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Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
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CHAPTER
4
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Business-Level Strategy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management
knowledge needed to:
1 Discuss the relationships between customers and business-level
strategies in terms of who, what, and how.
2 Explain the purpose of forming and implementing a business-level
strategy.
3 Describe business models and explain their relationship with business-
level strategies.
4 Explain the differences among five types of business-level strategies.
5 Use the five forces of competition model to explain how firms can earn
above-average returns when using each business-level strategy.
6 Discuss the risks associated with using each of the business-level
strategies.
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Chapter Introduction (slide 1 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• By selecting and implementing one or more strategies, firms seek to:
• Gain strategic competitiveness
• Earn above-average returns
• Strategies:
• Are purposeful
• Develop before firms engage rivals in marketplace competitions
• Demonstrate a shared understanding of the firm’s vision and mission
• A strategy that is consistent with the conditions and realities of a
firm’s external and internal environments marshals, integrates, and
allocates available resources, capabilities, and competencies to
align them properly with opportunities in the external environment.
• When effective, a strategy rationalizes the firm’s vision and mission
along with the actions taken to achieve them.
Chapter Introduction (slide 2 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• A business-level strategy is an integrated and
coordinated set of commitments and actions the
firm uses to gain a competitive advantage by
exploiting core competencies in a specific
product market.
• A business-level strategy is:
• Something that every firm must develop and implement
• The core strategy—the strategy that the firm forms to
describe how it intends to compete against rivals on a day-to-
day basis in its chosen product market
Chapter Introduction (slide 3 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Customers are the foundation of successful
business-level strategies.
• In terms of customers, when selecting a business-
level strategy, the firm determines:
• Who will be served
• What needs those target customers have that it will satisfy
• How those will needs will be satisfied
4-1 Customers: Their Relationship
with Business-Level Strategies
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Strategic competitiveness results only when the firm
satisfies a group of customers by using its competitive
advantages as the basis for competing in individual
product markets.
• A key reason firms must satisfy customers with their business-
level strategy is that returns earned from relationships with
customers are the lifeblood of all organizations.
• The most successful companies try to find new ways to:
• Satisfy current customers
• Meet the needs of new customers
4-1a Effectively Managing
Relationships with Customers
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Firms strengthen their relationships with
customers by delivering superior value to them.
• Delivering superior value often results in increased
customer satisfaction.
• In turn, customer satisfaction has a positive relationship with
profitability because satisfied customers are more likely to be
repeat customers.
4-1b Reach, Richness,
and Affiliation
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The reach dimension of relationships with
customers revolves around the firm’s access
and connection to customers.
• Richness concerns the depth and detail of the
two-way flow of information between the firm
and customers.
• Affiliation is concerned with facilitating useful
interactions with customers.
4-1c Who: Determining the
Customers to Serve
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• A firm decides who the target customer is by
dividing customers into groups based on
differences in customers’ needs.
• Market segmentation is the process of dividing
customers into groups based on their needs.
• Market segmentation is used to cluster customers with
similar needs into individual and identifiable groups.
• Firms can use almost any identifiable human or
organizational characteristic to subdivide a market into
segments that differ from one another on a given
characteristic.
Table 4.1
Basis for Customer Segmentation (slide 1 of 2)
Consumer Markets
1. Demographic factors (age, income, sex, etc.)
2. Socioeconomic factors (social class, stage in the family life cycle)
3. Geographic factors (cultural, regional, and national differences)
4. Psychological factors (lifestyle, personality traits)
5. Consumption patterns (heavy, moderate, and light users)
6. Perceptual factors (benefit segmentation, perceptual mapping)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Table 4.1
Basis for Customer Segmentation (slide 2 of 2)
Industrial Markets
1. End-use segments (identified by Standard Industrial Classification [SIC]
code)
2. Product segments (based on technological differences or production
economics)
3. Geographic segments (defined by boundaries between countries or by
regional differences within them)
4. Common buying factor segments (cut across product market and geographic
segments)
5. Customer size segments
Source: Based on information in S. C. Jain, 2009, Marketing Planning and
Strategy, Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Custom Publishing.
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
4-1d What: Determining Which
Customer Needs to Satisfy
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Having close interactions with current and potential
customers helps a firm identify the targeted customer
group’s current and future needs that its products can
satisfy.
• In a general sense, needs (what) are related to a product’s
benefits and features.
• Successful firms:
• Learn how to deliver to customers what they want, when they
want it
• Recognize that consumer needs change
• Firms that fail to do this may lose their customers to competitors
whose products provide more value.
4-1e How: Determining Core Competencies
Necessary to Satisfy Customer Needs
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
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• A firm must determine how to use its core
competencies in order to implement value-
creating strategies and develop products that
can satisfy its target customers’ needs.
• Core competencies are resources and capabilities
that serve as a source of competitive advantage for
the firm over its rivals.
• Customers’ expectations can be met and exceeded across
time by only those firms with the capacity to:
• Improve consistently
• Innovate
• Upgrade their competencies
4-2 The Purpose of a
Business-Level Strategy
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The purpose of a business-level strategy is to
create differences between the firm’s position
and those of its competitors.
• To position itself differently from competitors, a firm
must decide if it intends to perform activities
differently or if it will perform different activities.
• Thus, the firm’s business-level strategy is a deliberate choice
about how it will perform the value chain’s primary and
support activities to create unique value.
4-3 Business Models and their Relationship
with Business-Level Strategies (slide 1 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Business models are part of a comprehensive business-
level strategy.
• A business model describes what a firm does to create, deliver,
and capture value for its stakeholders.
• A business model influences the implementation of strategy,
especially in terms of the interdependent processes the firm
uses during implementation.
• Developing and integrating a business model and a business-
level strategy increases the likelihood of company success.
• In essence, a business model is a framework for how the firm will
use processes to create, deliver, and capture value, while a
business-level strategy is the path the firm will follow to gain a
competitive advantage by exploiting its core competencies in a
specific product market.
4-3 Business Models and their Relationship
with Business-Level Strategies (slide 2 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• There are many types of business models,
including:
• The franchise model
• A firm licenses its trademark and the processes it follows to
create and deliver a product to franchisees.
• Example: McDonald’s
• The freemium model
• The firm provides a basic product to customers for free and
earns revenues and profits by selling a premium version of
the service.
• Example: Dropbox
4-3 Business Models and their Relationship
with Business-Level Strategies (slide 3 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The advertising model
• For a fee, a firm provides advertisers with high-quality access
to its target customers.
• Example: Google
• The subscription model
• A firm offers a product to customers on a regular basis such
as once-per-month, once-per-year, or upon demand.
• Example: Netflix
• The peer-to-peer model
• A business matches those wanting a particular service with
those providing that service.
• Example: Airbnb
4-4 Types of Business-Level
Strategies (slide 1 of 2)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Firms choose between five business-level strategies to establish
and defend their desired strategic position against competitors:
1. Cost leadership
2. Differentiation
3. Focused cost leadership
4. Focused differentiation
5. Integrated cost leadership/differentiation
• Each business-level strategy can help the firm establish and exploit
a competitive advantage (either lowest cost or distinctiveness) as
the basis for how it will create value for customers within a particular
competitive scope (broad market or narrow market).
Figure 4.1
Five Business-Level Strategies
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
4-4 Types of Business-Level
Strategies (slide 2 of 2)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• None of the five business-level strategies is inherently or
universally superior to the others.
• The effectiveness of each strategy is contingent on the:
• Opportunities and threats in a firm’s external environment
• Strengths and weaknesses derived from its resource portfolio
• Thus, it is critical for the firm to select a business-level
strategy that represents an effective match between the
opportunities and threats in its external environment and
the strengths of its internal organization based on its
core competencies.
4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy
(slide 1 of 5)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The cost leadership strategy is an integrated set of
actions taken to produce products with features that are
acceptable to customers at the lowest cost, relative to
that of competitors.
• Firms using the cost leadership strategy commonly sell
standardized goods or services, but with competitive
levels of differentiation, to the industry’s most typical
customers.
• Process innovations (newly designed production and
distribution methods and techniques that allow the firm to
operate more efficiently) are critical to a firm’s efforts to
use the cost leadership strategy successfully.
Figure 4.2
Examples of Value-Creating Activities
Associated with the Cost Leadership Strategy
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy
(slide 2 of 5)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Firms that effectively use the cost leadership strategy can earn above-
average returns despite the presence of strong competitive forces.
Rivalry with Existing Competitors
• Because of the cost leader’s advantageous position, rivals hesitate
to compete on the price variable.
• Factors that influence the degree of rivalry that firms encounter
when implementing the cost leadership strategy include:
• Organizational size
• Resources possessed by rivals
• A firm’s dependence on a particular market
• Location
• Prior competitive interactions between firms
• A firm’s reach, richness, and affiliation with customers
4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy
(slide 3 of 5)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Bargaining Power of Buyers (Customers)
• Although customers can force a cost leader to reduce its prices,
prices will not be reduced below the level at which the cost leader’s
next-most-efficient industry competitor can earn average returns.
• A competitor that does not earn average returns would be forced to exit
the market, leaving the cost leader with less competition and an even
stronger bargaining position.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
• A cost leader generally operates with margins greater than the
margins earned by its competitors, thus making it possible for the
cost leader to absorb its suppliers’ price increases.
• To reduce costs, some firms may outsource an entire function to a
single or a small number of suppliers.
4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy
(slide 4 of 5)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Potential Entrants
• Over time, the efficiency of a cost leader enhances its profit margins,
which in turn creates an entry barrier to potential competitors.
• New entrants must be willing to accept less than average returns until
they gain the experience required to approach the cost leader’s
efficiency.
Product Substitutes
• When faced with product substitutes, the cost leader has more
flexibility than do its competitors.
• To retain customers, it often can reduce its product’s price.
4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy
(slide 5 of 5)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Competitive Risks of the Cost Leadership
Strategy
• Competitive risks associated with the cost
leadership strategy include:
• A loss of competitive advantage to newer
technologies
• A failure to detect changes in customers’ needs
• The ability to imitate the cost leader’s competitive
advantage through competitors’ own distinct strategic
actions
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 1 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The differentiation strategy is an integrated set of
actions taken to produce products (at an acceptable
cost) that customers perceive as being different in ways
that are important to them.
• While cost leaders serve a typical customer in an industry,
differentiators target customers for whom the firm creates
value because of the manner in which its products differ
from those produced and marketed by competitors.
• Product innovation (a new product or service
development that solves the customer’s problem and
benefits both the customer and the company) is critical
to the successful use of the differentiation strategy.
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 2 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Through the differentiation strategy, the firm produces
distinctive products for customers who value
differentiated features more than low cost.
• Because a differentiated product satisfies customers’ unique
needs, firms following the differentiation strategy are able to
charge premium prices.
• The ability to sell a product at a price that substantially exceeds the
cost of creating its differentiated features allows the firm to
outperform rivals and earn above-average returns.
• To maintain success by implementing the differentiation
strategy, the firm must:
• Consistently upgrade differentiated features that customers value
• Create new valuable features without significant cost increases
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 3 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Firms using the differentiation strategy seek to
differentiate their products from competitors’
products on as many dimensions as possible.
• The less similarity to competitors’ offerings, the more
buffered a firm is from competition with its rivals.
• Firms use the value chain to determine if they
are able to link the activities required to create
value by using the differentiation strategy.
• Companies without the skills needed to link these
activities cannot expect to use the differentiation
strategy successfully.
Figure 4.3
Examples of Value-Creating Activities
Associated with the Differentiation Strategy
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 4 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• There are ways that firms using the differentiation strategy can
successfully position themselves in terms of the five forces of
competition to earn above-average returns.
Rivalry with Existing Competitors
• Customers of products differentiated in ways that are meaningful to
them tend to be loyal and less sensitive to price increases.
• The relationship between brand loyalty and price sensitivity insulates a
firm from competitive rivalry.
Bargaining Power of Buyers (Customers)
• Purchasers of differentiated products accept price increases as long
as they continue to perceive the products satisfy their distinctive
needs at an acceptable cost.
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 5 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
• Higher costs from suppliers can be:
• Absorbed by high margins earned by the firm
• Passed on to customers through price increases
Potential Entrants
• Substantial barriers to potential entrants are created by:
• Customer loyalty
• The need to overcome the uniqueness of a differentiated product
Product Substitutes
• Companies selling brand-name products to loyal customers face a
lower probability of customers switching to substitute products.
4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 6 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Competitive Risks of the Differentiation Strategy
• Risks associated with the differentiation strategy include:
• A customer group’s decision that a differentiated product’s
unique features are no longer worth a premium price
• The inability of a differentiated product to create the type of value
for which customers are willing to pay a premium price
• The ability of competitors to provide customers with products that
have features similar to those of the differentiated product, but at
a lower cost
• Counterfeiting
• The failure of a firm to meet customers’ expectations through its
efforts to implement the differentiation strategy
4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 1 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The focus strategy is an integrated set of
actions taken to produce products that serve the
needs of a particular segment of customers.
• Market segments firms may choose to serve by
implementing a focus strategy include:
• A particular buyer group
• Example: Senior citizens
• A different segment of a product line
• Example: Products for professional painters
• A different geographic market
• Example: Northern or southern Italy
4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 2 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• A focus strategy leads to success when the firm:
• Serves a segment well whose unique needs are so specialized that
broad-based competitors choose not to serve that segment
• Creates value for a segment that exceeds the value created by industry-
wide competitors
• Firms can create value for customers in specific and unique market
segments by using the:
• Focused cost leadership strategy
• Focused differentiation strategy
• The activities required to use both of these strategies and the
manner in which both of these strategies allow a firm to deal
successfully with the five competitive forces are virtually identical to
those of the industry-wide cost leadership and differentiation
strategies.
4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 3 of 3)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Competitive Risks of Focus Strategies
• The competitive risks of focus strategies include:
• A competitor’s ability to use its core competencies to
“out-focus” the focuser by serving an even more
narrowly defined market segment
• An industry-wide company’s decision that the market
segment served by the firm using a focus strategy is
attractive and worthy of competitive pursuit
• A reduction in differences of the needs between
customers in a narrow market segment and the
industry-wide market over time
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 1 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• The integrated cost leadership/differentiation
strategy finds a firm engaging simultaneously in primary
value chain activities and support functions to achieve a
low cost position with some product differentiation.
• When using this strategy, firms seek to produce products
at a relatively low cost that have some differentiated
features that their customers value.
• Firms that successfully use the integrated cost
leadership/differentiation strategy usually adapt quickly
to new technologies and rapid changes in their external
environments.
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 2 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
• Developing two sources of competitive advantage
(cost and differentiation) increases the number of
primary value chain activities and support
functions in which the firm becomes competent.
• Flexibility is required to learn how to use primary
value chain activities and support functions in ways to
produce differentiated products at relatively low costs.
• Three sources of flexibility used to implement the integrated
cost leadership/differentiation strategy successfully include:
1. Flexible manufacturing systems
2. Information networks
3. Total quality management systems
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 3 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Flexible Manufacturing Systems
• A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a computer-controlled
process that firms use to produce a variety of products in moderate,
flexible quantities with a minimum of manual intervention.
• The goal of an FMS is to eliminate the “low cost versus product
variety” trade-off that is inherent in traditional manufacturing
technologies.
• An FMS allows a firm to:
• Change quickly and easily from making one product to making another
• Increase its effectiveness in responding to changes in its customers’
needs, while retaining low-cost advantages and consistent product quality
• Reduce the lot size needed to manufacture a product efficiently
• Have a greater capacity to serve the unique needs of a narrow
competitive scope
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 4 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Information Networks
• Information networks link companies with their:
• Suppliers
• Distributors
• Customers
• Customer relationship management (CRM) is an information-
network process that firms use to manage relationships with
customers.
• When used effectively, information networks help the
firm satisfy customer expectations in terms of:
• Product quality
• Delivery speed
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 5 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Total Quality Management Systems
• Total quality management (TQM) involves the implementation of
appropriate tools/techniques to provide products and services to
customers with best quality.
• Firms develop and use TQM systems to:
• Increase customer satisfaction
• Cut costs
• Reduce the amount of time required to introduce innovative products to
the marketplace
• An effective TQM system helps the firm develop the flexibility
needed to identify opportunities to simultaneously:
• Increase its product’s differentiated features
• Reduce costs
4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/
Differentiation Strategy (slide 6 of 6)
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Competitive Risks of the Integrated Cost
Leadership/Differentiation Strategy
• The primary risk of this strategy is that a firm
might produce products that do not offer
sufficient value in terms of either low cost or
differentiation.
• In such cases, the company becomes “stuck in the
middle.”
• Firms stuck in the middle:
• Compete at a disadvantage
• Are unable to earn more than average returns
APPENDIX
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Choose from the following questions (also found in the text at the end of the chapter)
to conduct in-class discussions around key chapter concepts.
Discussion:
• What is a business-level strategy?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Discussion:
• What is the relationship between a firm’s
customers and its business-level strategy in
terms of who, what, and how? Why is this
relationship important?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Discussion:
• What is a business model and how do business
models differ from business-level strategies?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Discussion:
• What are the differences among the cost
leadership, differentiation, focused cost
leadership, focused differentiation, and
integrated cost leadership/differentiation
business-level strategies?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Discussion:
• How can firms use each of the business-level
strategies to position themselves favorably
relative to the five forces of competition?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
Discussion:
• What are the specific risks associated with using
each business-level strategy?
Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.

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hitt13epptch04-200309153912.pptx

  • 1. Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 2. CHAPTER 4 Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Business-Level Strategy
  • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: 1 Discuss the relationships between customers and business-level strategies in terms of who, what, and how. 2 Explain the purpose of forming and implementing a business-level strategy. 3 Describe business models and explain their relationship with business- level strategies. 4 Explain the differences among five types of business-level strategies. 5 Use the five forces of competition model to explain how firms can earn above-average returns when using each business-level strategy. 6 Discuss the risks associated with using each of the business-level strategies. Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 4. Chapter Introduction (slide 1 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • By selecting and implementing one or more strategies, firms seek to: • Gain strategic competitiveness • Earn above-average returns • Strategies: • Are purposeful • Develop before firms engage rivals in marketplace competitions • Demonstrate a shared understanding of the firm’s vision and mission • A strategy that is consistent with the conditions and realities of a firm’s external and internal environments marshals, integrates, and allocates available resources, capabilities, and competencies to align them properly with opportunities in the external environment. • When effective, a strategy rationalizes the firm’s vision and mission along with the actions taken to achieve them.
  • 5. Chapter Introduction (slide 2 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • A business-level strategy is an integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions the firm uses to gain a competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in a specific product market. • A business-level strategy is: • Something that every firm must develop and implement • The core strategy—the strategy that the firm forms to describe how it intends to compete against rivals on a day-to- day basis in its chosen product market
  • 6. Chapter Introduction (slide 3 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Customers are the foundation of successful business-level strategies. • In terms of customers, when selecting a business- level strategy, the firm determines: • Who will be served • What needs those target customers have that it will satisfy • How those will needs will be satisfied
  • 7. 4-1 Customers: Their Relationship with Business-Level Strategies Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Strategic competitiveness results only when the firm satisfies a group of customers by using its competitive advantages as the basis for competing in individual product markets. • A key reason firms must satisfy customers with their business- level strategy is that returns earned from relationships with customers are the lifeblood of all organizations. • The most successful companies try to find new ways to: • Satisfy current customers • Meet the needs of new customers
  • 8. 4-1a Effectively Managing Relationships with Customers Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Firms strengthen their relationships with customers by delivering superior value to them. • Delivering superior value often results in increased customer satisfaction. • In turn, customer satisfaction has a positive relationship with profitability because satisfied customers are more likely to be repeat customers.
  • 9. 4-1b Reach, Richness, and Affiliation Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The reach dimension of relationships with customers revolves around the firm’s access and connection to customers. • Richness concerns the depth and detail of the two-way flow of information between the firm and customers. • Affiliation is concerned with facilitating useful interactions with customers.
  • 10. 4-1c Who: Determining the Customers to Serve Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • A firm decides who the target customer is by dividing customers into groups based on differences in customers’ needs. • Market segmentation is the process of dividing customers into groups based on their needs. • Market segmentation is used to cluster customers with similar needs into individual and identifiable groups. • Firms can use almost any identifiable human or organizational characteristic to subdivide a market into segments that differ from one another on a given characteristic.
  • 11. Table 4.1 Basis for Customer Segmentation (slide 1 of 2) Consumer Markets 1. Demographic factors (age, income, sex, etc.) 2. Socioeconomic factors (social class, stage in the family life cycle) 3. Geographic factors (cultural, regional, and national differences) 4. Psychological factors (lifestyle, personality traits) 5. Consumption patterns (heavy, moderate, and light users) 6. Perceptual factors (benefit segmentation, perceptual mapping) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 12. Table 4.1 Basis for Customer Segmentation (slide 2 of 2) Industrial Markets 1. End-use segments (identified by Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] code) 2. Product segments (based on technological differences or production economics) 3. Geographic segments (defined by boundaries between countries or by regional differences within them) 4. Common buying factor segments (cut across product market and geographic segments) 5. Customer size segments Source: Based on information in S. C. Jain, 2009, Marketing Planning and Strategy, Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Custom Publishing. Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 13. 4-1d What: Determining Which Customer Needs to Satisfy Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Having close interactions with current and potential customers helps a firm identify the targeted customer group’s current and future needs that its products can satisfy. • In a general sense, needs (what) are related to a product’s benefits and features. • Successful firms: • Learn how to deliver to customers what they want, when they want it • Recognize that consumer needs change • Firms that fail to do this may lose their customers to competitors whose products provide more value.
  • 14. 4-1e How: Determining Core Competencies Necessary to Satisfy Customer Needs Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • A firm must determine how to use its core competencies in order to implement value- creating strategies and develop products that can satisfy its target customers’ needs. • Core competencies are resources and capabilities that serve as a source of competitive advantage for the firm over its rivals. • Customers’ expectations can be met and exceeded across time by only those firms with the capacity to: • Improve consistently • Innovate • Upgrade their competencies
  • 15. 4-2 The Purpose of a Business-Level Strategy Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The purpose of a business-level strategy is to create differences between the firm’s position and those of its competitors. • To position itself differently from competitors, a firm must decide if it intends to perform activities differently or if it will perform different activities. • Thus, the firm’s business-level strategy is a deliberate choice about how it will perform the value chain’s primary and support activities to create unique value.
  • 16. 4-3 Business Models and their Relationship with Business-Level Strategies (slide 1 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Business models are part of a comprehensive business- level strategy. • A business model describes what a firm does to create, deliver, and capture value for its stakeholders. • A business model influences the implementation of strategy, especially in terms of the interdependent processes the firm uses during implementation. • Developing and integrating a business model and a business- level strategy increases the likelihood of company success. • In essence, a business model is a framework for how the firm will use processes to create, deliver, and capture value, while a business-level strategy is the path the firm will follow to gain a competitive advantage by exploiting its core competencies in a specific product market.
  • 17. 4-3 Business Models and their Relationship with Business-Level Strategies (slide 2 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • There are many types of business models, including: • The franchise model • A firm licenses its trademark and the processes it follows to create and deliver a product to franchisees. • Example: McDonald’s • The freemium model • The firm provides a basic product to customers for free and earns revenues and profits by selling a premium version of the service. • Example: Dropbox
  • 18. 4-3 Business Models and their Relationship with Business-Level Strategies (slide 3 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The advertising model • For a fee, a firm provides advertisers with high-quality access to its target customers. • Example: Google • The subscription model • A firm offers a product to customers on a regular basis such as once-per-month, once-per-year, or upon demand. • Example: Netflix • The peer-to-peer model • A business matches those wanting a particular service with those providing that service. • Example: Airbnb
  • 19. 4-4 Types of Business-Level Strategies (slide 1 of 2) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Firms choose between five business-level strategies to establish and defend their desired strategic position against competitors: 1. Cost leadership 2. Differentiation 3. Focused cost leadership 4. Focused differentiation 5. Integrated cost leadership/differentiation • Each business-level strategy can help the firm establish and exploit a competitive advantage (either lowest cost or distinctiveness) as the basis for how it will create value for customers within a particular competitive scope (broad market or narrow market).
  • 20. Figure 4.1 Five Business-Level Strategies Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 21. 4-4 Types of Business-Level Strategies (slide 2 of 2) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • None of the five business-level strategies is inherently or universally superior to the others. • The effectiveness of each strategy is contingent on the: • Opportunities and threats in a firm’s external environment • Strengths and weaknesses derived from its resource portfolio • Thus, it is critical for the firm to select a business-level strategy that represents an effective match between the opportunities and threats in its external environment and the strengths of its internal organization based on its core competencies.
  • 22. 4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy (slide 1 of 5) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The cost leadership strategy is an integrated set of actions taken to produce products with features that are acceptable to customers at the lowest cost, relative to that of competitors. • Firms using the cost leadership strategy commonly sell standardized goods or services, but with competitive levels of differentiation, to the industry’s most typical customers. • Process innovations (newly designed production and distribution methods and techniques that allow the firm to operate more efficiently) are critical to a firm’s efforts to use the cost leadership strategy successfully.
  • 23. Figure 4.2 Examples of Value-Creating Activities Associated with the Cost Leadership Strategy Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 24. 4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy (slide 2 of 5) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Firms that effectively use the cost leadership strategy can earn above- average returns despite the presence of strong competitive forces. Rivalry with Existing Competitors • Because of the cost leader’s advantageous position, rivals hesitate to compete on the price variable. • Factors that influence the degree of rivalry that firms encounter when implementing the cost leadership strategy include: • Organizational size • Resources possessed by rivals • A firm’s dependence on a particular market • Location • Prior competitive interactions between firms • A firm’s reach, richness, and affiliation with customers
  • 25. 4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy (slide 3 of 5) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Bargaining Power of Buyers (Customers) • Although customers can force a cost leader to reduce its prices, prices will not be reduced below the level at which the cost leader’s next-most-efficient industry competitor can earn average returns. • A competitor that does not earn average returns would be forced to exit the market, leaving the cost leader with less competition and an even stronger bargaining position. Bargaining Power of Suppliers • A cost leader generally operates with margins greater than the margins earned by its competitors, thus making it possible for the cost leader to absorb its suppliers’ price increases. • To reduce costs, some firms may outsource an entire function to a single or a small number of suppliers.
  • 26. 4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy (slide 4 of 5) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Potential Entrants • Over time, the efficiency of a cost leader enhances its profit margins, which in turn creates an entry barrier to potential competitors. • New entrants must be willing to accept less than average returns until they gain the experience required to approach the cost leader’s efficiency. Product Substitutes • When faced with product substitutes, the cost leader has more flexibility than do its competitors. • To retain customers, it often can reduce its product’s price.
  • 27. 4-4a Cost Leadership Strategy (slide 5 of 5) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Competitive Risks of the Cost Leadership Strategy • Competitive risks associated with the cost leadership strategy include: • A loss of competitive advantage to newer technologies • A failure to detect changes in customers’ needs • The ability to imitate the cost leader’s competitive advantage through competitors’ own distinct strategic actions
  • 28. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 1 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The differentiation strategy is an integrated set of actions taken to produce products (at an acceptable cost) that customers perceive as being different in ways that are important to them. • While cost leaders serve a typical customer in an industry, differentiators target customers for whom the firm creates value because of the manner in which its products differ from those produced and marketed by competitors. • Product innovation (a new product or service development that solves the customer’s problem and benefits both the customer and the company) is critical to the successful use of the differentiation strategy.
  • 29. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 2 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Through the differentiation strategy, the firm produces distinctive products for customers who value differentiated features more than low cost. • Because a differentiated product satisfies customers’ unique needs, firms following the differentiation strategy are able to charge premium prices. • The ability to sell a product at a price that substantially exceeds the cost of creating its differentiated features allows the firm to outperform rivals and earn above-average returns. • To maintain success by implementing the differentiation strategy, the firm must: • Consistently upgrade differentiated features that customers value • Create new valuable features without significant cost increases
  • 30. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 3 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Firms using the differentiation strategy seek to differentiate their products from competitors’ products on as many dimensions as possible. • The less similarity to competitors’ offerings, the more buffered a firm is from competition with its rivals. • Firms use the value chain to determine if they are able to link the activities required to create value by using the differentiation strategy. • Companies without the skills needed to link these activities cannot expect to use the differentiation strategy successfully.
  • 31. Figure 4.3 Examples of Value-Creating Activities Associated with the Differentiation Strategy Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 32. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 4 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • There are ways that firms using the differentiation strategy can successfully position themselves in terms of the five forces of competition to earn above-average returns. Rivalry with Existing Competitors • Customers of products differentiated in ways that are meaningful to them tend to be loyal and less sensitive to price increases. • The relationship between brand loyalty and price sensitivity insulates a firm from competitive rivalry. Bargaining Power of Buyers (Customers) • Purchasers of differentiated products accept price increases as long as they continue to perceive the products satisfy their distinctive needs at an acceptable cost.
  • 33. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 5 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Bargaining Power of Suppliers • Higher costs from suppliers can be: • Absorbed by high margins earned by the firm • Passed on to customers through price increases Potential Entrants • Substantial barriers to potential entrants are created by: • Customer loyalty • The need to overcome the uniqueness of a differentiated product Product Substitutes • Companies selling brand-name products to loyal customers face a lower probability of customers switching to substitute products.
  • 34. 4-4b Differentiation Strategy (slide 6 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Competitive Risks of the Differentiation Strategy • Risks associated with the differentiation strategy include: • A customer group’s decision that a differentiated product’s unique features are no longer worth a premium price • The inability of a differentiated product to create the type of value for which customers are willing to pay a premium price • The ability of competitors to provide customers with products that have features similar to those of the differentiated product, but at a lower cost • Counterfeiting • The failure of a firm to meet customers’ expectations through its efforts to implement the differentiation strategy
  • 35. 4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 1 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The focus strategy is an integrated set of actions taken to produce products that serve the needs of a particular segment of customers. • Market segments firms may choose to serve by implementing a focus strategy include: • A particular buyer group • Example: Senior citizens • A different segment of a product line • Example: Products for professional painters • A different geographic market • Example: Northern or southern Italy
  • 36. 4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 2 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • A focus strategy leads to success when the firm: • Serves a segment well whose unique needs are so specialized that broad-based competitors choose not to serve that segment • Creates value for a segment that exceeds the value created by industry- wide competitors • Firms can create value for customers in specific and unique market segments by using the: • Focused cost leadership strategy • Focused differentiation strategy • The activities required to use both of these strategies and the manner in which both of these strategies allow a firm to deal successfully with the five competitive forces are virtually identical to those of the industry-wide cost leadership and differentiation strategies.
  • 37. 4-4c Focus Strategies (slide 3 of 3) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Competitive Risks of Focus Strategies • The competitive risks of focus strategies include: • A competitor’s ability to use its core competencies to “out-focus” the focuser by serving an even more narrowly defined market segment • An industry-wide company’s decision that the market segment served by the firm using a focus strategy is attractive and worthy of competitive pursuit • A reduction in differences of the needs between customers in a narrow market segment and the industry-wide market over time
  • 38. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 1 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • The integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy finds a firm engaging simultaneously in primary value chain activities and support functions to achieve a low cost position with some product differentiation. • When using this strategy, firms seek to produce products at a relatively low cost that have some differentiated features that their customers value. • Firms that successfully use the integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy usually adapt quickly to new technologies and rapid changes in their external environments.
  • 39. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 2 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. • Developing two sources of competitive advantage (cost and differentiation) increases the number of primary value chain activities and support functions in which the firm becomes competent. • Flexibility is required to learn how to use primary value chain activities and support functions in ways to produce differentiated products at relatively low costs. • Three sources of flexibility used to implement the integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy successfully include: 1. Flexible manufacturing systems 2. Information networks 3. Total quality management systems
  • 40. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 3 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Flexible Manufacturing Systems • A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a computer-controlled process that firms use to produce a variety of products in moderate, flexible quantities with a minimum of manual intervention. • The goal of an FMS is to eliminate the “low cost versus product variety” trade-off that is inherent in traditional manufacturing technologies. • An FMS allows a firm to: • Change quickly and easily from making one product to making another • Increase its effectiveness in responding to changes in its customers’ needs, while retaining low-cost advantages and consistent product quality • Reduce the lot size needed to manufacture a product efficiently • Have a greater capacity to serve the unique needs of a narrow competitive scope
  • 41. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 4 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Information Networks • Information networks link companies with their: • Suppliers • Distributors • Customers • Customer relationship management (CRM) is an information- network process that firms use to manage relationships with customers. • When used effectively, information networks help the firm satisfy customer expectations in terms of: • Product quality • Delivery speed
  • 42. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 5 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Total Quality Management Systems • Total quality management (TQM) involves the implementation of appropriate tools/techniques to provide products and services to customers with best quality. • Firms develop and use TQM systems to: • Increase customer satisfaction • Cut costs • Reduce the amount of time required to introduce innovative products to the marketplace • An effective TQM system helps the firm develop the flexibility needed to identify opportunities to simultaneously: • Increase its product’s differentiated features • Reduce costs
  • 43. 4-4d Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (slide 6 of 6) Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. Competitive Risks of the Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy • The primary risk of this strategy is that a firm might produce products that do not offer sufficient value in terms of either low cost or differentiation. • In such cases, the company becomes “stuck in the middle.” • Firms stuck in the middle: • Compete at a disadvantage • Are unable to earn more than average returns
  • 44. APPENDIX Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part. NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Choose from the following questions (also found in the text at the end of the chapter) to conduct in-class discussions around key chapter concepts.
  • 45. Discussion: • What is a business-level strategy? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 46. Discussion: • What is the relationship between a firm’s customers and its business-level strategy in terms of who, what, and how? Why is this relationship important? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 47. Discussion: • What is a business model and how do business models differ from business-level strategies? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 48. Discussion: • What are the differences among the cost leadership, differentiation, focused cost leadership, focused differentiation, and integrated cost leadership/differentiation business-level strategies? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 49. Discussion: • How can firms use each of the business-level strategies to position themselves favorably relative to the five forces of competition? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.
  • 50. Discussion: • What are the specific risks associated with using each business-level strategy? Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 13e. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or part.