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INFINITIVE AND GERUNDS
Teacher: Students:
Cesar Velásquez Diosymar Suárez
C.I: 31.102.079
Section: Ac
Porlamar, Diciembre 2022
INFINITIVE
DEFINITION
Verbs in the infinitive are those that express an action without specifying tense, mood or
person. For example: jumping, drinking, sleeping. It is one of the three non-personal forms
of the verb, together with the gerund and the participle, and it is the grammatical form that
gives names to verbs.
FEATURES
It does not distinguish
person, number or time (I
am going to go, they are
going to go)
Has a progressive or
forward-looking aspect
Does not specify the
particular circumstances of
the action
It has an abstract character
It is used as an auxiliary
verb
APPLICATIONS
• The infinitive can function as the subject of a sentence. Unlike the English
language, infinitive verbs in Spanish are commonly used at the beginning of
sentences instead of their gerund form. For example, it is correct to say “Working
hard pays off” (using the verb “to work” in the infinitive), but it is not correct to say
“Working hard pays off” (using “trabajar” in the gerund).
• Subject → I liked the silent walk of that lady
• Nominal Predicate → Your responsibility for the moment is to study
• Name Complement → The typewriter is broken
• Verb Complement → Tell your brother what can happen
• Verb → When you arrived you made everyone laugh
• Adverb → Close to return
• Complement of the Adjective → Complicated to perform
• Circumstantial complement → He left without eating
• Complement Direct → I want to eat
• Complement Verbal Regime → I trust to approve
• Adverb complement → far from complaining
TYPES (bare and full) AND EXAMPLES
• Present infinitive: It is the best known way. It is formed with the structure to + (root
of the verb) and works as a noun in a sentence. For example: To sleep was a
pleasure.
• Negative infinitive: It is formed with not + the infinitive. It may or may not include the
to. As its name implies, it is to deny an action. For example: Try not to be angry.
• Progressive infinitive: It is structured as follows: (to) be… -ing (the to may or may
not appear). It is used to indicate an action that continued, continues, or will
continue while speaking. For example: It's nice to be talking to you.
• Perfect infinitive Its structure is this: (to) have + past participle (the to may or may
not appear). It is usually common in the third conditional. For example: If I had
known you were coming I would have cooked your favorite meal.
• Passive infinitive Its form is as follows: (to) be + past participle (the to may or may
not appear). It is useful in sentences with passive voice. For example: Your trainers
need to be washed.
GERUND
DEFINITION
The gerund is a verb form that can fulfill functions in a sentence beyond those of a
verb, such as subject, object, complement or present participle. It is structured with the
infinitive form of the verb + the suffix –ing, for example, the gerund of walk is walking
FEATURES
The subject of the gerund is the same
as that of the main verb or has its own
subject.
It expresses action that is
simultaneous or prior to that of the
main verb, or in such an immediate
way that it is perceived as
simultaneous.
It must function as an adverb or as a
circumstantial complement or as a
verb.
When it is with verbs of physical
perception, the subject can be the
direct object of the main verb.
Function to form several verb
periphrases.
APPLICATIONS
In the same way that it happens with the infinitive and the participle, the gerund is an
unconjugated form that verbs can take. This means that gerund verbs are not
conjugated, so they do not change depending on the mode, tense, gender, or number.
In summary, the gerund verb is always of the same form (to eat: eating, to sing:
singing, etc.) and when it fulfills its function as a verb it usually does so within a verbal
periphrasis (remember that verbal periphrases are the result of of the fusion of two
verbs that do the work of only one).
In this case, the verb in the gerund, since it is not conjugated, is not considered the
main verb, but this role would be adopted by the verb that accompanies it (it was
running, for example).
• Finish + gerund: It refers to a consequence that happens after a certain or
indeterminate period: "We always discuss where to have dinner for hours and in the
end we always end up going to the same place."
• Carry + gerund: An action that continues in the present from the past (seguir +
gerund has a somewhat similar meaning, but with some differentiating nuance):
"I've been cleaning the house all week."for hours.“
• Present progressive, durative or continuous: An action that is happening in the
present and has not finished yet: “Wait a bit, he is finishing his homework”.
• Seguir + gerund: In the same way that we saw with "carry", the verb "seguir" can
be used together with the gerund to emphasize the durability of an action in the
present or at a specific moment in the past: "I called him in the afternoon for still I
was still working.“
• Stay + gerund: This form underlines the duration of the action for a considerable
time: "I wanted to see more works, but I stayed looking at his painting for hours."
TYPES (subjects, subject complements,
direct objects and prepositional
objects) AND EXAMPLES
A gerund is a verbal noun, that is, a noun that describes an action. It is formed from a
verb by adding –ing.
Examples:
• Swimming is not my favourite sport.
• He likes reading.
When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to
understand that they are not the same.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
• Fishing is fun.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a
present participle:
• Anthony is fishing.
• I have a boring teacher.
Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. Gerunds are not, however, all that easy
to identify. The problem is that all present participles also end in ing. What is the
difference?
Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject complements,
direct objects, indirect objects and objects of prepositions.
Present participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers.
Read these examples of gerunds:
1. Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been his passion.
Swimming = subject of the verb has been.
2. Francisco's first love is swimming.
Swimming = subject complement of the verb is.
3. Francisco enjoys swimming more than spending time with his friends.
Swimming = direct object of the verb enjoys.
4. Francisco gives swimming all of his energy and time.
Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives.
5. When Francisco wore dive fins to class, everyone knew that he was devoted
to swimming.
Swimming = object of the preposition to.
These ing words are examples of present participles:
1. One day last summer, Francisco and his coach were swimming at Daytona Beach.
Swimming = present participle completing the past progressive verb were swimming.
2. A Great White shark ate Francisco's swimming coach.
Swimming = present participle modifying coach.
3. Now Francisco practices his sport in safe swimming pools.
Swimming = present participle modifying pools.
Example:
Verbs that can be followed by infinitives
and gerunds at the same time. examples
Verbs followed by infinitive
• Afford
I can’t afford to go on holiday.
• Agree
I don’t agree to go out in this weather.
• Ask
I asked Mary to come with us.
• Choose
• I chose not to accept the job offer.
• Decide
• Expect
• Hope
• Learn
• Offer
• Prepare
• Promise
• Pretend
• Want
Verbs followed by a gerund
• Admit
He admitted to smoking
• Avoid
I avoid using the car when I can walk instead.
• Consider
• Dislike
• Enjoy
I enjoy travelling
• Finish
• Give up
• Mind
• Practice
• Suggest
Verbs followed by infinitive or gerund
• Start
I started studying English when I was at nursery school. I started to study English when
I was at nursery school.
• Begin
She began to cry as soon as she reached home. She began crying as soon as she
reached home
Continue
Verbs followed by infinitive or gerund
•
Forget
• Forget + gerundio
I can’t forget meeting you for the first time.
• Forget + infinitivo
Please don’t forget to take this letter to the post office.
• Like
• Like + gerundio
I like watching old films.

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PRESENTACION INFINITIVE AND GERUNDS.pptx

  • 1. INFINITIVE AND GERUNDS Teacher: Students: Cesar Velásquez Diosymar Suárez C.I: 31.102.079 Section: Ac Porlamar, Diciembre 2022
  • 3. DEFINITION Verbs in the infinitive are those that express an action without specifying tense, mood or person. For example: jumping, drinking, sleeping. It is one of the three non-personal forms of the verb, together with the gerund and the participle, and it is the grammatical form that gives names to verbs.
  • 4. FEATURES It does not distinguish person, number or time (I am going to go, they are going to go) Has a progressive or forward-looking aspect Does not specify the particular circumstances of the action It has an abstract character It is used as an auxiliary verb
  • 5. APPLICATIONS • The infinitive can function as the subject of a sentence. Unlike the English language, infinitive verbs in Spanish are commonly used at the beginning of sentences instead of their gerund form. For example, it is correct to say “Working hard pays off” (using the verb “to work” in the infinitive), but it is not correct to say “Working hard pays off” (using “trabajar” in the gerund). • Subject → I liked the silent walk of that lady • Nominal Predicate → Your responsibility for the moment is to study • Name Complement → The typewriter is broken • Verb Complement → Tell your brother what can happen • Verb → When you arrived you made everyone laugh • Adverb → Close to return • Complement of the Adjective → Complicated to perform • Circumstantial complement → He left without eating • Complement Direct → I want to eat • Complement Verbal Regime → I trust to approve • Adverb complement → far from complaining
  • 6. TYPES (bare and full) AND EXAMPLES • Present infinitive: It is the best known way. It is formed with the structure to + (root of the verb) and works as a noun in a sentence. For example: To sleep was a pleasure. • Negative infinitive: It is formed with not + the infinitive. It may or may not include the to. As its name implies, it is to deny an action. For example: Try not to be angry. • Progressive infinitive: It is structured as follows: (to) be… -ing (the to may or may not appear). It is used to indicate an action that continued, continues, or will continue while speaking. For example: It's nice to be talking to you. • Perfect infinitive Its structure is this: (to) have + past participle (the to may or may not appear). It is usually common in the third conditional. For example: If I had known you were coming I would have cooked your favorite meal. • Passive infinitive Its form is as follows: (to) be + past participle (the to may or may not appear). It is useful in sentences with passive voice. For example: Your trainers need to be washed.
  • 8. DEFINITION The gerund is a verb form that can fulfill functions in a sentence beyond those of a verb, such as subject, object, complement or present participle. It is structured with the infinitive form of the verb + the suffix –ing, for example, the gerund of walk is walking
  • 9. FEATURES The subject of the gerund is the same as that of the main verb or has its own subject. It expresses action that is simultaneous or prior to that of the main verb, or in such an immediate way that it is perceived as simultaneous. It must function as an adverb or as a circumstantial complement or as a verb. When it is with verbs of physical perception, the subject can be the direct object of the main verb. Function to form several verb periphrases.
  • 10. APPLICATIONS In the same way that it happens with the infinitive and the participle, the gerund is an unconjugated form that verbs can take. This means that gerund verbs are not conjugated, so they do not change depending on the mode, tense, gender, or number. In summary, the gerund verb is always of the same form (to eat: eating, to sing: singing, etc.) and when it fulfills its function as a verb it usually does so within a verbal periphrasis (remember that verbal periphrases are the result of of the fusion of two verbs that do the work of only one). In this case, the verb in the gerund, since it is not conjugated, is not considered the main verb, but this role would be adopted by the verb that accompanies it (it was running, for example). • Finish + gerund: It refers to a consequence that happens after a certain or indeterminate period: "We always discuss where to have dinner for hours and in the end we always end up going to the same place."
  • 11. • Carry + gerund: An action that continues in the present from the past (seguir + gerund has a somewhat similar meaning, but with some differentiating nuance): "I've been cleaning the house all week."for hours.“ • Present progressive, durative or continuous: An action that is happening in the present and has not finished yet: “Wait a bit, he is finishing his homework”. • Seguir + gerund: In the same way that we saw with "carry", the verb "seguir" can be used together with the gerund to emphasize the durability of an action in the present or at a specific moment in the past: "I called him in the afternoon for still I was still working.“ • Stay + gerund: This form underlines the duration of the action for a considerable time: "I wanted to see more works, but I stayed looking at his painting for hours."
  • 12. TYPES (subjects, subject complements, direct objects and prepositional objects) AND EXAMPLES A gerund is a verbal noun, that is, a noun that describes an action. It is formed from a verb by adding –ing. Examples: • Swimming is not my favourite sport. • He likes reading. When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund: • Fishing is fun. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle: • Anthony is fishing. • I have a boring teacher.
  • 13. Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. Gerunds are not, however, all that easy to identify. The problem is that all present participles also end in ing. What is the difference? Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects and objects of prepositions. Present participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers. Read these examples of gerunds: 1. Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been his passion. Swimming = subject of the verb has been. 2. Francisco's first love is swimming. Swimming = subject complement of the verb is. 3. Francisco enjoys swimming more than spending time with his friends. Swimming = direct object of the verb enjoys. 4. Francisco gives swimming all of his energy and time. Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives. 5. When Francisco wore dive fins to class, everyone knew that he was devoted to swimming. Swimming = object of the preposition to. These ing words are examples of present participles: 1. One day last summer, Francisco and his coach were swimming at Daytona Beach. Swimming = present participle completing the past progressive verb were swimming. 2. A Great White shark ate Francisco's swimming coach.
  • 14. Swimming = present participle modifying coach. 3. Now Francisco practices his sport in safe swimming pools. Swimming = present participle modifying pools. Example:
  • 15. Verbs that can be followed by infinitives and gerunds at the same time. examples Verbs followed by infinitive • Afford I can’t afford to go on holiday. • Agree I don’t agree to go out in this weather. • Ask I asked Mary to come with us. • Choose • I chose not to accept the job offer. • Decide • Expect • Hope • Learn • Offer • Prepare • Promise • Pretend • Want Verbs followed by a gerund • Admit He admitted to smoking • Avoid I avoid using the car when I can walk instead. • Consider • Dislike • Enjoy I enjoy travelling • Finish • Give up • Mind • Practice • Suggest
  • 16. Verbs followed by infinitive or gerund • Start I started studying English when I was at nursery school. I started to study English when I was at nursery school. • Begin She began to cry as soon as she reached home. She began crying as soon as she reached home Continue Verbs followed by infinitive or gerund • Forget • Forget + gerundio I can’t forget meeting you for the first time. • Forget + infinitivo Please don’t forget to take this letter to the post office. • Like • Like + gerundio I like watching old films.