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Illuminating the potential
of Scrum by comparing
LeSS with SAFe
with Rowan Bunning, CST and CLP
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Please note
• Goal of this session:
awareness of the potential of ‘deep’ Scrum adoption at any scale.
• More about that than an comparison between SAFe and LeSS.
• There is lots to learn about Scrum by understanding the differences.
• This is not an introduction to Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) and Large-
Scale Scrum (LeSS).
• Appreciating the importance of some concepts may require deeper
exploration than we have time for.
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Session outline
• Unrealised potential
• Key things to know about SAFe and LeSS
• Business - Development relationship
• Team structure and batching
• Organisational control
• Co-ordination
• Where Scrum’s potential can be found
Unrealised potential
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Payoff vs Extent of Scrum Adoption
Overall Payoff
Extent of Scrum Adoption
Deep Scrum
including implications of
Scrum and Lean principles
Implementation as per what
is explicit Scrum Guide only
Superficial Scrum
as typically
implemented
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum adoption iceberg
Scrum as typically
adoptedWhat is Explicit in Scrum Guide
The implications of Scrum
that are implicit Explicit in LeSS
The endless potential of
continuous improvement
Shallow
adoption
Deep adoption
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Single-function job titles
No job titles or sub-teams
Individuals accountable outside of team
Team is accountable as a whole
Content and timing of releases decided
by committee
Content and timing of releases
decided by Product Owner
Sprint Review involves inspection
Sprint Review involves collaborative
adaptation
Shallow Scrum as typically adopted
WhatisExplicitintheScrumGuide
The Tip of the Adoption Iceberg…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Content and timing of releases
decided by Product Owner
Sprint Review involves collaborative
adaptation
Pseudo / Potential Team
Real / Exceptional Team
Undone work each Sprint
Potentially Shippable
Product Increment
Team work focus
Whole Product focus
Managers decide what,
how and do tracking
Managers support and
build capability
Co-ordination mostly centralised
Co-ordination mostly
decentralised
Contract Game
Co-operative Game
Single-function specialists
People with T-Shaped skills
Temporary Projects
Long-lived Product
Development
Component teams
Feature Teams
Bureaucratic control
Market + Clan control
Steep hierarchy
Minimum viable hierarchy
Team membership changes to fill skills gaps
Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles
Decentralised specification
Multiple localised process
improvement efforts
Whole of organisational
system process improvement
ScrumMaster focussed on team
ScrumMaster focussed on
organisational system
WDeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum
Organisation as Factory
Learning Organisation
Deep Adoption…
Key things to know
about SAFe and LeSS
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
150 people
Applicability Thousands of
people
>8 teams
LeSS
LeSS Huge
SAFe - single ART
Value Stream
of ARTs
2 teams
12 people
50 people
ART sweet spot: “100 or so”
Who is working with a group of between 12 and 50?
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Different framings of the problem
Customer-centric LearningProgram Execution
© 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Not agile
Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
© 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Becoming agile…
Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
© 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Not like this though…
Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum
Space for context-specific
elements to emerge
Prescriptiveness
How detailed, complicated and
fully-defined a framework is
High
• Not contextual enough
• Over-specification makes it
difficult for org. learning
• In practice, leads to
method bloat
Example:
Learning Organisations
(Peter Senge, Chris Argyris etc.)
Low
• Just a few principles
• Not enough that is concrete
to know what to do
• Easy to ‘fake-it’
Intent:
• Sufficient enabling structure
• Plenty of freedom for Empirical
Process Control & learning
Thanks to: Craig Larman
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
SAFe contains Scrum
Scrum Scrum
Team
Program
Value Stream
Portfolio
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
LeSS is Scrum
Team
Program
Value Stream
Portfolio
Scrum
➡
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
LeSS takes a different approach
Rather than having Scrum as a building block for a scaled framework, we
need to look at Scrum and for each element ask “Why is it there?” followed
by “If we have more than one team, how can we achieve the same
purpose on a larger scale?”
- Craig Larman
💡Insight…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum need not be limited to the ‘team level’.
It scales vertically.
Business-Development
relationship
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
External contracts spawn internal contracts
Business
External
customers
Development / I.T.
External
contract
Internal
contract
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
We want a solution.
How much is it going to cost?
How long is it going to take?
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business Development
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
more,
more,
more!
1
The Milestone point
is arbitrary
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business
Date & Scope
Development
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
The Milestone point
is arbitrary
more,
more,
more!
less,
less,
less!
1 2
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business Development
The date and scope contract
point represents the time that
both parties have maximised the
ability to shift blame when
something goes wrong.
Date & Scope
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
The Milestone point is arbitrary
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business Development
Date & Scope
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
The Milestone point is arbitrary
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Date & Scope
Responsibility
low control
low flexibility
low transparency
big batches
cannot release early
not “done” until the end
Business
have
completed
date and
scope move
Development
shifts
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Who has seen something
like this going on?
Who is working to an scope
& date agreement now?
Show of hands "
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Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
* Development Phase for The Contract is controlled by R&D.
* The order of work is decided by R&D.
* Product Management does not have control, and there is low
visibility into the status of true progress.
The Contract
ineffective bonus schemes and "tracking
to plan" behaviors are injected, since
there is no real control or visibility
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business
• Development Phase for The Contract is controlled by the
development group
• The order of work is decided by the development group
• The Business does not have control, and there is low
visibility into the status of true progress.
Development
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Shifting blame
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
content freeze
(release contract agreed)
The Milestone point is arbitrary
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
DevelopmentBusiness
There’s been a
surprise!
But you
committed!
Date & Scope
sign-off
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We have a two party competitive game
your faultyour fault
Product
Management
R&Dstart end
(release)
your fault your fault
The Contract
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
Business Development
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Now development pulls out the ‘Secret Toolbox’ including…
• Stopping testing
• Crappy code
• No longer thinking about the design
• No longer taking time to learn
• Not fixing weakness in organisation
• Overtime leading to attrition of the best people
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
On the SAFe PI Planning game
“This planning process has history with Nokia Phones, where the upper
management decided the schedule and content for the next model. Even
when at the talk level this is assumed to communicate realism upwards, the
process is really commitment game. Even, if the management culture
accepts the spirit of realism, the process itself assumes that you are able to
commit locally for the common good.
The teams are "staying in the room" until they vote yes or no for the plan.
They quickly learn to vote yes, because no means re-planning :)”
- Ari Tikka (formerly at Nokia Mobile where SAFe began)
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
External contracts spawn internal contracts
Business
stakeholders
External
customers
Agile Release
Train
PI scope and
date commitment
External
demand
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
External contracts spawn internal contracts
Business
stakeholders
External
customers
Teams
External
demand
✘ No Scope and Date contract
✔ Business steers directly
☸PO
📖
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
To eliminate the win-lose contract game
between Business and Development and
shift to a win-win co-operative game.
To end the blame game.
To begin rebuilding trust.
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What does the Agile Manifesto have to say about this?
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Two simple but critical questions…
Who is the customer to focus on?
What is the product to focus on?
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Insurance company
What is our Product really?
Insurance
Sales
Underwriting
Solution
Premium
Billing
Claims
System
Quoting engine
Leads and
Opportunities
Policy provider
application
Rules engine
Premium
system
Insurance
booking system
Premium
payment
system
Claim checker
Pay back
engine
Underwriting
workflow
manager
Thanks to: Viktor Grgić for the example
The Market I see a Get Insurance
system
…and a Handle Claim
system
‘System of systems’ (SAFe)
or
‘Product’ (LeSS)
Insured Customer
Head of
Department
No, This is
a product
Architect
No, This is
a product
Project Manager
This is a
product
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Whole Product Focus
- Bas Vodde
“It is really really hard to get teams to always
consider the whole product instead of just “their
tasks”. And in the LeSS Framework we do
everything we can to avoid sandboxing, such as
not preselecting items to teams, not having
separate backlogs, not having separate POs, etc.”
Lean Principle: Optimise the Whole
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
to help the organisation focus on the end
customer by defining your product in terms
of what creates value for the customer.
Team structure and
batching
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Component teams lead to planning complexity
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
...
Item 20
…
Item 42
current release:
need more people
next release:
need more people
System
next release
current release
Comp A
Team
Comp B
Team
Comp C
Team
Component
A
Component
B
Component
C
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2009
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
How to manage these
dependencies?
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Planning around component teams
Image credit: boost.co.nz
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
LeSS emphasises Feature-teams that are multi-component
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
…
…
Comp A
Team
Comp B
Team
Comp C
Team
Component
A
Component
B
Component
C
Product
Owner
Feature
Team
Red
tasks for A
tasks for B
tasks for A
tasks for B
tasks for A
tasks for C
contains ex-members
from component
teams A, B, and C,
and from analysis,
architecture, and
testing groups
system
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Dependencies are pushed from planning to integration
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
...
…
system
comp
C
Team
comp
A
Work from multiple teams is required
to finish a customer-centric feature.
These dependencies cause waste
such as additional planning and
coordination work, hand-offs
between teams, and delivery of
low-value items.
Work scope is narrow.
Product
Owner
comp
B
Team
comp
A
Team
comp
B
comp
C
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
...
…
Team
Wu
Product
Owner
Team
Shu
Team
Wei
system
comp
A
comp
B
comp
C
Every team completes customer-
centric items. The dependencies
between teams are related to shared
code. This simplifies planning but
causes a need for frequent
integration, modern engineering
practices, and additional learning.
Work scope is broad.
Component teams Feature teams
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Co-ordination is in shared code
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
...
Item 8
…
Item 12
Team
Wei
Team
Shu
Team
Wu
Component
A
Component
B
Component
C
With feature teams, teams can always work on the highest-value features, there is less delay for
delivering value, and coordination issues shift toward the shared code rather than coordination
through upfront planning, delayed work, and handoff. In the 1960s and 70s this code coordination
was awkward due to weak tools and practices. Modern open-source tools and practices such as
TDD and continuous integration make this coordination relatively simple.
system
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Feature teams are customer-centric
Team has the necessary knowledge and skills to complete
an end-to-end customer-centric feature. If not, the team is
expected to learn or acquire the needed knowledge and skill.
Feature team:
- stable and long-lived
- cross-functional
- cross-component
customer-
centric
feature
potentially
shippable
product
increment
Product
Backlog
www.craiglarman.com
www.odd-e.com
Copyright © 2010
C.Larman & B. Vodde
All rights reserved.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
SAFe Batch Size
Thanks to: Ran Nyman and Ari Tikka, Xp2015 Scaling
Agility explored - LeSS SAFe comparison
Development System
Work pre-allocated to Sprints for 8-12 weeks
Large batches to reduce cost
due to component teams
Program
Increment
Backlog
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
The trade-off
Pre-allocating items to Sprints ahead of
time closes off options and diminishes
Sprint-to-Sprint agility.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
LeSS Batch Size
Thanks to Ran Nyman and Ari Tikka, Xp2015 Scaling
Agility explored - LeSS SAFe comparison
Development
System
2 weeks
Small batches that enable
fast feedback
Backlog
Potentially Shippable
Product Increment
SPRINT	REVIEW
RETROSPECTIVE
OVERALL	RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
PLANNING	1PREVIOUS
SPRINT
NEXT
SPRINT
PRODUCT
BACKLOG
PRODUCT
OWNER
SPRINT
BACKLOG
SCRUMMASTER
&	FEATURE	TEAM
PRODUCT
BACKLOG
REFINEMENT
DAILY	SCRUM
COORDINATION
POTENTIALLY	SHIPPABLE	
PRODUCT	INCREMENT
SPRINT
PLANNING	2
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
to produce a Potentially Shippable Product
Increment every fortnight…
no matter how many teams… as long as they
are feature teams integrating continuously.
Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5
Organisational Control
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Program
Value Stream
Program control abstraction
Value Stream control abstraction
SAFe introduces control abstractions
Teams
Customer focused
Product
Customer
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Control systems in organisations
Market system
Bureaucratic
system
Clan system
• Prices drive very efficient decision making
• Measure Input and Output
• Formal rules, roles, processes, compliance
• Supervision, direction and hierarchy
• Specialisations enable clearer comparison with
like workers
• Informal value based rules
• Allows innovation and collaboration
• Most suitable for unique, interdependent or
ambiguous work e.g. software development
Reference: A Conceptual Framework for the Design of Organizational Control Mechanisms, William G. Ouchi, Management Science, Vol. 25, No. 9. 1979.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Control mechanisms in SAFe
Market control
Bureaucratic control
many roles, processes,
written rules to
manage execution
within PI
Scope & Date contract
Clan control
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Who would like less Bureaucratic control?
Market control
Bureaucratic control
Clan control
You Ain’t Gonna Need It (YAGNI)
Try… direct business - development collaboration
using the simplicity of Scrum patterns
for Minimum Viable Bureaucracy (MVB)
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Control mechanisms in LeSS
Market system
Bureaucratic control
Clan control
self-managing
teams
self co-ordination
decisions at level of
richest information
PO
≪component≫
Publishing
≪component≫
Scheduling
≪component≫
Expenses
≪component≫
KPI Dashboards
Direct co-ordination
Communities for knowledge sharing and agreements Architecture, UX, Testing etc.
💡 $
😀 ☸
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
LeSS is about Descaling…
• Descaling roles and organisational hierarchy
• Descaling organisational structures, policies, etc.
• Descaling architectural complexity
LeSS is More!
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
to decrease bureaucracy
and increase business-development
collaboration
For more on this see:
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The heart of Scrum
Thanks to: Simon Bennett.
Vision Product
Inspect &
Adapt
People Capability
Inspect &
Adapt
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Frequency of Demos vs Sprint Reviews
Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5
Sprint Reviews - Inspect & Adapt Whole Product (2hrs max)
Team Demos
Solution Demo
(After all PI System demos,
1-2 hour)
System Demos
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Frequency of overall reflection
Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5
Value Stream Retrospective
and Problem-solving workshop
PI Retrospective and
Problem-solving workshop
Overall Retrospectives - Inspect & Adapt Organisational System
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Demos vs Sprint Reviews
Sprint Review
Purpose: “inspect the
Increment and adapt
the Product Backlog”
Intent: “optimise value”
Solution Demo
Purpose: “stakeholder
and customer
feedback” “celebrate
the accomplishments”
“harbinger of near-
term… decisions”
Mostly Value
Stream and
senior ART
people
PI System Demo
Purpose: “to test and
evaluate the full system”
Intent: “stay on course or
take corrective action”
Mostly PMs, POs
and senior people
One or more team
members there to
stage demo
Team Demo
Purpose: “closure” “to
show” “feedback”
“measure the team’s
progress”
Mostly teams and
POs
Senior people
likely not interested
“The Sprint Review is an
opportunity for everyone to
collaborate about the product.”
- less.works
😃
$
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Business and development collaborate face-
to-face on the direction of the product…
every Sprint.
To focus everyone on the Whole Product.
To “turn on a time, for a time”
📖
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product Owner: Team or Product focused?
Team
Business Owner
Customer
Product Manager
2..4
Product Owner
1..2
The	Product	Owner	
The	Product	Owner	is	responsible	for	
maximizing	the	value	of	the	product	
The person with the external (market)
contract problem steers directly
PO
☸
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product Owner can work with up to 8
teams when clarification is delegated
PO
Requesters Users Market / domain experts
Decisions
Content and order of
Product Backlog
Detail
Clarification - splitting,
acceptance criteria etc.
💡 $
😀
“Yes”
“No”
“A little now, rest later”
“Sooner”
“Later”
☸
💡Insight…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum facilitates direct interaction between
business people and development teams…
…and not just with the Product Owner.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
www.nature.com/scientificreports
Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human
Cooperation
KatherineA.Cronin1,2
, Daniel J.Acheson3
, Penélope Hernández4
&Angel Sánchez5,6
Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation,
yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation.
Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social
hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then
could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort.Cooperation
was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual
distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner.Compared to a condition lacking
hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower
ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it
was earned or arbitrary.These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that
hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate
findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and
suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation.This work introduces a controlled way to
investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of
human behavior with other primate species.
recei e : 30 a 015
accepte : 0 o em er 015
Pu is e : Decem er 015
OPEN
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
CPJ inspired by Jeff Bezos' most recent annual letter.
https://medium.com/21st-century-organizational-development/type-2-organizations-df3f1f53c66c
Which is Scrum enabling?
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
The responsive organisation
“The future of work is...
an organisation — a decision system — built to break down big decisions
and jobs into smaller pieces that can be processed much more rapidly,
replacing the illusion of top-down control over the future with realtime, active
control over the present. It’s an organisation where very few decisions are
made for others, but many more decisions are being made in the open.”
From CPJ inspired by Jeff Bezos' most recent annual letter.
https://medium.com/21st-century-organizational-development/type-2-organizations-df3f1f53c66c
Who would prefer something like this?
Co-ordination
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Scrum of Scrums: ScrumMaster vs Team representative
“The ScrumMaster is typically the
representative in the Scrum of Scrums
meeting, and he passes information
from that meeting back to the team.”
“ScrumMasters… meet to update their
progress toward Milestones, program
PI objectives and internal
dependencies…”
“A healthy Scrum of Scrums meeting
is attended by team members who do
actual development work and not
ScrumMasters or the Product Owner.”
Intermediation Point-to-point connection
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Co-ordination overheads can be reduced
Source: less.works/resources/graphics.html
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Co-ordination mechanisms
Centralised mechanisms
Scheduled meetings
Disadvantages:
• bottlenecks
• handoffs
• delays
• inhibit emergent behaviour
• teams owning these processes
• inhibit empirical process control
Decentralised mechanisms
Networks of people interacting
Disadvantages:
• more difficult to get an overview
• less broad and consistent info
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Co-ordination: Centralised vs Decentralised
• Just talk
• Communicate in Code
• Integration
Continuously
• Communities
• Cross-Team Meetings
• Multi-Team Design
Workshops
• Current-Architecture
Workshops
• Component Mentors
• Open Space
• Travellers
• Scouts
• Maybe don’t do Scrum
of Scrums
• Leading Team
• PI Planning
• Pre-PI Planning
• Post-PI Planning
• Scrum of Scrums
• Weekly Release Management meetings
Mostly Centralised mechanisms Mostly Decentralised mechanisms
Scrum has the potential…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
to radically simplify organisational structure
without the overheads of unnecessary
specification, co-ordination and reporting
roles.
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
ScrumMaster: Part-time vs Full-time
“SAFe takes a pragmatic approach
and assumes, in general, that the
ScrumMaster is a part-time role”
Dedicated full-time role
In LeSS, the ScrumMaster role is vital. We’ve
seen many organizations try part-time
ScrumMasters, which usually leads to no
ScrumMasters at all. This then affects the
LeSS adoption enormously. In LeSS the
ScrumMaster is a dedicated, full-time role in
the same way that being a Scrum Team
member is a dedicated, full-time role. Having
said that, it is possible for one full-time
ScrumMaster fill the role for up to three
teams, depending on any number of factors.
Where Scrum’s potential
can be found
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Single-function job titles
No job titles or sub-teams
Individuals accountable outside of team
Team is accountable as a whole
Content and timing of releases decided
by committee
Content and timing of releases
decided by Product Owner
Sprint Review involves inspection
Sprint Review involves collaborative
adaptation
Shallow Scrum as typically adopted
TipoftheIceberg-ExplicitinScrum
What SAFe explicitly encourages (1)
(See items in black)
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Pseudo / Potential Team
Real / Exceptional Team
Undone work each Sprint
Potentially Shippable
Product Increment
Team work focus
Whole Product focus
Managers decide what,
how and do tracking
Managers support and
build capability
Co-ordination mostly centralised
Co-ordination mostly
decentralised
Contract Game
Co-operative Game
Single-function specialists
People with T-Shaped skills
Temporary Projects
✔ Long-lived Product
Development
Component teams
Feature Teams
Bureaucratic control
Market + Clan control
Steep hierarchy
Minimum viable
hierarchy
Team membership changes to fill skills gaps
✔ Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles
Decentralised specification
Multiple localised process
improvement efforts
Whole of organisational
system process improvement
ScrumMaster focussed on team
ScrumMaster focussed on
organisational system
DeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum
Organisation as Factory
Learning Organisation
What SAFe explicitly encourages (2)
(See items in black)
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Single-function job titles
✔ No job titles or sub-teams
Individuals accountable outside of team
✔ Team is accountable as a whole
Content and timing of releases decided
by committee
✔ Content and timing of releases
decided by Product Owner
Sprint Review involves inspection
✔ Sprint Review involves collaborative
adaptation
Shallow Scrum as typically adopted
TipoftheIceberg-ExplicitinScrum
What LeSS explicitly encourages (1)
(See items in black)
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Pseudo / Potential Team
✔ Real / Exceptional Team
Undone work each Sprint
✔ Potentially Shippable
Product Increment
Team work focus
✔ Whole Product focus
Managers decide what,
how and do tracking
✔ Managers support and
build capability
Co-ordination mostly centralised
✔ Co-ordination mostly
decentralised
Contract Game
✔ Co-operative Game
Single-function specialists
✔ People with T-Shaped skills
Temporary Projects
✔ Long-lived Product
Development
Component teams
✔ Feature Teams
Bureaucratic control
✔ Market + Clan control
Steep hierarchy
✔ Minimum viable
hierarchy
Team membership changes to fill skills gaps
✔ Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles
✔ Decentralised specification
Multiple localised process
improvement efforts
✔ Whole of organisational
system process improvement
ScrumMaster focussed on team
✔ ScrumMaster focussed on
organisational system
DeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum
Organisation as Factory
✔ Learning Organisation
What LeSS explicitly encourages (2)
(See items in black)
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Structure has a first-order impact on Culture
Excerpt from Larman’s Laws of Organisational
Behaviour…

4. Culture follows structure.
Or, Culture/behavior/mindset follows system &
organisational design. 

…systems such as Scrum (that have a strong focus
on structural change at the start) tend to more
quickly impact culture — if the structural change
implications of Scrum are actually realized.
Source: craiglarman.com
💡Insight…
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum is a catalyst for meaningful structural
change.
Structure has a first-order impact
on Culture.
Process is a lower order influencer.
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Review
1. Scale vertically, not just horizontally to help thousands pull together as one.
2. Reduce bureaucracy and increase business-development collaboration.
3. Transform the win-lose contract game between business and IT into a win-win
collaboration game.
4. Focus everyone on the end-customer and re-structure around this.
5. Produce a potentially shippable product increment every fortnight.
6. Enable the organisation to "turn on a dime, for a dime".
7. Enable resilient self-adapting of both What customer value is created and How it is
created.
8. Radically simplify organisational structure without the overheads of unnecessary
specification, co-ordination and reporting roles.
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
Conclusions
• The implications of Scrum extend well beyond ‘team level’
• Few organisations have come close to realising the potential pay-offs from
Scrum’s implications in the large
• LeSS provides more explicit guidance on Scrum’s implications in the bigger
picture
• The biggest initial barriers to realising potential is understanding and buy-in
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
@rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Where Scrum’s potential is articulated
less.works
Coming soon…
© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb
We’re@rowanb au.linkedin.com/in/rowanbunning
Rowan Bunning
rowan@scrumwithstyle.com scrumwithstyle.com

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Illuminating the potential of Scrum by comparing LeSS with SAFe

  • 1. Illuminating the potential of Scrum by comparing LeSS with SAFe with Rowan Bunning, CST and CLP
  • 2. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Please note • Goal of this session: awareness of the potential of ‘deep’ Scrum adoption at any scale. • More about that than an comparison between SAFe and LeSS. • There is lots to learn about Scrum by understanding the differences. • This is not an introduction to Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) and Large- Scale Scrum (LeSS). • Appreciating the importance of some concepts may require deeper exploration than we have time for.
  • 3. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Session outline • Unrealised potential • Key things to know about SAFe and LeSS • Business - Development relationship • Team structure and batching • Organisational control • Co-ordination • Where Scrum’s potential can be found
  • 5. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Payoff vs Extent of Scrum Adoption Overall Payoff Extent of Scrum Adoption Deep Scrum including implications of Scrum and Lean principles Implementation as per what is explicit Scrum Guide only Superficial Scrum as typically implemented
  • 6. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum adoption iceberg Scrum as typically adoptedWhat is Explicit in Scrum Guide The implications of Scrum that are implicit Explicit in LeSS The endless potential of continuous improvement Shallow adoption Deep adoption
  • 7. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Single-function job titles No job titles or sub-teams Individuals accountable outside of team Team is accountable as a whole Content and timing of releases decided by committee Content and timing of releases decided by Product Owner Sprint Review involves inspection Sprint Review involves collaborative adaptation Shallow Scrum as typically adopted WhatisExplicitintheScrumGuide The Tip of the Adoption Iceberg…
  • 8. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Content and timing of releases decided by Product Owner Sprint Review involves collaborative adaptation Pseudo / Potential Team Real / Exceptional Team Undone work each Sprint Potentially Shippable Product Increment Team work focus Whole Product focus Managers decide what, how and do tracking Managers support and build capability Co-ordination mostly centralised Co-ordination mostly decentralised Contract Game Co-operative Game Single-function specialists People with T-Shaped skills Temporary Projects Long-lived Product Development Component teams Feature Teams Bureaucratic control Market + Clan control Steep hierarchy Minimum viable hierarchy Team membership changes to fill skills gaps Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles Decentralised specification Multiple localised process improvement efforts Whole of organisational system process improvement ScrumMaster focussed on team ScrumMaster focussed on organisational system WDeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum Organisation as Factory Learning Organisation Deep Adoption…
  • 9. Key things to know about SAFe and LeSS
  • 10. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com 150 people Applicability Thousands of people >8 teams LeSS LeSS Huge SAFe - single ART Value Stream of ARTs 2 teams 12 people 50 people ART sweet spot: “100 or so” Who is working with a group of between 12 and 50?
  • 11. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Different framings of the problem Customer-centric LearningProgram Execution
  • 12. © 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Not agile Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
  • 13. © 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Becoming agile… Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
  • 14. © 2014 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Not like this though… Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine
  • 15. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum Space for context-specific elements to emerge Prescriptiveness How detailed, complicated and fully-defined a framework is High • Not contextual enough • Over-specification makes it difficult for org. learning • In practice, leads to method bloat Example: Learning Organisations (Peter Senge, Chris Argyris etc.) Low • Just a few principles • Not enough that is concrete to know what to do • Easy to ‘fake-it’ Intent: • Sufficient enabling structure • Plenty of freedom for Empirical Process Control & learning Thanks to: Craig Larman
  • 16. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com SAFe contains Scrum Scrum Scrum Team Program Value Stream Portfolio
  • 17. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com LeSS is Scrum Team Program Value Stream Portfolio Scrum ➡
  • 18. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb LeSS takes a different approach Rather than having Scrum as a building block for a scaled framework, we need to look at Scrum and for each element ask “Why is it there?” followed by “If we have more than one team, how can we achieve the same purpose on a larger scale?” - Craig Larman
  • 19. 💡Insight… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum need not be limited to the ‘team level’. It scales vertically.
  • 20.
  • 22. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com External contracts spawn internal contracts Business External customers Development / I.T. External contract Internal contract
  • 23. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com We want a solution. How much is it going to cost? How long is it going to take? Product Management R&Dstart end (release) www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business Development
  • 24. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) more, more, more! 1 The Milestone point is arbitrary The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business Date & Scope Development
  • 25. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) The Milestone point is arbitrary more, more, more! less, less, less! 1 2 The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business Development The date and scope contract point represents the time that both parties have maximised the ability to shift blame when something goes wrong. Date & Scope
  • 26. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) The Milestone point is arbitrary The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business Development Date & Scope
  • 27. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) The Milestone point is arbitrary The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Date & Scope Responsibility low control low flexibility low transparency big batches cannot release early not “done” until the end Business have completed date and scope move Development shifts
  • 28. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Who has seen something like this going on? Who is working to an scope & date agreement now? Show of hands "
  • 29. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) * Development Phase for The Contract is controlled by R&D. * The order of work is decided by R&D. * Product Management does not have control, and there is low visibility into the status of true progress. The Contract ineffective bonus schemes and "tracking to plan" behaviors are injected, since there is no real control or visibility www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business • Development Phase for The Contract is controlled by the development group • The order of work is decided by the development group • The Business does not have control, and there is low visibility into the status of true progress. Development
  • 30. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Shifting blame Product Management R&Dstart end (release) content freeze (release contract agreed) The Milestone point is arbitrary The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. DevelopmentBusiness There’s been a surprise! But you committed! Date & Scope sign-off
  • 31. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com We have a two party competitive game your faultyour fault Product Management R&Dstart end (release) your fault your fault The Contract www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. Business Development
  • 32. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Now development pulls out the ‘Secret Toolbox’ including… • Stopping testing • Crappy code • No longer thinking about the design • No longer taking time to learn • Not fixing weakness in organisation • Overtime leading to attrition of the best people
  • 33. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb On the SAFe PI Planning game “This planning process has history with Nokia Phones, where the upper management decided the schedule and content for the next model. Even when at the talk level this is assumed to communicate realism upwards, the process is really commitment game. Even, if the management culture accepts the spirit of realism, the process itself assumes that you are able to commit locally for the common good. The teams are "staying in the room" until they vote yes or no for the plan. They quickly learn to vote yes, because no means re-planning :)” - Ari Tikka (formerly at Nokia Mobile where SAFe began)
  • 34. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com External contracts spawn internal contracts Business stakeholders External customers Agile Release Train PI scope and date commitment External demand
  • 35. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com External contracts spawn internal contracts Business stakeholders External customers Teams External demand ✘ No Scope and Date contract ✔ Business steers directly ☸PO 📖
  • 36. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com To eliminate the win-lose contract game between Business and Development and shift to a win-win co-operative game. To end the blame game. To begin rebuilding trust.
  • 37. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com What does the Agile Manifesto have to say about this?
  • 38. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Two simple but critical questions… Who is the customer to focus on? What is the product to focus on?
  • 39. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Insurance company What is our Product really? Insurance Sales Underwriting Solution Premium Billing Claims System Quoting engine Leads and Opportunities Policy provider application Rules engine Premium system Insurance booking system Premium payment system Claim checker Pay back engine Underwriting workflow manager Thanks to: Viktor Grgić for the example The Market I see a Get Insurance system …and a Handle Claim system ‘System of systems’ (SAFe) or ‘Product’ (LeSS) Insured Customer Head of Department No, This is a product Architect No, This is a product Project Manager This is a product
  • 40. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Whole Product Focus - Bas Vodde “It is really really hard to get teams to always consider the whole product instead of just “their tasks”. And in the LeSS Framework we do everything we can to avoid sandboxing, such as not preselecting items to teams, not having separate backlogs, not having separate POs, etc.” Lean Principle: Optimise the Whole
  • 41. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com to help the organisation focus on the end customer by defining your product in terms of what creates value for the customer.
  • 43. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Component teams lead to planning complexity Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 ... Item 20 … Item 42 current release: need more people next release: need more people System next release current release Comp A Team Comp B Team Comp C Team Component A Component B Component C www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2009 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved. How to manage these dependencies?
  • 44. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Planning around component teams Image credit: boost.co.nz
  • 45. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com LeSS emphasises Feature-teams that are multi-component Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 … … Comp A Team Comp B Team Comp C Team Component A Component B Component C Product Owner Feature Team Red tasks for A tasks for B tasks for A tasks for B tasks for A tasks for C contains ex-members from component teams A, B, and C, and from analysis, architecture, and testing groups system www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  • 46. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Dependencies are pushed from planning to integration Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 ... … system comp C Team comp A Work from multiple teams is required to finish a customer-centric feature. These dependencies cause waste such as additional planning and coordination work, hand-offs between teams, and delivery of low-value items. Work scope is narrow. Product Owner comp B Team comp A Team comp B comp C Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 ... … Team Wu Product Owner Team Shu Team Wei system comp A comp B comp C Every team completes customer- centric items. The dependencies between teams are related to shared code. This simplifies planning but causes a need for frequent integration, modern engineering practices, and additional learning. Work scope is broad. Component teams Feature teams www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  • 47. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Co-ordination is in shared code Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 ... Item 8 … Item 12 Team Wei Team Shu Team Wu Component A Component B Component C With feature teams, teams can always work on the highest-value features, there is less delay for delivering value, and coordination issues shift toward the shared code rather than coordination through upfront planning, delayed work, and handoff. In the 1960s and 70s this code coordination was awkward due to weak tools and practices. Modern open-source tools and practices such as TDD and continuous integration make this coordination relatively simple. system www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  • 48. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Feature teams are customer-centric Team has the necessary knowledge and skills to complete an end-to-end customer-centric feature. If not, the team is expected to learn or acquire the needed knowledge and skill. Feature team: - stable and long-lived - cross-functional - cross-component customer- centric feature potentially shippable product increment Product Backlog www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  • 49. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com SAFe Batch Size Thanks to: Ran Nyman and Ari Tikka, Xp2015 Scaling Agility explored - LeSS SAFe comparison Development System Work pre-allocated to Sprints for 8-12 weeks Large batches to reduce cost due to component teams Program Increment Backlog
  • 50. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb The trade-off Pre-allocating items to Sprints ahead of time closes off options and diminishes Sprint-to-Sprint agility.
  • 51. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com LeSS Batch Size Thanks to Ran Nyman and Ari Tikka, Xp2015 Scaling Agility explored - LeSS SAFe comparison Development System 2 weeks Small batches that enable fast feedback Backlog Potentially Shippable Product Increment SPRINT REVIEW RETROSPECTIVE OVERALL RETROSPECTIVE SPRINT PLANNING 1PREVIOUS SPRINT NEXT SPRINT PRODUCT BACKLOG PRODUCT OWNER SPRINT BACKLOG SCRUMMASTER & FEATURE TEAM PRODUCT BACKLOG REFINEMENT DAILY SCRUM COORDINATION POTENTIALLY SHIPPABLE PRODUCT INCREMENT SPRINT PLANNING 2
  • 52. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com to produce a Potentially Shippable Product Increment every fortnight… no matter how many teams… as long as they are feature teams integrating continuously. Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5
  • 54. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Program Value Stream Program control abstraction Value Stream control abstraction SAFe introduces control abstractions Teams Customer focused Product Customer
  • 55. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Control systems in organisations Market system Bureaucratic system Clan system • Prices drive very efficient decision making • Measure Input and Output • Formal rules, roles, processes, compliance • Supervision, direction and hierarchy • Specialisations enable clearer comparison with like workers • Informal value based rules • Allows innovation and collaboration • Most suitable for unique, interdependent or ambiguous work e.g. software development Reference: A Conceptual Framework for the Design of Organizational Control Mechanisms, William G. Ouchi, Management Science, Vol. 25, No. 9. 1979.
  • 56. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Control mechanisms in SAFe Market control Bureaucratic control many roles, processes, written rules to manage execution within PI Scope & Date contract Clan control
  • 57. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Who would like less Bureaucratic control? Market control Bureaucratic control Clan control You Ain’t Gonna Need It (YAGNI) Try… direct business - development collaboration using the simplicity of Scrum patterns for Minimum Viable Bureaucracy (MVB)
  • 58. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Control mechanisms in LeSS Market system Bureaucratic control Clan control self-managing teams self co-ordination decisions at level of richest information PO ≪component≫ Publishing ≪component≫ Scheduling ≪component≫ Expenses ≪component≫ KPI Dashboards Direct co-ordination Communities for knowledge sharing and agreements Architecture, UX, Testing etc. 💡 $ 😀 ☸
  • 59. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb LeSS is about Descaling… • Descaling roles and organisational hierarchy • Descaling organisational structures, policies, etc. • Descaling architectural complexity LeSS is More!
  • 60. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com to decrease bureaucracy and increase business-development collaboration For more on this see:
  • 61. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com The heart of Scrum Thanks to: Simon Bennett. Vision Product Inspect & Adapt People Capability Inspect & Adapt
  • 62. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Frequency of Demos vs Sprint Reviews Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Sprint Reviews - Inspect & Adapt Whole Product (2hrs max) Team Demos Solution Demo (After all PI System demos, 1-2 hour) System Demos
  • 63. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Frequency of overall reflection Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration 4 Iteration 5 Value Stream Retrospective and Problem-solving workshop PI Retrospective and Problem-solving workshop Overall Retrospectives - Inspect & Adapt Organisational System
  • 64. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Demos vs Sprint Reviews Sprint Review Purpose: “inspect the Increment and adapt the Product Backlog” Intent: “optimise value” Solution Demo Purpose: “stakeholder and customer feedback” “celebrate the accomplishments” “harbinger of near- term… decisions” Mostly Value Stream and senior ART people PI System Demo Purpose: “to test and evaluate the full system” Intent: “stay on course or take corrective action” Mostly PMs, POs and senior people One or more team members there to stage demo Team Demo Purpose: “closure” “to show” “feedback” “measure the team’s progress” Mostly teams and POs Senior people likely not interested “The Sprint Review is an opportunity for everyone to collaborate about the product.” - less.works 😃 $
  • 65. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Business and development collaborate face- to-face on the direction of the product… every Sprint. To focus everyone on the Whole Product. To “turn on a time, for a time” 📖
  • 66. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Owner: Team or Product focused? Team Business Owner Customer Product Manager 2..4 Product Owner 1..2 The Product Owner The Product Owner is responsible for maximizing the value of the product The person with the external (market) contract problem steers directly PO ☸
  • 67. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Product Owner can work with up to 8 teams when clarification is delegated PO Requesters Users Market / domain experts Decisions Content and order of Product Backlog Detail Clarification - splitting, acceptance criteria etc. 💡 $ 😀 “Yes” “No” “A little now, rest later” “Sooner” “Later” ☸
  • 68. 💡Insight… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum facilitates direct interaction between business people and development teams… …and not just with the Product Owner.
  • 69. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com www.nature.com/scientificreports Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation KatherineA.Cronin1,2 , Daniel J.Acheson3 , Penélope Hernández4 &Angel Sánchez5,6 Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort.Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner.Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary.These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation.This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. recei e : 30 a 015 accepte : 0 o em er 015 Pu is e : Decem er 015 OPEN
  • 70. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com CPJ inspired by Jeff Bezos' most recent annual letter. https://medium.com/21st-century-organizational-development/type-2-organizations-df3f1f53c66c Which is Scrum enabling?
  • 71. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb The responsive organisation “The future of work is... an organisation — a decision system — built to break down big decisions and jobs into smaller pieces that can be processed much more rapidly, replacing the illusion of top-down control over the future with realtime, active control over the present. It’s an organisation where very few decisions are made for others, but many more decisions are being made in the open.” From CPJ inspired by Jeff Bezos' most recent annual letter. https://medium.com/21st-century-organizational-development/type-2-organizations-df3f1f53c66c Who would prefer something like this?
  • 73. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum of Scrums: ScrumMaster vs Team representative “The ScrumMaster is typically the representative in the Scrum of Scrums meeting, and he passes information from that meeting back to the team.” “ScrumMasters… meet to update their progress toward Milestones, program PI objectives and internal dependencies…” “A healthy Scrum of Scrums meeting is attended by team members who do actual development work and not ScrumMasters or the Product Owner.” Intermediation Point-to-point connection
  • 74. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Co-ordination overheads can be reduced Source: less.works/resources/graphics.html
  • 75. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Co-ordination mechanisms Centralised mechanisms Scheduled meetings Disadvantages: • bottlenecks • handoffs • delays • inhibit emergent behaviour • teams owning these processes • inhibit empirical process control Decentralised mechanisms Networks of people interacting Disadvantages: • more difficult to get an overview • less broad and consistent info
  • 76. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Co-ordination: Centralised vs Decentralised • Just talk • Communicate in Code • Integration Continuously • Communities • Cross-Team Meetings • Multi-Team Design Workshops • Current-Architecture Workshops • Component Mentors • Open Space • Travellers • Scouts • Maybe don’t do Scrum of Scrums • Leading Team • PI Planning • Pre-PI Planning • Post-PI Planning • Scrum of Scrums • Weekly Release Management meetings Mostly Centralised mechanisms Mostly Decentralised mechanisms
  • 77. Scrum has the potential… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com to radically simplify organisational structure without the overheads of unnecessary specification, co-ordination and reporting roles.
  • 78. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com ScrumMaster: Part-time vs Full-time “SAFe takes a pragmatic approach and assumes, in general, that the ScrumMaster is a part-time role” Dedicated full-time role In LeSS, the ScrumMaster role is vital. We’ve seen many organizations try part-time ScrumMasters, which usually leads to no ScrumMasters at all. This then affects the LeSS adoption enormously. In LeSS the ScrumMaster is a dedicated, full-time role in the same way that being a Scrum Team member is a dedicated, full-time role. Having said that, it is possible for one full-time ScrumMaster fill the role for up to three teams, depending on any number of factors.
  • 80. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Single-function job titles No job titles or sub-teams Individuals accountable outside of team Team is accountable as a whole Content and timing of releases decided by committee Content and timing of releases decided by Product Owner Sprint Review involves inspection Sprint Review involves collaborative adaptation Shallow Scrum as typically adopted TipoftheIceberg-ExplicitinScrum What SAFe explicitly encourages (1) (See items in black)
  • 81. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Pseudo / Potential Team Real / Exceptional Team Undone work each Sprint Potentially Shippable Product Increment Team work focus Whole Product focus Managers decide what, how and do tracking Managers support and build capability Co-ordination mostly centralised Co-ordination mostly decentralised Contract Game Co-operative Game Single-function specialists People with T-Shaped skills Temporary Projects ✔ Long-lived Product Development Component teams Feature Teams Bureaucratic control Market + Clan control Steep hierarchy Minimum viable hierarchy Team membership changes to fill skills gaps ✔ Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles Decentralised specification Multiple localised process improvement efforts Whole of organisational system process improvement ScrumMaster focussed on team ScrumMaster focussed on organisational system DeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum Organisation as Factory Learning Organisation What SAFe explicitly encourages (2) (See items in black)
  • 82. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Single-function job titles ✔ No job titles or sub-teams Individuals accountable outside of team ✔ Team is accountable as a whole Content and timing of releases decided by committee ✔ Content and timing of releases decided by Product Owner Sprint Review involves inspection ✔ Sprint Review involves collaborative adaptation Shallow Scrum as typically adopted TipoftheIceberg-ExplicitinScrum What LeSS explicitly encourages (1) (See items in black)
  • 83. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Pseudo / Potential Team ✔ Real / Exceptional Team Undone work each Sprint ✔ Potentially Shippable Product Increment Team work focus ✔ Whole Product focus Managers decide what, how and do tracking ✔ Managers support and build capability Co-ordination mostly centralised ✔ Co-ordination mostly decentralised Contract Game ✔ Co-operative Game Single-function specialists ✔ People with T-Shaped skills Temporary Projects ✔ Long-lived Product Development Component teams ✔ Feature Teams Bureaucratic control ✔ Market + Clan control Steep hierarchy ✔ Minimum viable hierarchy Team membership changes to fill skills gaps ✔ Stable teamsCentralised specifier roles ✔ Decentralised specification Multiple localised process improvement efforts ✔ Whole of organisational system process improvement ScrumMaster focussed on team ✔ ScrumMaster focussed on organisational system DeepScrum-ImplicitinScrum Organisation as Factory ✔ Learning Organisation What LeSS explicitly encourages (2) (See items in black)
  • 84. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Structure has a first-order impact on Culture Excerpt from Larman’s Laws of Organisational Behaviour… 4. Culture follows structure. Or, Culture/behavior/mindset follows system & organisational design. …systems such as Scrum (that have a strong focus on structural change at the start) tend to more quickly impact culture — if the structural change implications of Scrum are actually realized. Source: craiglarman.com
  • 85. 💡Insight… @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Scrum is a catalyst for meaningful structural change. Structure has a first-order impact on Culture. Process is a lower order influencer.
  • 86. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Review 1. Scale vertically, not just horizontally to help thousands pull together as one. 2. Reduce bureaucracy and increase business-development collaboration. 3. Transform the win-lose contract game between business and IT into a win-win collaboration game. 4. Focus everyone on the end-customer and re-structure around this. 5. Produce a potentially shippable product increment every fortnight. 6. Enable the organisation to "turn on a dime, for a dime". 7. Enable resilient self-adapting of both What customer value is created and How it is created. 8. Radically simplify organisational structure without the overheads of unnecessary specification, co-ordination and reporting roles.
  • 87. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb Conclusions • The implications of Scrum extend well beyond ‘team level’ • Few organisations have come close to realising the potential pay-offs from Scrum’s implications in the large • LeSS provides more explicit guidance on Scrum’s implications in the bigger picture • The biggest initial barriers to realising potential is understanding and buy-in
  • 88. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 89. @rowanb© 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com Where Scrum’s potential is articulated less.works Coming soon…
  • 90. © 2016 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com @rowanb We’re@rowanb au.linkedin.com/in/rowanbunning Rowan Bunning rowan@scrumwithstyle.com scrumwithstyle.com