracking (Intersense) • Gun with 3DOF tracking target (Intersense)
  • 16. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System  Intelligent Decisions, USA – Available: since 2012 – Costs: ~ $ 500.000 (one suite)
  • 17. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at DSTS - Dismounted Soldier Training System 3D Content & Editor • High Quality Rendering & Physics (CryEngine) • Content Editor: • Unlimited training scenarios with semi-automated forces and live participants • Training scenarios can be modified in real-time • Simulation Module: • Movement of ground vehicles, aircraft, dismounted infantry • Day time, weather effects Performance/Evaluation • After Action Review (AAR) • Records all relevant data during the training scenario • tactical voice and radio communications • movement techniques • weapons positions • critical events • engagements (i.e. Situational Decision Points) • immediate feedback can be provided to soldiers Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios • High • Freedom of movement for user • Good: orientation tracking, standing, sitting, crouching,
  • 18. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military  Motion Reality, Inc. , USA (created by US defense contractor Raytheon in 2009) – Available – Costs: > $100.000 Intended Use • Training for officer, clearing teams, active shooter drills and SWAT team missions. Used by US agencies, i.e. FBI Hardware • Multi-user wearable immersive VR • Egocentric stereoscopic 3D scene viewing (standard HMD) • Optical outside in tracking (Vicon) • Head, Body, Gun • Real walking • larger sized physical spaces (20x20m) • User-carried notebook • Performs processing, rendering and networking. • Hardware setup is complex, bulky and costly
  • 19. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at VirtSim Law Enforcement/Military 3D Content & Creation • Content Editor • Provides range of reconfigurable environments • Law Enforcement: User- customizable scenarios within these environments to train individuals in weapon discipline, making deadly force decisions, covering danger areas, team clearing techniques, use of cover and concealment, and communications among team members. • Military: User-customizable scenarios within these environments to train individuals in direct action, counter-terrorism, react to contact, or other Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs) based on the Current Operating Environment (COE) Performance/Evaluation VIRTSIM After Action Report (AAR) • basic individual maneuvers of participants • team and squad maneuvers • playback of all actions and shots from every angle, and from each participant’s perspective • All trainee body motions and all shots fired by every participant are recorded and displayed • Every training session is automatically catalogued and stored • Sessions are available for replay at any time. Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios • Medium • Freedom of movement for user • High: free to run, jump, or crawl throughout the full volume
  • 20. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security  E-Semble, Netherlands – Available – Costs: > € XX.000 Intended Use • Train & Exercise emergency response professionals. • Scenarios: • Scene command level up to strategic decision makers • Single users and multiple users Used by • Emergency services, industry, critical infrastructure Hardware • Single to multi user desktop-based VR • Each PC displays a single link in the emergency services chain. • Mostly 2D screens • Keyboard, mouse • Joysticks, 6DOF interaction devices • Scenarios • 1 on 1 training – i.e. for on scene commanders • Team Training – single & multi agency • On Site – mobile and remote training • Hybrid – combine live and virtual reality training scenarios
  • 21. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at XVR-VR Training Software for Safety and Security 3D Content & Creation • Combination of 3D virtual simulation, map-based information, photography and videos • Egocentric view of participant on the information allocated to its specific role • Content Editor • Configuration of a region, incident or disaster scene • Type, scale and location of an incident can be determined • Realistic configurations of countries, regions, emergency services stations by drag and drop • Customer-specific settings (i.e. number of rescue vehicles, personal on call, etc) • -> participants are forced to take into account logistic aspects (call-up and transport times) • Simulation Module for Students: • Use joystick to navigate around the XVR environment (walk, drive, fly) • Assess risks and dangers of an incident in a created scenario • Decide on measures and which procedures to apply • Simulation Module for Instructors: • Can give instant feedback to challenge students with questions throughout the exercise • Can respond to a student’s decision by activating events in the virtual scenario Performance/Evaluation Creation of assessment scenarios (predictable, repeatable) for unbiased assessment of participants Flexibility • Applicable for different deployment scenarios • High • Freedom of movement for user • Low: only sitting in real environment
  • 22. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Requirement Analysis  Two stakeholders for disaster relief – Austrian Federal Ministry of Defense and Sports (BMLVS) – Ambulance Team of the Red Cross Innsbruck, Austria.  Identification of requirements of both stakeholders’ CBRN defense elements  Development of use cases – To derive demands on VR training system – Within scenarios we focus on • Involved command levels • Target groups • Required training content.
  • 23. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Requirement Analysis NBC defense skill catalogue as base Skill bundles Urban search and rescue Water purification CBRN Defense Recce Urban Search and Rescue Aircraft Rescue and CBRN Defense
  • 24. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at USE CASE 1: CBRN Defense Recce Major mission tasks are Observation, Detection and decontamination  30 km² virtual area
  • 25. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at USE CASE 1: CBRN Defense Recce  Single user, team, group up to platoon training  Decision making process training for all levels  Specific areas and surroundings (hazards, weather conditions, …) easy to implement
  • 26. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at USE CASE 2: Urban Search and Rescue Major mission tasks are Exploration & Searching, Rescue of persons and Clearing  urban area; buildings, lifelines, … cultural realities !!
  • 27. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at USE CASE 2: Urban Search and Rescue  Training and education of decision makers of all levels of an USAR platoon  Easy to simulate various damages  Easy to implement various hazards and other conditions (weather, daytime, …) as well as the number of casualties and the kind and grade of injuries
  • 28. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Use Case 3: Aircraft Rescue and CBRN Defense  be on site within 90 seconds after crash  finish fire fighting after 2-3 minutes after crash  rescue the pilot  Various parameters of different aircraft types  Large number of different on site hazards  Safety devices must be known  DRILL TRAINING
  • 29. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Summarization of Requirements 1/2  Demands on VR Training Environment – Fully immersive to exploit the advantages of learning in VR – 3D object interaction (selection and manipulation) – Natural walking for navigation and to realistically simulate exhaustion – Multi-user capable to allow for collaborative training.  Demand on Hardware Setup – Fully wearable – Quick to setup – Requires a small amount of hardware to lower price and system complexity.
  • 30. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Summarization of Requirements 2/2  Demands on Software System – Creation of new 3D training scenarios – Customization of scenario parameters before and during the training, – High quality 3D rendering with physics support – After action reviewing for trainee evaluation.
  • 31. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Comparison  Stakeholder requirements are not met entirely by any existing system – Dismounted Solder Training System • Fully immersed multi-user training • No natural walking and no 3D object interaction – VirtSim • Full immersion multi-user training • 3D interaction and natural walking • No unbound creation of new training scenarios – Virtual Battle Space & XVR • 3D scenario generation, parameter customization, after action review • Work with standard hardware, system can be extended with VR hardware • Not fully immersive, no natural walking
  • 32. Hannes Kaufmann | ISSS | 02.-07.08.2015 | Berlin, Germany | kaufmann@ims.tuwien.ac.at Conclusion  No existing system focuses on immersive VR training for CBRN crisis preparedness – Immersive VR systems offer tactical training for soldier or police squad units – Desktop-based systems for crisis preparedness provide training for different command levels  On-Site squad members are subject to stress and exhaustion in reality – Natural walking should be included into VR training simulation – Future research efforts are necessary to meet the stakeholders’ requirement