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TOEFL: Structure and Written        Expression
General Strategies• Be familiar with the directions.• Begin with questions 1-15 (Structure). Questions  1-5 are easier and...
Strategies for Structure Questions• First, study the sentence.• Then study each answer choice based on how well it  comple...
Characteristics of a Sentence• A sentence can be formed by one or more clauses.• Clauses can be independent and dependent/...
•   A compound sentence is formed by two or more independent    clauses connected by coordinate conjunctions (for, and, no...
•   A compound-complex sentence is formed by more than one    independent clause and at least one dependent clause.    I w...
Characteristics of a Clause• Every clause must have a subject and a verb. A  complement is optional.• There are two types ...
• There are three types of dependent clauses:• Noun clauses: function as a noun, so they can be  subjects, objects of a ve...
Skills 1-5   Simple Sentences: one subject + one verbSKILL 1: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB:      Engineer...
SKILL 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVESAn appositive is a noun or noun phrase which describesanother noun or pronoun. It is nor...
IT AND THERE  Strategy  Some sentences or clauses begin with it or there. Be aware of the  constructions that follow these...
2) There shows that something or someone exists at a special time or   place. In this use, the word there follows this con...
SKILL 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES (Adjectives):Do not confuse them with present progressive:        The boy is st...
SKILL 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST PARTICIPLESDo not confuse them with the following:1.   Simple past: She painted the picture.2....
Skills 6-8: Sentences with Multiple clauses:1) Compound sentences: A compound sentence is asentence with two or more main ...
Ana laughed, but she wanted to cry.s       v    con. s    vThe TOEFL exam will be difficult, so we must study hard.       ...
2) Complex Sentences: A complex sentence is one that has a    main or independent clause and a subordinated clause.• Adver...
Condition   Contrast      Manner    PlaceIf          although      as        whereIn case     even though   in that   wher...
Teresita went inside because it was raining.  Subject verb              con.   Subj. verbI am going to go to the movies as...
SKILLS 9-12: Noun and Adjective               Clauses•   Noun clauses: They are the second type of subordinated clauses.  ...
SKILL 9: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLYNoun connectors: what, when, where, why, how, whatever,whenever, whether, if,...
SKILL 10: USE NOUN CLAUSE         CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLYWho, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever: Can beconnec...
• Adjective clauses: These are the third type of dependent orsubordinate clause. They have the same function as an adjecti...
•   Adjective connectors: Who (people), whom (people/object and    after prepositions), which (things), that (people or th...
Skills 13-14: Reduced Clauses1) Adjective Clauses: Only adjective clauses where the connector   works as subject of the cl...
Adjective Clauses separated by commas•   If the original adjective clause was separated by commas the    reduced clause ke...
2) Adverb Clauses: Only adverb clauses that have the samesubject as the main clause can be reduced.• Clauses with a form o...
Some adverb clauses can only be reduced if they are in passivevoice. For example, with adverb clauses with “once” can only...
Skills 15-19: Subject and verb inverted1) In questions the normal order of subject and verb/aux. is   inverted:  Yes/No qu...
2) Subject and Verb inverted after place expressions: When we   have place words or expressions at the beginning of a clau...
•   The inversion of subject + verb with place expressions is only    necessary when the expression is essential to comple...
4) Invert the subject with conditionals (Implied Conditionals). In    certain conditional structures, the subject and the ...
5) The inversion with comparatives is optional and it can be used   in formal writing.• All of these forms are correct:  M...
General Strategies for Written           Expression• First, look at the underlined word or  groups of words to see if you ...
Skills 20-23 Subject-Verb Agreement1) Be careful with: prepositional phrases•   If the subject is singular the verb is sin...
2) Make verbs agree after expressions of quantity:   all/most/some/half of the.   Singular count noun:        All of the b...
Never is she late to class.  Should Mary eat candy, she must brush her teeth.  In the first drawer is the book you are loo...
Skills 24-26: Parallel StructureParallel Structure means to make the language as evenand balanced as possible.Example:(not...
1) Parallel Structure with coordinate conjuctions: and, but, and or.       They are not interested in what you say or what...
• Parallel structures with comparisonsmore…..than           less….than                                        -er….. thana...
Skill 27-29: Form Comparatives and            Superlatives Correctly•  Comparative: We compare two persons or things.1) Ad...
•  Superlative: We compare more than two persons or things.   (add ‘the’ before the adjective)1) Add –est to one syllable ...
• Use Comparatives and Superlatives Correctly.  Wrong: It is the better sports car that I´ve seen.  Right: It is the best ...
Skills 30-32: Problems with the Form of the                      Verb• Base form: No person, tense, or number.  play      ...
Always check what comes:•   After any form of have: have, has, had, having we should use the past    participle form of th...
2) Past participle: for the passive voice:   I am checked by the doctor every year.   The water is bought every day.   The...
SKILL 33: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST               WITH THE PRESENT•   If you see a sentence with one verb in the past and ...
SKILL 34: USE HAVE AND HAD CORRECTLY  TENSE       FORM        MEANING          USE                EXAMPLE  Present   Have ...
SKILL 35: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH            TIME EXPRESSIONSPAST PERFECT             SIMPLE PAST           PRESENT PER...
SKILL 36: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH            WILL AND WOULD VERB MEANING                      USE                  EXAM...
SKILL 37- 38: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF                   THE PASSIVE•   Active Voice: The subject does the action.         ...
SKILL 39:       USE THE CORRECT SINGULAR OR                       PLURAL NOUN   A singular noun is used where a plural nou...
Skill 40: Distinguish countable and uncountable                         nounsSome common mistakes:       He has seen much*...
Skill 41: Recognize Irregular Plurals of NounsMany nouns in English have irregular plurals; the irregular forms that are t...
IRREGULAR PLURALSVowel Change       Man / Men            Foot / Feet      Goose / Geese                   Woman / Women   ...
Skill 42: Distinguish The Person From The ThingNouns in English can refer to persons or things; sometimes in the writtenex...
Skill 43: DISTINGUISH SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNSA subject pronoun is used as the subject of the verbAn object pronoun can...
SKILL 44: DISTINGUISH POSSESIVE        ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS• Possessive adjectives and pronouns both show who or  what ...
The following chart outlines the possessives and theiruses:  POSSESSIVE               POSSESSIVE  ADJECTIVES              ...
Skill 45: CHECK PRONOUN REFERENCE FOR                AGREEMENTAfter we check that the subject and object pronouns and thep...
SKILL 46: USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS                  CORRECTLYAdjectives are used in place of adverbs, or adverbs a...
Skill 47: Use Adjectives after Linking Verbs•  Generally an adverb rather than an adjective will come directlyafter a verb...
SKILL 48. POSITION ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY                THE POSITION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS                 ...
• You should be aware of the position of adverbs with objects of verbs.when a verb has an object, an adverb describing the...
SKILL 49: Do not confuse –ly Adjectives with           Adverbs ending in –ly                      -LY ADJECTIVES  costly  ...
SKILL 50: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVES             AFTER LINKING VERBS      The snake on the rock was alive. CORRECTThe alive*...
SKILL 50: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVESCORRECTLY     Predicate adjectives       Forms used in front of noun            alike   ...
SKILL 51: USE –ED AND -ING ADJECTIVES              CORRECTLY                      The woman cleans the car.               ...
SKILL 51: USE –ED AND -ING ADJECTIVES                CORRECTLY           -ED AND -ING ADJECTIVESTYPE   MEANING          US...
Skills: 52-54: PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES: Articles    Countable      Contable      Uncontable              Singular    Plural...
SKILL 52: Use Articles with Singular                      NounsA singular noun must have an article (a/an, the) or some ot...
SKILL 53: Distinguish A/An  A        A is used in front of a singular noun with a consonant                               ...
Skill 54: Make Articles agree with Nouns•   The definite article “the” is for both singular and plural nouns•   The indefi...
Skill 55: Distinguish Specific and General Ideas•   With countable singular nouns, it is possible to use either the    def...
•    THE:1.   Use it when it is the only one.2.   Use it when there are many, and you and your listener     know which one...
Skills 56-57: Problems with Prepositions                              Prepositions           Literal way                  ...
Prepositions     Prepositions are not only used to show time, place, and     agent, but are also used in combination with ...
VERB + PREPOSITIONaccount for contribute to   insist on         plan onbelieve in  depend on       lead to           rely ...
OTHER COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS    according to        in the process of    as a consequence of in view of    as a re...
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE• Prepositions of Time     at               time of day (at 8 a.m.)                      noo...
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE• Prepositions of Place    at             address (at 200 Main Street)    on             str...
Skill 56-57: Problems with Prepositions•   Sometimes an incorrect preposition is given in a sentence in    the Written Exp...
Skill 58: Distinguish Make and Do   •Make and Do can be confused in English because theirmeanings are so similar.   •Make ...
• Do often has the idea of completing or performing. The  following expressions show some of the possible uses of  do:  Th...
Skill 59: Distinguish like, alike, unlike, and                       dislike•   Like, alike, unlike and dislike sometimes ...
2) Like and unlike       Jonh is like Tom.       John is unlike Tom.    Here both words have opposite meanings, they are w...
SKILL 60: DINTINGUISH OTHER, ANOTHER,                AND OTHERSTo decide how to use other, another or others, we mustconsi...
SINGULAR              PLURAL             I have another      I have other             book.               books.INDEFINITE...
Bibliography:Broukal, Milada. In-A-Flash: Grammar for the TOEFL Test. New   Jersey: Thomson Learning, Inc. 2001.Phillips, ...
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Skills 1 60

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Skills 1 60

  1. 1. TOEFL: Structure and Written Expression
  2. 2. General Strategies• Be familiar with the directions.• Begin with questions 1-15 (Structure). Questions 1-5 are easier and 11-15 are harder.• Continue with questions 16-40 (Written Expression). Questions 16-20 are easier and 36- 40 are harder.• Do not take too much time with each item. If you have time left you can go back and check 11-15 and 36-40.• Do not leave any blank answers on the answer sheet.
  3. 3. Strategies for Structure Questions• First, study the sentence.• Then study each answer choice based on how well it completes the sentence.• Do not try to eliminate incorrect options by looking only at the answers.• Be aware that in this section most of the items will require you to identify the subject or the verb (or both) in the correct order of subject + verb (except on items with inverted structure).• Do not spend too much time on this section. Leave enough time for the Written Expression Section.
  4. 4. Characteristics of a Sentence• A sentence can be formed by one or more clauses.• Clauses can be independent and dependent/subordinate clauses. All sentences must have subject and verb.• Sentences can be: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.• A simple sentence is formed by only one independent clause. I went to the movies yesterday afternoon. Independent clause
  5. 5. • A compound sentence is formed by two or more independent clauses connected by coordinate conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so: FANBOYS). I went to the movies last night, and I had a great time. Independent clause conjunction + Ind. clause• A complex sentence is formed by one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. I went to the movies after I had finished my homework. Independent Clause connector + Dependent Clause
  6. 6. • A compound-complex sentence is formed by more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. I went to the movies, and I had a great time because the movie Indep. Clause conj. + Indep. Clause + connector + Dep. Cl. was terrific.
  7. 7. Characteristics of a Clause• Every clause must have a subject and a verb. A complement is optional.• There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent (or subordinated).• Independent clauses have a complete idea and can stand alone in a sentence.• Dependent clauses complement the independent clause, but do not have a complete idea and cannot stand alone in a sentence.
  8. 8. • There are three types of dependent clauses:• Noun clauses: function as a noun, so they can be subjects, objects of a verb, or objects of a preposition. I understand how you feel.• Adjective clauses: function as an adjective and describe a noun or pronoun from the main clause. I know the man who works in that office.• Adverb clauses: function as an adverb and give additional information about the verb (how, when, where, and why) I know that man because he works with my father.Note: We will see these in more detail in the skills.
  9. 9. Skills 1-5 Simple Sentences: one subject + one verbSKILL 1: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB: Engineers are needed for work. S V The boy will be going to the movies. S VSKILL 2: BE CAREFUL OF OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS: In the past a woman in politics wasn´t common. OP S OP V For the fever he took aspirine tablets. OP S V
  10. 10. SKILL 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVESAn appositive is a noun or noun phrase which describesanother noun or pronoun. It is normally set off by commas. Tom, a good mechanic, is fixing a car. S APP V A good mechanic, Tom is fixing a car. APP S V A good mechanic, Tom, is fixing a car. S APP V
  11. 11. IT AND THERE Strategy Some sentences or clauses begin with it or there. Be aware of the constructions that follow these subjects. In the Structure section, parts of a sentence including it and there may be omitted.A sentence or clause may begin with the words it or there.1) It is used in three ways: – It is used as subject followed by the verb to be: It was in 1761 that she came to Boston. (It + to be + that) – It is used as subject when the information is related to an adjective: It was important to be free. (It + to be + adjective + infinitive) – It is used as a subject when it is used with a time phrase: It took her a few years to learn English. (It + take + time phrase + infinitive)
  12. 12. 2) There shows that something or someone exists at a special time or place. In this use, the word there follows this construction: there + to be + subject There are many books about Phyllis Wheatley today. There was a big storm yesterday.In these clauses the verb “to be” and the subject must agree on person.“Expletive”:• Function: noun 1 a : a syllable, word, or phrase inserted to fill a vacancy (as in a sentence or a metrical line) without adding to the sense; especially : a word (as it in "make it clear which you prefer") that occupies the position of the subject or object of a verb in normal English word order and anticipates a subsequent word or phrase that supplies the needed meaningful content.Source: Merriam Webster Online Dictionary: http://www.m-w.com/
  13. 13. SKILL 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES (Adjectives):Do not confuse them with present progressive: The boy is standing in the corner. S V The boy standing in the corner looks suspicious. S Adjective V• The present participle works as an adjective:Tip: If it does not have a form of be, it is not a verb.
  14. 14. SKILL 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST PARTICIPLESDo not confuse them with the following:1. Simple past: She painted the picture.2. Present/Past Perfect: She has/had painted the picture.3. Passive Voice: The picture was painted by Karen.• The past participle works as an adjective: The picture painted looks wonderful. S Adjective VTip: If it does not have a form of be or have, it is not a verb.
  15. 15. Skills 6-8: Sentences with Multiple clauses:1) Compound sentences: A compound sentence is asentence with two or more main or independent clauses thatcan be connected with coordinating conjuctions: (acronym:FANBOYS): for and nor but or yet so• These sentences normally have a comma before the conjunction/connector.
  16. 16. Ana laughed, but she wanted to cry.s v con. s vThe TOEFL exam will be difficult, so we must study hard. s v con. s vThe weather was great, and the sun was shining. s v con. s v
  17. 17. 2) Complex Sentences: A complex sentence is one that has a main or independent clause and a subordinated clause.• Adverb Clauses: These clauses give information about the verb in the independent clause: Time: Cause after because as since as long as now that before inasmuch as as soon as when while since until etc.
  18. 18. Condition Contrast Manner PlaceIf although as whereIn case even though in that whereverprovided thoughproviding whileunless whereaswhether
  19. 19. Teresita went inside because it was raining. Subject verb con. Subj. verbI am going to go to the movies as soon as I finish my TOEFLSub. verb con. Subj. verbexercises.Although there is a lot of information to learn for the TOEFLCon. Subj. verbexam, you can get the 600 points if you work hard. Subj. Verb con. Subj. verb
  20. 20. SKILLS 9-12: Noun and Adjective Clauses• Noun clauses: They are the second type of subordinated clauses. They work as nouns, so they can be subjects, objects of a verb, or objects of a preposition.• Noun clauses as any other clause have the normal order of Subject + Verb. Noun clauses you have used before: Indirect/embedded/polite questions: Where is the bank? Could you tell me where the bank is? Does he work here? Do you know if he works here?• Noun clauses answer the question “What…?” and can be substituted by “it”.
  21. 21. SKILL 9: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLYNoun connectors: what, when, where, why, how, whatever,whenever, whether, if, that.• As object of the verb: What do you know? I know what you did. S V con. S V• As object of a preposition: What are you concerned about? I am concerned about when he will arrive. S V Prep. C S V• As subject of the sentence: What is not important? Con. S V When he will arrive is not important. Subject V
  22. 22. SKILL 10: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLYWho, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever: Can beconnectors and subjects of the clause at the same time.1. As object of the verb: What do you know? I know what happened. S V C/S V2. As subject of the sentence: What was great? What happened was great C /S V V3. As subject of all the sentence: What was wrong? C S V What you did was wrong Subject Verb
  23. 23. • Adjective clauses: These are the third type of dependent orsubordinate clause. They have the same function as an adjective:describe a noun (person, place, thing). This is the book which I bought yesterday. Describes the book. The man who is standing over there helped me. Describes the man• Adjective clauses, like all other clauses, need to have at least a subject and a verb.• Adjective clauses go immediately after the noun they are describing, so they can appear in the middle or end of the sentence.
  24. 24. • Adjective connectors: Who (people), whom (people/object and after prepositions), which (things), that (people or things, but cannot be used after prepositions or when the adjective clause is between commas), where (places), whose (possessive). I liked the book which you recommended. S V C S V The man who you recommended was hired yesterday. S C S V V• Who (people), which (things) that (people or things): Can be connector and subject of the clause at the same time. She needs a secretary who can type fast S V C/S V A secretary who can type fast is invaluable S C/S V V
  25. 25. Skills 13-14: Reduced Clauses1) Adjective Clauses: Only adjective clauses where the connector works as subject of the clause can be reduced.• Clauses with a ‘be’ form: Omit the connector and the form of ‘be’: The girl (that is) sitting over there is my sister. The car (which was) bought by my father is a racing car. The house (that is) on sale is very old.• Clauses with no form of ‘be’: Omit the connector and change the main verb to ‘-ing’ form. I don’t understand the article (which appears) in today’s paper. I don’t understand the article appearing in today’s paper.
  26. 26. Adjective Clauses separated by commas• If the original adjective clause was separated by commas the reduced clause keeps the commas:The homework, which was given by the math teacher, is due tomorrow.The homework, given by the math teacher, is due tomorrow.• We can also change the position of the adjective clause and put it at the beginning of the sentence.The president, (who is) now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his advisors.Now preparing to give a speech, the president is meeting with his advisors.
  27. 27. 2) Adverb Clauses: Only adverb clauses that have the samesubject as the main clause can be reduced.• Clauses with a form of ‘be’ : Keep the connector and omit the subject and the form of ‘be’ of the adverb clause.Although he is rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.Although rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.• Clauses with no form of ‘be’: Keep the connector, omit the subject and change the main verb to ‘-ing’ form.Although he feels rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.Although feeling rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
  28. 28. Some adverb clauses can only be reduced if they are in passivevoice. For example, with adverb clauses with “once” can only bereduced if the verb is in passive voice: Cannot be reduced: Once you arrive, you can start the exam. Can be reduced: Once the exercises are answered, they are checked by the teacher. Once answered, the exercises are checked by the teacher.• Adverb clauses of cause cannot be reduced: as, because, inasmuch as, now that, since
  29. 29. Skills 15-19: Subject and verb inverted1) In questions the normal order of subject and verb/aux. is inverted: Yes/No questions: With verb “to be” Are you a teacher? V S With other verbs: Did you go to the beach? Aux. S V Information questions: With verb “to be” Where are you? QW V S With other verbs: What did you do? QW A S V
  30. 30. 2) Subject and Verb inverted after place expressions: When we have place words or expressions at the beginning of a clause we have to invert the normal order of subject + verb. With verb “to be”: Here is the book you lent me. V S Around the corner is Sam’s house. V S With other verbs: Nowhere have I seen such beautiful weather. A S V In the closet are the clothes that you need. V S
  31. 31. • The inversion of subject + verb with place expressions is only necessary when the expression is essential to complete the sentence. Necessary: In the forest are many exotic birds. V S Not necessary: In the forest, I walked for many hours. S V3) Invert subject + verb with negatives or almost negative words: The subject and verb are also inverted after certain negatives and related expressions: no, not, never, neither, nor, barely, hardly, only, rarely, scarcely, seldom With verb “to be”: Rarely were they so happy. V S With other verbs: Not only did he pass, he got a 100. A S V
  32. 32. 4) Invert the subject with conditionals (Implied Conditionals). In certain conditional structures, the subject and the verb may also be inverted.• When the conditional clause has: Had, should or were Should + S + V base form: (First Conditional) If I should finish early, I’ll help you. Should I finish early, I’ll help you. Were + S: (Second Conditional) If he were here, he would help. Were he here, he would help. Had + S + V base form: (Third Conditional) If you had studied more, you would’ve passed. Had you studied more, you would’ve passed.
  33. 33. 5) The inversion with comparatives is optional and it can be used in formal writing.• All of these forms are correct: My sister spends more hours in the office than John. My sister spends more hours in the office than John does.INVERSION: COMPARATIVE + Aux/V + SMy sister spends more hours in the office than does John.We were more prepared than the other performers.We were more prepared than the other performers were.INVERSION: COMPARATIVE + Aux/V + SWe were more prepared than were the other performers.
  34. 34. General Strategies for Written Expression• First, look at the underlined word or groups of words to see if you can identify an incorrect form or structure.• Then, read all the sentence to verify the correct form and structure of the four answer choices. Some underlined options are incorrect because of something in another part of the sentence.• Never leave any answers blank.
  35. 35. Skills 20-23 Subject-Verb Agreement1) Be careful with: prepositional phrases• If the subject is singular the verb is singular: The key to the doors IS in the drawer. Ob.Prep.• If the Subject is plural the verb is plural: The keys to the doors ARE in the drawer. Ob.Prep..
  36. 36. 2) Make verbs agree after expressions of quantity: all/most/some/half of the. Singular count noun: All of the book was interesting Plural count noun All of the books were interesting Non-count nouns All of the information was interesting.3) When we have structures where we have to invert the normal order of subject + verb we have to be careful to make the verb agree with the subject. Remember this inversion is applied in questions, after expressions of place, after negative or almost negative words, in conditional clauses without “if”, and after comparisons. After these structures the order is: With verb “to be”: verb + subject With other verbs: aux. + subject + verb
  37. 37. Never is she late to class. Should Mary eat candy, she must brush her teeth. In the first drawer is the book you are looking for. How many times have your parents warned you to be careful?4) After indefinite pronouns: everybody, nothing, somewhere, etc., the verb or auxiliary are used in singular form: Everybody was ready for the exam. Does someone know the answer?
  38. 38. Skills 24-26: Parallel StructureParallel Structure means to make the language as evenand balanced as possible.Example:(not balanced: wrong) I like to sing and dancing.(balanced, correct) I like to sing and dance. or I like singing and dancing.
  39. 39. 1) Parallel Structure with coordinate conjuctions: and, but, and or. They are not interested in what you say or what you do. clause + clause You can decide whether to go hiking or kayaking gerund + gerund I like to go home early, but my friends prefer to stay late. Independent clause + Independent clause2) With paired Conjuctions both…and: I know both where you went and what you did. either…or: The report you are looking for could be either in the file or on the desk. neither…nor: The tickets are neither in my pocket nor in my purse. Not only…. but also He is not only an excellent student but also a great athlete.
  40. 40. • Parallel structures with comparisonsmore…..than less….than -er….. thanas….as the same as similar to My school is farther than yours. To be rich is better than not to be. What is spoken is more easilyunderstood than what is written. Their car is as big as yours. This book costs about the same as theother book. The work that I did is similiar to yours. English is less difficult than Spanish.Some helpful hints on how to revise sentences for parallel structure: *1) Figure out what parts of the sentence are being compared.2) Decide whether they are parallel, i.e. arranged or constructed in the same way.3) If they are not, make them parallel by making the grammatical construction the same ineach part.* Source: http://www.evergreen.edu/writingcenter/handouts/grammar/parallel.pdf
  41. 41. Skill 27-29: Form Comparatives and Superlatives Correctly• Comparative: We compare two persons or things.1) Add –er to one syllable words: harder, darker, faster.2) Double the consonant and add –er to one syllable words with v+c: bigger, hotter.3) Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add –er to words with two syllables that end in ‘y’: happier, easier.4) Use more/less before words with two or more syllables: more beautiful, more intelligent.5) Add than after the comparative if you specify the second person or object you are comparing: Peter is taller than Joe.
  42. 42. • Superlative: We compare more than two persons or things. (add ‘the’ before the adjective)1) Add –est to one syllable words: the hardest, the darkest, the fastest.2) Double the consonant and add –est to one syllable words with v+c: the biggest, the hottest.3) Change ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add –est to words with two syllables that end in ‘y’: the happiest, the easiest.4) Use the most/least before words with two or more syllables: the most beautiful, the most intelligent.5) We can also use the words ‘in’, ‘of’ and ‘that after the superlative forms: You’re the most beautiful girl in the world. Your’re the most beautiful of all the girls in the group. You’re the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen.
  43. 43. • Use Comparatives and Superlatives Correctly. Wrong: It is the better sports car that I´ve seen. Right: It is the best sports car that I’ve seen.• Use the Irregular –er, -er Structure Correctly: Two parrallel comparatives introduced by ‘the’: The more you read, the more you learn. The harder you try, the more you’ll accomplish.• Sometimes a verb is not necessary: The greater the experience, the higher the salary.• The rules to form the comparative of adverbs are similar to adjectives except with two syllable adverbs that end in –y. The comparative is formed with more/less, the most/least: more easily.• The comparative of nouns is formed only adding: more/less, the most/least: more work, the most work.
  44. 44. Skills 30-32: Problems with the Form of the Verb• Base form: No person, tense, or number. play work sing come• Present form: With tense, person and number. play(s) work(s) sing(s) come(s)• Present participle: Verb + -ing. Use in prog. tenses. playing working singing coming• Past form: Used with the Simple Past played worked sang came• Past Participle: Used with Perfect tenses and Passive Voice. played worked sung come
  45. 45. Always check what comes:• After any form of have: have, has, had, having we should use the past participle form of the verb: Peter has worked a lot this week. My parents have bought a new car. I had finished my homework by 10 p.m. Having finished my homework, I went out. You should have studied a little more.• After any form of be: am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being the verb can be in: Present participle: for progressive tenses: I am playing. He is playing. I was playing. We were playing. I have been playing. I had been playing.Tip: The subject does the action.
  46. 46. 2) Past participle: for the passive voice: I am checked by the doctor every year. The water is bought every day. The mail has been delivered on time. The movie will be filmed in Mexico.Tip: The subject receives the action.• After modals or modal like expressions use the base form of the verb: can, could, shall, should, will, would, must, ought to, be able to, be supposed to, have to, had better. You can work with us. He should study a lot more. They must finish the project. I would help you, If I had time.
  47. 47. SKILL 33: KNOW WHEN TO USE THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT• If you see a sentence with one verb in the past and one verb in the present, the sentence is probably incorrect because it doesn´t make any sense: I tell him the truth when he asked me the question.• However, it is possible for a correct sentence to have both past and present together and be correct because the meaning is logical. I understand that you were angry
  48. 48. SKILL 34: USE HAVE AND HAD CORRECTLY TENSE FORM MEANING USE EXAMPLE Present Have + Past Past up to Not with a Sue has lived in L.A. for perfect Participle now past tense ** 10 years. Past Had + Past Before Not with a Sue had lived in L.A. for perfect Participle past up to present 10 years when she past tense moved to San Diego **Except when the time expression since is part of the sentence, see skill 35.
  49. 49. SKILL 35: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONSPAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECTAdverb clause simple in 1990, ago, last since 1990, for… already,past tense: when, before, year, yesterday, lately, just, yet, recently, sountil, since, etc. far, many times, ever, never, still
  50. 50. SKILL 36: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH WILL AND WOULD VERB MEANING USE EXAMPLEWill After the Do not use I think that I will leave present with past tomorrowWould After the Do not use He knew that she would past with present comeNOTE: When would is used to make polite requests, it is used with the present tense:“I would like to have a cup of coffee please”.
  51. 51. SKILL 37- 38: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE• Active Voice: The subject does the action. The man bought the books. Subject Verb Object• Passive Voice: The subject receives the action: The books were bought by the man. Subject verb AgentThe passive voice is formed by: Be (takes the tense) + Verb in past participle Present: am/is/are bought Pres.Prog. am/is/are being bought Pres.Perf. have/has been bought Past. was/were bought Past Prog. was/were being bought Past Perf. had been bought Future will be bought Future Perf. will have been bought
  52. 52. SKILL 39: USE THE CORRECT SINGULAR OR PLURAL NOUN A singular noun is used where a plural noun is needed. On the table there were many dish. A plural noun is used where a singular noun is needed. The lab assistant finished every tests. KEY WORDS FOR SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNSFor singular nouns Each every single one aFor plural nouns Both two many several various
  53. 53. Skill 40: Distinguish countable and uncountable nounsSome common mistakes: He has seen much* foreign films. He didn’t have many* fun at the movies.It should be: He has seen many foreign films. He didn’t have much fun at the movies. Key words for countable and uncountable nouns For countable nouns many number few fewer For uncountable nouns much amount little less
  54. 54. Skill 41: Recognize Irregular Plurals of NounsMany nouns in English have irregular plurals; the irregular forms that are themost problematic are plural forms that do not end in S. Different Criteria was* used to evaluate the performersIn this example the plural criteria looks singular because it does not end in S.However, criteria is a plural noun, so the singular verb was used is incorrect.The verb should be in the plural form were used.
  55. 55. IRREGULAR PLURALSVowel Change Man / Men Foot / Feet Goose / Geese Woman / Women Tooth / Teeth Mouse / MiceAdd – EN Child / Children Ox / OxenSame as Singular Deer / Deer Salmon / Salmon Trout / Trout Fish / Fish Sheep / Sheep-IS  -ES Analysis / Analyses Diagnosis / Diagnoses Synthesis/Syntheses Axis / Axes Hypothesis / Hypotheses Thesis / Theses Crisis / Crises Parenthesis / ParenthesesEnds in –A Bacterium / Bacteria Datum / Data Criterion / Criteria Curriculum / Curricula Phenomenon / Phenomena-US  -I Alumnus / Alumni Fungus / Fungi Stimulus / Stimuli Bacillus / Bacilli Nucleus / Nuclei Syllabus / Syllabi Cactus / Cacti Radius / Radii
  56. 56. Skill 42: Distinguish The Person From The ThingNouns in English can refer to persons or things; sometimes in the writtenexpression the person is used in place of the thing, or the thing is used inplace of the person. Ralph Nader is an authorization* in the field of consumer affairs There are many job oppotunities in accountant*In the first example, autorization is incorrect because authorization is athing and Ralph Nader is a person; it should be authority.In the second example, accountant is incorrect because accountant is aperson; it should be accounting.
  57. 57. Skill 43: DISTINGUISH SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNSA subject pronoun is used as the subject of the verbAn object pronoun can be used as the object of a verb or theobject of a preposition SUBJECT OBJECT I Me You You He Him She Her It It We Us They Them Sally gave the book to John. She gave it to him.
  58. 58. SKILL 44: DISTINGUISH POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS• Possessive adjectives and pronouns both show who or what ¨owns¨ a noun.• Adjectives and possessive pronouns do not have the same function.• A possessive adjective describes a noun, it must be accompanied by a noun• A possessive pronoun takes the place of a noun, it can’t be accompanied by a noun They lent me their book. They lent me theirs.
  59. 59. The following chart outlines the possessives and theiruses: POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS My Mine Your Yours His His Her Hers Its - Our Ours Their Theirs Must be accompanied by Cannot be accompanied noun by a noun
  60. 60. Skill 45: CHECK PRONOUN REFERENCE FOR AGREEMENTAfter we check that the subject and object pronouns and thepossessives are used correctly, we should also check each ofthese pronouns and possessives for agreement. The boy will cause trouble if you let him. Everyone must give his/her* name.PRONOUN AGREEMENT1. Be sure that every pronoun and possessive agrees with the noun it refers to.2. You generally check back in the sentence for agreement*In informal speaking we can use their/them
  61. 61. SKILL 46: USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLYAdjectives are used in place of adverbs, or adverbs are used in place ofadjectives. Adjectives and adverbs have very different uses. Adjectiveshave only one job: they describe nouns or pronouns. Adverbs describeverbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. She is a beautiful woman. She is beautiful. ADJ. NOUN PRO. ADJ.She sings beautifully. VERB ADV.She is a beautifully dressed woman. ADV. ADJ. NOUNShe is a truly beautifully dressed woman. ADV. ADV. ADJ. NOUN
  62. 62. Skill 47: Use Adjectives after Linking Verbs• Generally an adverb rather than an adjective will come directlyafter a verb because the adverb is describing the verb. She spoke nicely. VERB ADV.This adverb (nicely) describes the verb spoke.• You must be careful if the verb is a linking verb. A linking verbis followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. A linking verb isa non-action (describes a state) verb that needs a complement.Examples: She looks nice. SUB. ADJ.LINKING VERBS: appear feel seem be look smell become prove taste
  63. 63. SKILL 48. POSITION ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY THE POSITION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS A one-word adjective comes before the noun it describes, it does not come ADJECTIVES directly after. ADVERBS An adverb can appear in many positions. It cannot be used between a verb and its object.Adjectives and adverbs can appear in incorrect positions in the WrittenExpression Section.The two common errors are:- The position of adjectives with the nouns they describe.- The position of adverbs with objects.In English it is correct to place a one-word adjective in front of the noun itdescribes. The information important is on the first page.Here the adjective “important” should come before the noun information,this is because important describes information. The important information is on the first page.
  64. 64. • You should be aware of the position of adverbs with objects of verbs.when a verb has an object, an adverb describing the verb should not comebetween the verb and its object. He has taken recently an English course. Verb Adv. Object• There are many possible corrections for this sentence. Recently he has taken an English course He has recently taken an English course He has taken an English course recently.
  65. 65. SKILL 49: Do not confuse –ly Adjectives with Adverbs ending in –ly -LY ADJECTIVES costly likely daily quarterly northerly early lively hourly weekly easterly friendly lonely monthly yearly southerly kindly manly nightly lovely westerly
  66. 66. SKILL 50: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVES AFTER LINKING VERBS The snake on the rock was alive. CORRECTThe alive* snake was lying on the rock. INCORRECT• In the first example, the predicate adjective alive is used correctly after the liking verb was to describe the subject snake. In the second example, the predicate adjective alive is used incorrectly in front of the noun snake. In this position, the adjective live should be used.
  67. 67. SKILL 50: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVESCORRECTLY Predicate adjectives Forms used in front of noun alike like, similar alive live, living alone lone afraid frightened asleep sleeping A predicate adjective appears after a linking verb such as be. It cannot appear directly in front of the noun that it describes.
  68. 68. SKILL 51: USE –ED AND -ING ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY The woman cleans the car. VERB The cleaning woman worked on the car. ADJECTIVE The woman put the cleaned car back in the garage. ADJECTIVE• In the first example, cleans is the verb of the sentence. In the secondexample, cleaning is a verbal adjective describing woman. In the thirdexample, cleaned is a verbal adjective describing car.The cleaning* car… is not correct because a car cannot do the actionof cleaning. (active)The cleaned* woman… is not correct because a woman cannotreceive the action of the verb clean. (passive)
  69. 69. SKILL 51: USE –ED AND -ING ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY -ED AND -ING ADJECTIVESTYPE MEANING USE EXAMPLE It does the … the happily playing-ING Active action of the children…. verb. (The children play.) It receives the … the frequently played-ED Passive action of the verb. record… (Someone plays the record.)
  70. 70. Skills: 52-54: PROBLEMS WITH ARTICLES: Articles Countable Contable Uncontable Singular Plural Nouns Nouns NounsIndefinite a dollar ---- dollars ----money(General) an apple ---- apples ----juice Definite the dollar the dollars the money(Specific) the apple the apples the juice
  71. 71. SKILL 52: Use Articles with Singular NounsA singular noun must have an article (a/an, the) or some otherdeterminer such as my or each. A plural noun or an uncountablenoun may or may not have an article.I have money. (Uncountable--- no article needed)I have books. (Countable plural--- no article needed)I have a book. (Countable singular--- article needed)
  72. 72. SKILL 53: Distinguish A/An A A is used in front of a singular noun with a consonant sound. AN AN is used in front of a singular noun with a vowel sound.Be careful of words beginning with letters such as u, o, e, x or h. They may begin with either a vowel or a consonant sound.A university A hand A one- way A A xerox street euphemism machineAn unhappy An hour An omen An event An x-ray man machine
  73. 73. Skill 54: Make Articles agree with Nouns• The definite article “the” is for both singular and plural nouns• The indefinite article “a/an” is used only with singular nouns.• One very common agreement error is to use the singular indefinite “a/an” with a plural noun. He saw a new movies. (incorrect) He saw a new movie. (singular) He saw new movies (plural)
  74. 74. Skill 55: Distinguish Specific and General Ideas• With countable singular nouns, it is possible to use either the definite or the indefinite article. BUT THEY HAVE DIFFERENT MEANINGS. ¨A or An (versus) THE¨• A or An:1. Use it when there are many, and you don´t know which one it is.2. Use it when there are many, and you don´t care which one it is. Tom will bring a book tomorow. (any book)
  75. 75. • THE:1. Use it when it is the only one.2. Use it when there are many, and you and your listener know which one it is. Tom will bring the book tomorow. (a specific book.)
  76. 76. Skills 56-57: Problems with Prepositions Prepositions Literal way Idiomatic way It’s very far Means exactly from the real what you expect meaning ExampleThe boy ran up the mountain. v/s I call up my friend. Literal / Idiomatic meaning
  77. 77. Prepositions Prepositions are not only used to show time, place, and agent, but are also used in combination with verbs, adjectives, nouns, and in many common set expressions. We cannot list all prepositions, but some important groups are:1. Verb + Preposition depend on lead to2. Adjective/Participle + Preposition surprised at famous for3. Noun + Preposition example of possibility of4. Other Combinations with Prepositions as a result of in addition to5. Prepositions of Time and Place on May 16 in Washington6. Prepositions in Common Expressions at present in general
  78. 78. VERB + PREPOSITIONaccount for contribute to insist on plan onbelieve in depend on lead to rely onbelong to detach from obtain from result inconfined to fight for overcome by withdraw fromADJECTIVE/PARTICIPLE + PREPOSITION accustomed to different from necessary for responsible for afraid of expert at opossed to successful in based on free from possible for surprised at compared to famous for related to typical ofNOUN + PREPOSITION cause of equivalent of influence on result of cost of evidence of need for use of danger of example of possibility of solution to effect on increase in reason for supply of
  79. 79. OTHER COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS according to in the process of as a consequence of in view of as a result of on account of because of on behalf of by means of on the basis of in addition to prior to in spite of with the exception of in terms of with the purpose ofPREPOSITIONS IN COMMON EXPRESSIONSat times by land/sea/airat present by farat first/last by chanceat the moment by accident by day/nightin common on firein general on the other handin existence on the wholein the future/past on purposein theory on land
  80. 80. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE• Prepositions of Time at time of day (at 8 a.m.) noon, night midnight in parts of the day (in the morning/evening/afternoon) month (in July) season (in the fall) year (in 1980) decade (in the 1980s) century (in the nineteenth century) on days of the week (on Monday) dates (on March 20) for/since duration of time (for three days) point in time (since March 20) from . . . to from beginning time . . . to ending (from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.)
  81. 81. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE• Prepositions of Place at address (at 200 Main Street) on street/road/avenue (on Kings Road) in building (in the drugstore) city (in Los Angeles) state (in California) country (in Japan) continent (in Africa) from . . . to from beginning point . . . to ending point (from Alaska to California)
  82. 82. Skill 56-57: Problems with Prepositions• Sometimes an incorrect preposition is given in a sentence in the Written Expression section of the TOEFL test. The game was called on because of the rain. It must be called off – (canceled) I knew I could count in you to do a good job. It must be count on someone• Sometimes a necessary preposition has been omitted from a sentence in the Written Expression section of the TOEFL test. Can you wait me after the game. It should be: wait for me. I plan attending the meeting. It should be: plan on attending.
  83. 83. Skill 58: Distinguish Make and Do •Make and Do can be confused in English because theirmeanings are so similar. •Make often has the idea of creating or constructing.The following expressions show some of the possible usesof make: She likes to make her own clothes. Would you like to make a cake for dessert? If you make a mistake, you should correct it. He was unable to make a response to the threat.
  84. 84. • Do often has the idea of completing or performing. The following expressions show some of the possible uses of do: This morning she did all the dishes. The students are doing assignments. The janitors did the work they were assigned. You can do your laundry at the laundromat.Many uses of make and do are idiomatic and thereforedifficult to classify.http://www.epcc.edu/ftp/Homes/tracyvm/dovsmake.html
  85. 85. Skill 59: Distinguish like, alike, unlike, and dislike• Like, alike, unlike and dislike sometimes are confused because they look so similar but they have many different uses.1) Like and alike John and Tom are alike. John and Tom worked in a like manner. As you see like and alike are adjectives that have similar meaning. Alike is a predicate adjective, so we can only use it after a linking verb. Like is used immediately before a noun so it is an adjective form.
  86. 86. 2) Like and unlike Jonh is like Tom. John is unlike Tom. Here both words have opposite meanings, they are working as prepositions so they must be followed by objects. The prepositions like and unlike can also be used at the beginning of a sentence.3) Like and dislike John and Tom like the course. John and Tom dislike the course. Here both words are written as verbs, so they are used with subjects.
  87. 87. SKILL 60: DINTINGUISH OTHER, ANOTHER, AND OTHERSTo decide how to use other, another or others, we mustconsider three things:1.- If it is singular or plural.2.- If it is definite (the) or indefinite (a).3.- If it is an adjective ( it appears with a noun) or if it is apronoun (it appears by itself).
  88. 88. SINGULAR PLURAL I have another I have other book. books.INDEFINITE I have another. I have others. I have the other I have the other book. books.DEFINITE I have the other. I have the others.
  89. 89. Bibliography:Broukal, Milada. In-A-Flash: Grammar for the TOEFL Test. New Jersey: Thomson Learning, Inc. 2001.Phillips, Deborah. Longman Preparation Course for the TEFL Test. The Paper Test. New York: Pearson Education, 2003.

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