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Master Thesis
Individualisation possibilities for books with
             «print on demand»
                  technique
                         Aldi Alimuçaj BSc.
  Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media (IICM)

                         21 June 2012
Overview
•   Introduction
•   Current Technologies
•   Plugin Development
•   Proof of Concept
•   Conclusion




                           2
Introduction
• What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?
„OER are teaching and learning materials that you
may freely use and reuse, without charge “
                                         (OER Commons)




- Free to use
- Edit
- Distribute
- Download
- Print

                         3
Introduction
• Differences between OER and other Open
  Initiatives
  – OER Generalization of all Learning Resources
  – We focus on Open Access Journals as its subset

• Why are people sharing for free?
  –   Technological (Software/Digital Resources immaterial)
  –   Economic (New business models)
  –   Social (Social movements)
  –   Legal (Constraints over existing copyrighted
      technologies)

                             4
Introduction
• (Re-)Funding OER and Sustainability models
  – Knowing the Costs
     • Value measurement (Manpower, Market value)
  – Where is added-value generated
     •   Preparation
     •   Premium services
     •   Marketing
     •   Dual Licensing
  – Costs and revenue models

                            5
Introduction
–   Endowment Model
–   Membership Model
–   Donations Model
–   Conversion Model
–   Contributor-Pay Model
–   Sponsorship Model
–   Institutional Model
–   Governmental Model
–   Partnerships and Exchanges
–   CrowdFunding Model

                          6
Current Technologies
• Flat World Knowledge
   – Innovative, well designed, supporting tools, proprietary

• Open Access Publications
   – Classic Repository, focus on simplicity, open source

• Open Journal Systems (OJS)
   – Interactive, process oriented, extendable architecture

• Print on Demand
   – Amazon (large amount of orders, globally active)
       • 10 or more titels to start business
   – Epubli
       • print on demand and self publishing platform

                                       7
Current Technologies
• Print on Demand
    “the technology based on digital printing
  that enables books to be printed even in small
  amounts”
• Event based production ↔ Statistical order
• Access to small/random/personal publications
• No storage costs, but slightly higher price per
   unit
                        8
POD Plugin Development
• A gear between two frameworks (OJS, epubli)
• Extension of OJS’s core functionalities

• OJS is an open source framework
  – Written in PHP
  – Supports most popular databases through ADODB
  – Implements a variant of the MVC design pattern


                        9
POD Plugin Development




          Open Journal Systems MVC Diagram (Smecher, 2011)
           10
POD Plugin Development
• epubli Interfaces
    – Client Web Interface (Browser)
    – Web Service (XML Request)
    – Partner Interface URL (PHP Script interface)
      [POST/GET]
http://www.epubli.de/interfaces/partnerInterface.php?repository=url&action=workbench&pdfURI=

Influence the print job through defined
parameters

                                              11
POD Plugin Development
• Action
   – workbench, price, voucher, order
• Repository
   – Customized repository, i.e. tugraz
• pdfURI
   – URI to the PDF document
• Price
   – Additional charge (amount besides the printing and
     shipping costs) static or dynamic
• Format
   – A4, A5 etc.


                               12
POD Plugin Development




     POD Plugin Structure Diagram
                  13
POD Plugin Development
Individualization possibilities for Books with “Print On Demand” Technique
POD Plugin Development
• Functions
  – Select current issue
     • Offers the possibility to chose articles
  – Show cart
     • Show selected articles
        – Removing items
        – Rearranging the order
        – Quick link to preview the article
  – Create request
     • Compiling the file
     • Calculating & Serializing the parameters (price,
       timestamp, signature)
     • Send request over the Partner Interface
                                   16
Proof of Concept
• Develop an open source plugin which gives small
  and medium OER institutions the possibility to
  refinances themselves

• Analyze the chances of success of this new
  business model by examining the economic and
  technical perspective of the new plugin and
  existing solutions in the market

• Starting a topic for discussion about financing
  OER (with this business model configuration)
                          17
Proof of Concept
• Building an interconnected environment
• Advantages for all stakeholders
Proof of Concept
• Advantages for Publishers
  – Earn money
  – Focus on writing/reviewing/publishing
  – No installation/operation costs
  – Remain free of contracts and other legal
    commitments
  – Complete the publishing cycle by adding printed
    copies (Students, Pupils with no PC in class)


                         19
Proof of Concept
• Advantages for Users
  – Price
     • Publisher decides whether to charge the user or not
  – Access rights
     • In contrast with commercial OER repositories
     • User can download, view online, print
  – Usability
     • All in one solution

     • Before: Select, Download, Merge, Upload, Configure

                             20
Proof of Concept




                       Prices (in Dollars) for printing-on-demand from FWK and epubli
FWK OER book: Elementary Algebra by John Redden (274 pages)
Amazon book: Elementary Algebra by Jerome E. Kaufmann and Karen L. Schwitters (539 pages)
                                                  21
Proof of Concept
• Advantages for POD Providers
  – Increased turnover
     • Through the cooperation, customers who probably
       wouldn’t use the service
  – Marketing
     • As OER partner
  – New technologies
     • Printing industry has to adapt to the digital era and find
       new ways of doing business


                              22
Proof of Concept
          Proving the solution




Before                           After


                   23
Conclusion
• Developing the Plugin
• Studying the business model
• Installing it on L3T.eu and
  bildungsforschung.org
• Successfully printing one copy and closing the
  test phase



                        24
Live Demonstration




        25
Questions




    26

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Individualization possibilities for Books with “Print On Demand” Technique

  • 1. Master Thesis Individualisation possibilities for books with «print on demand» technique Aldi Alimuçaj BSc. Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media (IICM) 21 June 2012
  • 2. Overview • Introduction • Current Technologies • Plugin Development • Proof of Concept • Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction • What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? „OER are teaching and learning materials that you may freely use and reuse, without charge “ (OER Commons) - Free to use - Edit - Distribute - Download - Print 3
  • 4. Introduction • Differences between OER and other Open Initiatives – OER Generalization of all Learning Resources – We focus on Open Access Journals as its subset • Why are people sharing for free? – Technological (Software/Digital Resources immaterial) – Economic (New business models) – Social (Social movements) – Legal (Constraints over existing copyrighted technologies) 4
  • 5. Introduction • (Re-)Funding OER and Sustainability models – Knowing the Costs • Value measurement (Manpower, Market value) – Where is added-value generated • Preparation • Premium services • Marketing • Dual Licensing – Costs and revenue models 5
  • 6. Introduction – Endowment Model – Membership Model – Donations Model – Conversion Model – Contributor-Pay Model – Sponsorship Model – Institutional Model – Governmental Model – Partnerships and Exchanges – CrowdFunding Model 6
  • 7. Current Technologies • Flat World Knowledge – Innovative, well designed, supporting tools, proprietary • Open Access Publications – Classic Repository, focus on simplicity, open source • Open Journal Systems (OJS) – Interactive, process oriented, extendable architecture • Print on Demand – Amazon (large amount of orders, globally active) • 10 or more titels to start business – Epubli • print on demand and self publishing platform 7
  • 8. Current Technologies • Print on Demand “the technology based on digital printing that enables books to be printed even in small amounts” • Event based production ↔ Statistical order • Access to small/random/personal publications • No storage costs, but slightly higher price per unit 8
  • 9. POD Plugin Development • A gear between two frameworks (OJS, epubli) • Extension of OJS’s core functionalities • OJS is an open source framework – Written in PHP – Supports most popular databases through ADODB – Implements a variant of the MVC design pattern 9
  • 10. POD Plugin Development Open Journal Systems MVC Diagram (Smecher, 2011) 10
  • 11. POD Plugin Development • epubli Interfaces – Client Web Interface (Browser) – Web Service (XML Request) – Partner Interface URL (PHP Script interface) [POST/GET] http://www.epubli.de/interfaces/partnerInterface.php?repository=url&action=workbench&pdfURI= Influence the print job through defined parameters 11
  • 12. POD Plugin Development • Action – workbench, price, voucher, order • Repository – Customized repository, i.e. tugraz • pdfURI – URI to the PDF document • Price – Additional charge (amount besides the printing and shipping costs) static or dynamic • Format – A4, A5 etc. 12
  • 13. POD Plugin Development POD Plugin Structure Diagram 13
  • 16. POD Plugin Development • Functions – Select current issue • Offers the possibility to chose articles – Show cart • Show selected articles – Removing items – Rearranging the order – Quick link to preview the article – Create request • Compiling the file • Calculating & Serializing the parameters (price, timestamp, signature) • Send request over the Partner Interface 16
  • 17. Proof of Concept • Develop an open source plugin which gives small and medium OER institutions the possibility to refinances themselves • Analyze the chances of success of this new business model by examining the economic and technical perspective of the new plugin and existing solutions in the market • Starting a topic for discussion about financing OER (with this business model configuration) 17
  • 18. Proof of Concept • Building an interconnected environment • Advantages for all stakeholders
  • 19. Proof of Concept • Advantages for Publishers – Earn money – Focus on writing/reviewing/publishing – No installation/operation costs – Remain free of contracts and other legal commitments – Complete the publishing cycle by adding printed copies (Students, Pupils with no PC in class) 19
  • 20. Proof of Concept • Advantages for Users – Price • Publisher decides whether to charge the user or not – Access rights • In contrast with commercial OER repositories • User can download, view online, print – Usability • All in one solution • Before: Select, Download, Merge, Upload, Configure 20
  • 21. Proof of Concept Prices (in Dollars) for printing-on-demand from FWK and epubli FWK OER book: Elementary Algebra by John Redden (274 pages) Amazon book: Elementary Algebra by Jerome E. Kaufmann and Karen L. Schwitters (539 pages) 21
  • 22. Proof of Concept • Advantages for POD Providers – Increased turnover • Through the cooperation, customers who probably wouldn’t use the service – Marketing • As OER partner – New technologies • Printing industry has to adapt to the digital era and find new ways of doing business 22
  • 23. Proof of Concept Proving the solution Before After 23
  • 24. Conclusion • Developing the Plugin • Studying the business model • Installing it on L3T.eu and bildungsforschung.org • Successfully printing one copy and closing the test phase 24
  • 26. Questions 26