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Importance of Clause
Ms. Sonia Goswami
Assistant Professor
MGMT
Clause
Group of words that forms part of a sentence,
has a Subject & a predicate of its own
Clause Types-
 Independent Clause
 Dependent Clause
Let’s start with a simple
sentence…
I bought a book.
This sentence has the three basic elements
required of either a simple sentence or a
clause:
Subject = I
Verb = bought
Object = a book
While my mother drank her coffee,
I bought a book.
Now, let’s add another clause …
While my mother drank her coffee, I
bought a book.
Now we have a two clause sentence, but these clauses
are not the same.
The original clause I bought a book can stand on its
own as a simple sentence. It expresses a complete
thought by itself. Therefore, it is called an independent
clause.
Independent Clause (IC)
An independent clause is a S + V / O bject
or C omplement
or A dverbial
unit that expresses a complete thought and could stand on its own
as a simple sentence.
Whether you find an independent clause by itself as a simple
sentence or joined with other clauses, you will be able to
identify it because it:
 is a S+V/ unit that
 expresses a complete thought
But what about the other
clause?
While my mother drank her coffee, I
bought a book.
If we only consider the first clause, while my
mother drank her coffee, we are left with a
question in our minds, “What happened while your
mother drank her coffee?!”
This clause can not stand on its own as a simple
sentence. It requires another clause to a complete its
meaning. Therefore, it is called an dependent clause.
Dependent Clause (DC)
A dependent clause is a S + V / O bject
or C omplement
or A dverbial
unit that does not express a complete thought and can not stand
on its own as a simple sentence.
A dependent clause must always be connected to an independent
clause. You will be able to identify it because it:
 is a S+V/ unit that
 does not express a complete thought on its own
What Makes a Sentence?
Peter ate dinner.
Subject = noun,
pronoun or
“noun thing”
(such as a
gerund or noun
phrase) that
does an action
or experiences
a state of being
Verb =
expresses
the action
or “state”of
the subject
Object =
noun or
pronoun
that
receives
the action
of the verb
Peter ate dinner.Peter ate dinner.Peter ate dinner.
This is also a sentence …
Peter is happy.
Subject Verb Complement
A complement is a great deal like an object, but it differs in
that is does not “receive” the action a verb. Instead it “is”
the subject.
Complements can be nouns or adjectives. The key to
understanding them is understanding the verbs that they
follow.
Peter is happy.Peter is happy.Peter is happy.
Verbs that take complements …
(thank you very much!)
Intensive Verbs such as be and feel do not have action moving “out” of
them to affect a noun. Instead they hold action “within” them.
Peter threw the bone. Peter is happy.
 The verb threw is NOT an intensive verb (the
action moves out of it to affect the object).
 The verb is IS an intensive verb: Peter and happy
are the same thing, so the mathematical equal sign
better represents the “action” of this intensive verb.
Look at the images above the verbs in the following
sentences:
Common Intensive English
Verbs
 be
 feel
 seem
 became
Remember that these verbs can be followed by nouns or adjectives.
Either way, the words that follow intensive verbs “are” or “equal” the
subjects before the verb … that is how you can identify a complement.
NOTE: this type of verb can also be called “linking” or “stative” verbs.
EXAMPLE:
Peter is a teacher.
Peter is happy.
Noun as a complement
Adjective as a complement
And this is also a sentence
…
Peter was in the kitchen.
Subject = noun,
pronoun or “noun
thing” (such as a
gerund or noun
phrase) that does
an action or
experiences a state
of being
Verb =
expresses
the action
or “state”of
the subject
Adverbial =
adverb or
group of
words that
tells
where,
when, why
or how the
verb
happened.
Peter was in the kitchen.Peter was in the kitchen.Peter was in the kitchen.
More Adverbial Examples
Peter was a student last year.
Peter drive quickly.
Peter went to New York to visit his aunt.
Sentence Components
S + V / O
So, we can symbolize the basic components of a
sentence in the following way:
Where:
S = subject (a noun or pronoun that does an action)
V = verb (the action itself)
/ = “optional”  some verbs do not need an O, C or A
O = object (a noun or pronoun that receives an action)
C = complement (an adjective or noun that is the subject)
A = adverbial (an adverbial that tells more about the action)
or C
or A
Dependent Clauses
There are 3 different types of dependent clauses.
• Noun Clause (NC)
• Adjective Clause (AdjC)
• Adverb Clause (AdvC)
Noun Clause (NC)
• [S+V/] that acts like a noun
• Example: I think [you are sick].I think [you are
sick].
S V O
Objects are nouns; this entire
clause acts like a singular noun,
so it is a noun clause.
• NCs usually follow verbs as objects or complements
•“Answers” the question “What?”
• Example:
• Q: What do you think?
• A: I think Spiderman is the best superhero.
Noun Clause (NC) -- continued
• NCs can begin with “that”
• “that” is a subordinating conjunction that
• joins it to an IC
• makes the clause it begins depend on the
IC to complete its meaning.
• “that” is often omitted by native speakers:
• Example:
I think that Spiderman is the best superhero.I think Spiderman is the best superhero.
Adjective Clause (AdjC)
• [S+V/] that acts like an adjective
• Example: The story [that I am reading] is sad.
S V
This entire clause acts like an
adjective, so it is an adjective
clause.
• AdjCs follow nouns
• Often start with relative pronouns
• but the relative pronoun can be omitted
• if the clause has another noun to serve as
the subject
•EX: The story [I am reading]is sad.
relative
pronoun
[that I am reading]
Adjective Clauses
 Play the role of an adjective
 The umbrella with a broken handle is mine
 The umbrella which has a broken handle is mine
 [Which umbrella ?]
 Second sentence contains a subject & a predicate
Phrase !!!!
Adjective Clause !!!
Special properties of
Adjective Clause
• Introduced by a relative pronoun or relative
adverb
– He is the man whom we all respect
– The time when the boat leaves is not yet fixed
– The reason why I did it is obvious
• Relative pronoun (or adverb) may be missing
– Eat all ^ you can (that is understood)
– I saw a man ^ I know (whom is understood)
There are only five words which introduce
adjective clauses. They are called relative
pronouns because they relate the clause to
something in the sentence. These five words are:
 Who
 Whom
 Whose
 Which
 That
More Examples of adjective
clauses
 The books, which are lost, are not really necessary.
 The girl who is running is my best friend.
 Something that smells bad may be rotten.
 His share of the money, which consists of $100,000,
was given to him on Monday.
 Students whom I admire want to become English
teachers.
Adverb Clause (AdvC)
• [S+V/] that acts like an adverb
• Example: [After we drove to the mall] , we looked for a
bookstore.
This clause gives information
about how or why the action
happened, so it acts like an
adverb.
• AdvCs always begin with a subordinating conjunction
• after although as because before
even though if since unless until
when
Adverb Clauses
• Kinds of Adverb Clauses
– Time
– Place
– Purpose
– Clause
– Condition
– Result
– Comparison
– Supposition or Concession
Adverb Clauses: Time
 Introduced by subordinating conjunctions whenever, while, after,
before, since, as
 When you have finished your work you may go home.
 I will do it when I think fit.
 Don’t talk while she is singing.
 After the law had been passed this form of crime ceased.
 Do it before you forget.
 Before you go bring me some water.
 There was silence as the leader spoke.
Adverb Clause: Place
 Where, wherever
 I have put it where I can find it again.
 They can stay where they are.
 Where you live I will live.
 He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.
Adverb Clause: Purpose
 So that, in order that, lest
 I will give you a map so that you find the way.
 We eat so that we may live.
 The UNO was formed in order that countries might
discuss world problems.
 He was extra polite to his seniors lest something
adverse should be written into his records.
Adverb Clause: Cause/Reason
• Because, as, since, that
– Because I believe you, I shall help you.
– I did it because I wanted to.
– Since you are so clever you will be able to explain
this.
– Since you swear to me, I will employ you.
– I am glad that you like it.
– He was very pleased that you have passed.
– As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
Adverb Clause: Condition
 If, whether, unless
 If I like it, I shall buy it.
 Come, if you wish to.
 If it rains we shall stay at home.
 You must go whether you hear from him or not.
 Whether Ram gives him money or not, he will speak
the truth.
 Unless you work hard you will fail.
Phrase
One way to define a phrase is to say it is a group of
words that “belong together” in terms of meaning but
do not have both a subject and a verb.
Phrase = a group of words that acts like one word
Phrase ≠ S + V
Another way to think of a phrase is to think of
how it works within a sentence. When you think
of a phrase this way, you can define it as:
Phrase
example
Here is a phrase:
1. the gym at the end of the street
It functions as the subject of the
sentence and subjects are nouns.
It acts like a noun  The gym at the end of the street is new.
Before we start, see if you
can identify these clauses
 It was a bright morning.
 As he was walking down the corridor.
 You will sing a long song
 Unless you decide not to come.
 Because he was not normal that day.
 The cave was full of bats
 Since the first of the month.
(You can view the answers on the next slide.)
Grey-- Independent clauses
Purple-- dependent clauses
 It was a bright morning.
 As he was walking down the corridor.
 You will sing a long song.
 Unless you decide not to come.
 Because he was not normal that day.
 The cave was full of bats.
 Since the first of the month.
Identify clauses
 He arrived just as the clock struck seven.
 I will write when I know of our whereabouts.
 As he entered the room, everyone cheered.
 They laughed as they saw the movie.
 Since you left, we have had beautiful weather.
 You should observe because it is important.
 If you come home, you can see the present.
 If wishes were horses, we would all take a ride.
 From where I stood, I could see all.
 I shall attend school until I am at least eighteen years old
Independent -- dependent
 He arrived just as the clock struck seven.
 I will write when I know of our whereabouts.
 As he entered the room, everyone cheered.
 They laughed as they saw the movie.
 Since you left, we have had beautiful weather.
 You should observe because it is important.
 If you come home, you can see the present.
 If wishes were horses, we would all take a ride.
 From where I stood, I could see all.
 I shall attend school until I am at least eighteen years old.
Identify clauses:
 Before another day passes, you should call Fred.
 By the time I arrived at the store, I had forgotten my file.
 While listening to the radio, she did her weekly tasks.
 Think twice before you answer.
 As we drove through the country, we could see the results of the
flood.
 The lady who was at the door admitted us when she checked our
identification.
 They listened for the sound since it was the key to the puzzle.
 Always look before you leap.
 The green house was ready when we arrived with the roses.
Independent -- dependent
 Before another day passes, you should call Fred.
 By the time I arrived at the store, I had forgotten my file.
 While listening to the radio, she did her weekly tasks.
 Think twice before you answer.
 As we drove through the country, we could see the results of the
flood.
 The lady who was at the door admitted us when she checked our
identification.
 They listened for the sound since it was the key to the puzzle.
 Always look before you leap.
 The green house was ready when we arrived with the roses.
THANK YOU

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Importance of clause

  • 1. Importance of Clause Ms. Sonia Goswami Assistant Professor MGMT
  • 2. Clause Group of words that forms part of a sentence, has a Subject & a predicate of its own Clause Types-  Independent Clause  Dependent Clause
  • 3. Let’s start with a simple sentence… I bought a book. This sentence has the three basic elements required of either a simple sentence or a clause: Subject = I Verb = bought Object = a book
  • 4. While my mother drank her coffee, I bought a book. Now, let’s add another clause … While my mother drank her coffee, I bought a book. Now we have a two clause sentence, but these clauses are not the same. The original clause I bought a book can stand on its own as a simple sentence. It expresses a complete thought by itself. Therefore, it is called an independent clause.
  • 5. Independent Clause (IC) An independent clause is a S + V / O bject or C omplement or A dverbial unit that expresses a complete thought and could stand on its own as a simple sentence. Whether you find an independent clause by itself as a simple sentence or joined with other clauses, you will be able to identify it because it:  is a S+V/ unit that  expresses a complete thought
  • 6. But what about the other clause? While my mother drank her coffee, I bought a book. If we only consider the first clause, while my mother drank her coffee, we are left with a question in our minds, “What happened while your mother drank her coffee?!” This clause can not stand on its own as a simple sentence. It requires another clause to a complete its meaning. Therefore, it is called an dependent clause.
  • 7. Dependent Clause (DC) A dependent clause is a S + V / O bject or C omplement or A dverbial unit that does not express a complete thought and can not stand on its own as a simple sentence. A dependent clause must always be connected to an independent clause. You will be able to identify it because it:  is a S+V/ unit that  does not express a complete thought on its own
  • 8. What Makes a Sentence? Peter ate dinner. Subject = noun, pronoun or “noun thing” (such as a gerund or noun phrase) that does an action or experiences a state of being Verb = expresses the action or “state”of the subject Object = noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb Peter ate dinner.Peter ate dinner.Peter ate dinner.
  • 9. This is also a sentence … Peter is happy. Subject Verb Complement A complement is a great deal like an object, but it differs in that is does not “receive” the action a verb. Instead it “is” the subject. Complements can be nouns or adjectives. The key to understanding them is understanding the verbs that they follow. Peter is happy.Peter is happy.Peter is happy.
  • 10. Verbs that take complements … (thank you very much!) Intensive Verbs such as be and feel do not have action moving “out” of them to affect a noun. Instead they hold action “within” them. Peter threw the bone. Peter is happy.  The verb threw is NOT an intensive verb (the action moves out of it to affect the object).  The verb is IS an intensive verb: Peter and happy are the same thing, so the mathematical equal sign better represents the “action” of this intensive verb. Look at the images above the verbs in the following sentences:
  • 11. Common Intensive English Verbs  be  feel  seem  became Remember that these verbs can be followed by nouns or adjectives. Either way, the words that follow intensive verbs “are” or “equal” the subjects before the verb … that is how you can identify a complement. NOTE: this type of verb can also be called “linking” or “stative” verbs. EXAMPLE: Peter is a teacher. Peter is happy. Noun as a complement Adjective as a complement
  • 12. And this is also a sentence … Peter was in the kitchen. Subject = noun, pronoun or “noun thing” (such as a gerund or noun phrase) that does an action or experiences a state of being Verb = expresses the action or “state”of the subject Adverbial = adverb or group of words that tells where, when, why or how the verb happened. Peter was in the kitchen.Peter was in the kitchen.Peter was in the kitchen.
  • 13. More Adverbial Examples Peter was a student last year. Peter drive quickly. Peter went to New York to visit his aunt.
  • 14. Sentence Components S + V / O So, we can symbolize the basic components of a sentence in the following way: Where: S = subject (a noun or pronoun that does an action) V = verb (the action itself) / = “optional”  some verbs do not need an O, C or A O = object (a noun or pronoun that receives an action) C = complement (an adjective or noun that is the subject) A = adverbial (an adverbial that tells more about the action) or C or A
  • 15. Dependent Clauses There are 3 different types of dependent clauses. • Noun Clause (NC) • Adjective Clause (AdjC) • Adverb Clause (AdvC)
  • 16. Noun Clause (NC) • [S+V/] that acts like a noun • Example: I think [you are sick].I think [you are sick]. S V O Objects are nouns; this entire clause acts like a singular noun, so it is a noun clause. • NCs usually follow verbs as objects or complements •“Answers” the question “What?” • Example: • Q: What do you think? • A: I think Spiderman is the best superhero.
  • 17. Noun Clause (NC) -- continued • NCs can begin with “that” • “that” is a subordinating conjunction that • joins it to an IC • makes the clause it begins depend on the IC to complete its meaning. • “that” is often omitted by native speakers: • Example: I think that Spiderman is the best superhero.I think Spiderman is the best superhero.
  • 18. Adjective Clause (AdjC) • [S+V/] that acts like an adjective • Example: The story [that I am reading] is sad. S V This entire clause acts like an adjective, so it is an adjective clause. • AdjCs follow nouns • Often start with relative pronouns • but the relative pronoun can be omitted • if the clause has another noun to serve as the subject •EX: The story [I am reading]is sad. relative pronoun [that I am reading]
  • 19. Adjective Clauses  Play the role of an adjective  The umbrella with a broken handle is mine  The umbrella which has a broken handle is mine  [Which umbrella ?]  Second sentence contains a subject & a predicate Phrase !!!! Adjective Clause !!!
  • 20. Special properties of Adjective Clause • Introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverb – He is the man whom we all respect – The time when the boat leaves is not yet fixed – The reason why I did it is obvious • Relative pronoun (or adverb) may be missing – Eat all ^ you can (that is understood) – I saw a man ^ I know (whom is understood)
  • 21. There are only five words which introduce adjective clauses. They are called relative pronouns because they relate the clause to something in the sentence. These five words are:  Who  Whom  Whose  Which  That
  • 22. More Examples of adjective clauses  The books, which are lost, are not really necessary.  The girl who is running is my best friend.  Something that smells bad may be rotten.  His share of the money, which consists of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.  Students whom I admire want to become English teachers.
  • 23. Adverb Clause (AdvC) • [S+V/] that acts like an adverb • Example: [After we drove to the mall] , we looked for a bookstore. This clause gives information about how or why the action happened, so it acts like an adverb. • AdvCs always begin with a subordinating conjunction • after although as because before even though if since unless until when
  • 24. Adverb Clauses • Kinds of Adverb Clauses – Time – Place – Purpose – Clause – Condition – Result – Comparison – Supposition or Concession
  • 25. Adverb Clauses: Time  Introduced by subordinating conjunctions whenever, while, after, before, since, as  When you have finished your work you may go home.  I will do it when I think fit.  Don’t talk while she is singing.  After the law had been passed this form of crime ceased.  Do it before you forget.  Before you go bring me some water.  There was silence as the leader spoke.
  • 26. Adverb Clause: Place  Where, wherever  I have put it where I can find it again.  They can stay where they are.  Where you live I will live.  He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.
  • 27. Adverb Clause: Purpose  So that, in order that, lest  I will give you a map so that you find the way.  We eat so that we may live.  The UNO was formed in order that countries might discuss world problems.  He was extra polite to his seniors lest something adverse should be written into his records.
  • 28. Adverb Clause: Cause/Reason • Because, as, since, that – Because I believe you, I shall help you. – I did it because I wanted to. – Since you are so clever you will be able to explain this. – Since you swear to me, I will employ you. – I am glad that you like it. – He was very pleased that you have passed. – As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
  • 29. Adverb Clause: Condition  If, whether, unless  If I like it, I shall buy it.  Come, if you wish to.  If it rains we shall stay at home.  You must go whether you hear from him or not.  Whether Ram gives him money or not, he will speak the truth.  Unless you work hard you will fail.
  • 30. Phrase One way to define a phrase is to say it is a group of words that “belong together” in terms of meaning but do not have both a subject and a verb. Phrase = a group of words that acts like one word Phrase ≠ S + V Another way to think of a phrase is to think of how it works within a sentence. When you think of a phrase this way, you can define it as:
  • 31. Phrase example Here is a phrase: 1. the gym at the end of the street It functions as the subject of the sentence and subjects are nouns. It acts like a noun  The gym at the end of the street is new.
  • 32. Before we start, see if you can identify these clauses  It was a bright morning.  As he was walking down the corridor.  You will sing a long song  Unless you decide not to come.  Because he was not normal that day.  The cave was full of bats  Since the first of the month. (You can view the answers on the next slide.)
  • 33. Grey-- Independent clauses Purple-- dependent clauses  It was a bright morning.  As he was walking down the corridor.  You will sing a long song.  Unless you decide not to come.  Because he was not normal that day.  The cave was full of bats.  Since the first of the month.
  • 34. Identify clauses  He arrived just as the clock struck seven.  I will write when I know of our whereabouts.  As he entered the room, everyone cheered.  They laughed as they saw the movie.  Since you left, we have had beautiful weather.  You should observe because it is important.  If you come home, you can see the present.  If wishes were horses, we would all take a ride.  From where I stood, I could see all.  I shall attend school until I am at least eighteen years old
  • 35. Independent -- dependent  He arrived just as the clock struck seven.  I will write when I know of our whereabouts.  As he entered the room, everyone cheered.  They laughed as they saw the movie.  Since you left, we have had beautiful weather.  You should observe because it is important.  If you come home, you can see the present.  If wishes were horses, we would all take a ride.  From where I stood, I could see all.  I shall attend school until I am at least eighteen years old.
  • 36. Identify clauses:  Before another day passes, you should call Fred.  By the time I arrived at the store, I had forgotten my file.  While listening to the radio, she did her weekly tasks.  Think twice before you answer.  As we drove through the country, we could see the results of the flood.  The lady who was at the door admitted us when she checked our identification.  They listened for the sound since it was the key to the puzzle.  Always look before you leap.  The green house was ready when we arrived with the roses.
  • 37. Independent -- dependent  Before another day passes, you should call Fred.  By the time I arrived at the store, I had forgotten my file.  While listening to the radio, she did her weekly tasks.  Think twice before you answer.  As we drove through the country, we could see the results of the flood.  The lady who was at the door admitted us when she checked our identification.  They listened for the sound since it was the key to the puzzle.  Always look before you leap.  The green house was ready when we arrived with the roses.

Editor's Notes

  1. Hint: You may have noticed that dependent clauses tend to leave you hanging as if a question has not been answered. Example: When we were going to town.
  2. Hopefully, you did well. If not, don’t feel bad there is more practice ahead.
  3. Give it another try! However, this assignment is a bit more difficult in that none of these word groups are only dependent clauses. They are all a combination of independent and dependent clauses. For example: As I was walking, I saw a plane. The italic part is the dependent clause and the underlined part is the independent clause. Together they form a complex sentence. This will be covered in our next lesson. So go through the sentences and see if you can identify the sentences accordingly. The answers will be on the next slide.
  4. How did you do?
  5. Did you do better? I am sure you did!