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Camera angles
Any shot that is below a subject’s eye line looking up at them is a low angle shot. They are commonly
used in films that have heroes or villains as they make the subject look more powerful. The angle of the
shot can make the scene come together regardless of the other effects that have been put into place.
When high angles are 90 degrees over the subject, they become an “overhead shot”. They are also
known as a ‘birds eye view’ or ‘god’s eye view.’ The camera is placed over the subject straight down.
Great for complex movements such as fight scenes. If the show is about crime, they can use this shot to
capture horrific details of a crime scene. This type of angle does not just capture the subject, but also
the subject's surroundings.
The Dutch angle shot skews the horizontal axis of the frame, for an off-kilter image. This type of shot
can produce a series of effects. It can create the effect of unease, mania, terror, or bewilderment. It can
also be used to magnify tension.
A hip level angle Can be found in every genre, but western films are where it is mostly used. This is
because it is conjunction with cowboy shot. The reasoning is because of gun holsters which are rested at
hip height.
An establishing shot is when the shot is wide enough to show the geography, time of day and scale of
the subject in relation to their environment.
A wide shot positions subjects far away from the camera to visually represent their relationship to their
environment. It is concerned with the scale of the subject. Used to make subjects lost, lonely, or
overwhelmed, and about their surroundings.
A medium shot is used a lot because it is more of a neutral shot. Captures the subject in a way like how
we see people and talk to them. You can see the characters' reactions, environment and what they are
doing in one frame. It is above the waist below their chest and ends just above their head.
Editors have 3 choices when it comes to editing, what to show, when to cut and what to cut too. When
the editor cuts away from the main action, it is called “cutaway.” Walter Murch created ‘Rule of six’
includes emotions, story, rhythm, eye trace, 2D plane of screen and 3D space. Deciding what to cut too
is important, it could be to see what is on a character's mind, what they are looking at. It must be
thoughtful and impactful.
An eye line match is when the editor cuts to the object of a character’s attention. The second shot is
usually the POV shot of what the character is looking at. The editors might not even do a POV shot,
because it is all about the character’s eyes that motivates the cut. Can cut the shot by doing similar
angles, mostly used in conversation scenes.
Cross Cutting is when an editor cuts between two or more scenes happening in various locations usually
at the same time. Cross cutting can be an effective way to combine multi-layered action. This helps to
keep the audience interested throughout the different scenes.
When an editor cuts between two or more shots that focus on the same area of the frame, this is
referred to as an “eye trace”. Allows the viewers to stay focused after each cut. Can be used through
blocking a camera movement, guiding the audience’s eyes through a shot. Ideal for action scenes as
they move quickly. Helps the viewers to process even through chaotic scenes.
Split edits helps to smooth over a transition. A hard cut changes both video and audio at the same time.
A split edit changes either the sound or the image before the other. This can be known as a J cut or a L
cut, they are named by what they look like in the timeline. J cut is when audio starts to play before we
see it. An L cut is the audio plays after we have already cut away. Often used during dialogue scenes, as
well as catching reaction shots.
Intellectual montages put unrelated images together, to create a certain feeling or idea. This montage
creates the Euleshov effect, which creates meaning out of cinematic juxtaposition. Two separate scenes
combined to create a single idea. Can use this to provoke meaning and emotions on scenes that might
not have had them.
A cut on action refers to cutting to an object or characters movement. Can be used for simple and
complex actions. Will use this technique to make the cut look more natural. Often used in fight scenes
because it is placed in a fast placed rhythm and quick movement. Cutting on impact makes the kick or
punch more impactful, can be able to keep up with the pace, strengthen the stunts and create a more
epic feel on the fight.
Other types of cuts include: freeze frame, invisible cuts, subliminal frames, double cuts and jump cuts.
Diegetic sound
If the characters can hear the sounds, it is diegetic. Includes atmospheric sounds such as the weather,
vehicles, weapons, music inside the film, dialogue, and some form of voice over. If the voiceover
represents a character’s thoughts, it is known as “internal diegetic sound.” This helps to create and
establish the world around the characters. It can also have an enormous impact on the overall story.
Sounds we hear off screen can identify the setting and help us to understand the world outside the
frame that we see. Diegetic sound can be manipulated to let us hear what the character hears. Also use
sound to experience what someone is going through mentally in that scene.
Non- diegetic sound
Everything the characters cannot hear is non-diegetic sound. Includes sound effects, musical score, and
forms of narration. Also, if the narrator plays no role in the film this is also considered non-diegetic.
Non- diegetic sound effects can enhance motion and movement. Examples can be for comedy for punch
lines for a joke, score. Non-diegetic music can play a significant role in enhancing the film experience.
They can make the scene more important, eventful and more fitting.
Mise en scene is the essence of filmmaking, every director does this even if they do not realize it. The
meaning is “the placement of actors and scenery on a stage for a theatrical, film or television
production.” Andre Bazin divided filmmaking into mise en scene and montage.
Montage filmmakers create meaning from the combination and juxtaposition of multiple images. Mise
en scene filmmakers concentrate on storytelling from a single image.
Everything we see is part of mise en scene. There are two traditions, naturalistic and theatrical.
Naturalistic is where the world in the film is meant to match our own. Familiar and realistic. Theatrical is
where we are presented to unrealistic worlds that are normal.
The pan technique rotates the camera horizontally left or right while remaining in a fixed position. This
can be used to follow a character or show information. A slow pan builds anticipation, and a fast pan
heightens the intensity of the shot. These are known as whip pans, can be used to create relationships
between characters.
Tilt shots direct the camera upwards or downwards, used to capture the vertically of the characters
work. Shows the characters dominance or vulnerability.
Zoom shots change the focal length of the camera’s lens, to zoom in or out. They are unique as it is
unnatural as our eyes cannot zoom. A fast zoom is known as a crash zoom, can be used for dramatic or
comedic effects.
Dolly zooms utilize a dolly movement and lens zoom to create the vertigo effect. It can be done in two
ways, one can be dolly in while zooming out, causes the background to grow inside while maintaining
the scale of the foreground. The second is by dolly out by zooming in, making the subject dominate the
background. Can be used to convey positive and negative mental effects.
A camera roll turns the camera on its long axis, while maintaining the direction of the lens. This can
make the scene look unsetting and disorientated as it can be used to capture characters' movements in
panic, conflict.
A tracking shot physically moves the camera through a scene, following the subject they do not move
forward or away from the subject they move with the subject. When the subjects are on the move the
camera will track them wherever they go.
An arc is a camera movement that orbits around the subject. It can be vertical and horizontal. This adds
dynamic movement while the characters are standing still. When the speed is amplified it can create a
dizzy effect which can reflect the character’s mental state.
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informing ideas (1).docx

  • 1. Camera angles Any shot that is below a subject’s eye line looking up at them is a low angle shot. They are commonly used in films that have heroes or villains as they make the subject look more powerful. The angle of the shot can make the scene come together regardless of the other effects that have been put into place. When high angles are 90 degrees over the subject, they become an “overhead shot”. They are also known as a ‘birds eye view’ or ‘god’s eye view.’ The camera is placed over the subject straight down. Great for complex movements such as fight scenes. If the show is about crime, they can use this shot to capture horrific details of a crime scene. This type of angle does not just capture the subject, but also the subject's surroundings. The Dutch angle shot skews the horizontal axis of the frame, for an off-kilter image. This type of shot can produce a series of effects. It can create the effect of unease, mania, terror, or bewilderment. It can also be used to magnify tension.
  • 2. A hip level angle Can be found in every genre, but western films are where it is mostly used. This is because it is conjunction with cowboy shot. The reasoning is because of gun holsters which are rested at hip height. An establishing shot is when the shot is wide enough to show the geography, time of day and scale of the subject in relation to their environment. A wide shot positions subjects far away from the camera to visually represent their relationship to their environment. It is concerned with the scale of the subject. Used to make subjects lost, lonely, or overwhelmed, and about their surroundings.
  • 3. A medium shot is used a lot because it is more of a neutral shot. Captures the subject in a way like how we see people and talk to them. You can see the characters' reactions, environment and what they are doing in one frame. It is above the waist below their chest and ends just above their head. Editors have 3 choices when it comes to editing, what to show, when to cut and what to cut too. When the editor cuts away from the main action, it is called “cutaway.” Walter Murch created ‘Rule of six’ includes emotions, story, rhythm, eye trace, 2D plane of screen and 3D space. Deciding what to cut too is important, it could be to see what is on a character's mind, what they are looking at. It must be thoughtful and impactful. An eye line match is when the editor cuts to the object of a character’s attention. The second shot is usually the POV shot of what the character is looking at. The editors might not even do a POV shot, because it is all about the character’s eyes that motivates the cut. Can cut the shot by doing similar angles, mostly used in conversation scenes. Cross Cutting is when an editor cuts between two or more scenes happening in various locations usually at the same time. Cross cutting can be an effective way to combine multi-layered action. This helps to keep the audience interested throughout the different scenes.
  • 4. When an editor cuts between two or more shots that focus on the same area of the frame, this is referred to as an “eye trace”. Allows the viewers to stay focused after each cut. Can be used through blocking a camera movement, guiding the audience’s eyes through a shot. Ideal for action scenes as they move quickly. Helps the viewers to process even through chaotic scenes. Split edits helps to smooth over a transition. A hard cut changes both video and audio at the same time. A split edit changes either the sound or the image before the other. This can be known as a J cut or a L cut, they are named by what they look like in the timeline. J cut is when audio starts to play before we see it. An L cut is the audio plays after we have already cut away. Often used during dialogue scenes, as well as catching reaction shots. Intellectual montages put unrelated images together, to create a certain feeling or idea. This montage creates the Euleshov effect, which creates meaning out of cinematic juxtaposition. Two separate scenes combined to create a single idea. Can use this to provoke meaning and emotions on scenes that might not have had them. A cut on action refers to cutting to an object or characters movement. Can be used for simple and complex actions. Will use this technique to make the cut look more natural. Often used in fight scenes because it is placed in a fast placed rhythm and quick movement. Cutting on impact makes the kick or punch more impactful, can be able to keep up with the pace, strengthen the stunts and create a more epic feel on the fight. Other types of cuts include: freeze frame, invisible cuts, subliminal frames, double cuts and jump cuts. Diegetic sound If the characters can hear the sounds, it is diegetic. Includes atmospheric sounds such as the weather, vehicles, weapons, music inside the film, dialogue, and some form of voice over. If the voiceover represents a character’s thoughts, it is known as “internal diegetic sound.” This helps to create and establish the world around the characters. It can also have an enormous impact on the overall story.
  • 5. Sounds we hear off screen can identify the setting and help us to understand the world outside the frame that we see. Diegetic sound can be manipulated to let us hear what the character hears. Also use sound to experience what someone is going through mentally in that scene. Non- diegetic sound Everything the characters cannot hear is non-diegetic sound. Includes sound effects, musical score, and forms of narration. Also, if the narrator plays no role in the film this is also considered non-diegetic. Non- diegetic sound effects can enhance motion and movement. Examples can be for comedy for punch lines for a joke, score. Non-diegetic music can play a significant role in enhancing the film experience. They can make the scene more important, eventful and more fitting. Mise en scene is the essence of filmmaking, every director does this even if they do not realize it. The meaning is “the placement of actors and scenery on a stage for a theatrical, film or television production.” Andre Bazin divided filmmaking into mise en scene and montage. Montage filmmakers create meaning from the combination and juxtaposition of multiple images. Mise en scene filmmakers concentrate on storytelling from a single image. Everything we see is part of mise en scene. There are two traditions, naturalistic and theatrical. Naturalistic is where the world in the film is meant to match our own. Familiar and realistic. Theatrical is where we are presented to unrealistic worlds that are normal. The pan technique rotates the camera horizontally left or right while remaining in a fixed position. This can be used to follow a character or show information. A slow pan builds anticipation, and a fast pan heightens the intensity of the shot. These are known as whip pans, can be used to create relationships between characters. Tilt shots direct the camera upwards or downwards, used to capture the vertically of the characters work. Shows the characters dominance or vulnerability. Zoom shots change the focal length of the camera’s lens, to zoom in or out. They are unique as it is unnatural as our eyes cannot zoom. A fast zoom is known as a crash zoom, can be used for dramatic or comedic effects. Dolly zooms utilize a dolly movement and lens zoom to create the vertigo effect. It can be done in two ways, one can be dolly in while zooming out, causes the background to grow inside while maintaining
  • 6. the scale of the foreground. The second is by dolly out by zooming in, making the subject dominate the background. Can be used to convey positive and negative mental effects. A camera roll turns the camera on its long axis, while maintaining the direction of the lens. This can make the scene look unsetting and disorientated as it can be used to capture characters' movements in panic, conflict. A tracking shot physically moves the camera through a scene, following the subject they do not move forward or away from the subject they move with the subject. When the subjects are on the move the camera will track them wherever they go. An arc is a camera movement that orbits around the subject. It can be vertical and horizontal. This adds dynamic movement while the characters are standing still. When the speed is amplified it can create a dizzy effect which can reflect the character’s mental state.