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IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT
OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE IMPACTS
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS AGRICULTURE?
• Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and rearing animals to
produce food, fiber, and other useful products.
• Farmers work hard to prepare the soil, plant seeds, provide water, and
protect crops from pests and diseases.
• They also raise livestock, such as cows, chickens, and pigs, for meat,
milk, and eggs.
• Agriculture requires knowledge of seasons, weather patterns, and
proper care for different plants and animals.
INTRODUCTION
• It is well known that about one-third of the world’s land surface is
under agriculture. The environment directly influences the existence
and sustainability of agriculture as it depends upon the use of natural
resources. Undoubtedly, agriculture has a greater environmental
impact on Earth (Steinfeld et al., 2006).
• According to IPCC 2007 report, the three main causes of the increase
in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil
fuels land use, and agriculture.
INTRODUCTION
• So by these observations we can say that Agriculture can have
significant impacts on the environment. While negative impacts are
serious and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and
air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for
instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or
mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming
practices.
• A key challenge for the agriculture sector is to feed an increasing
global population, while at the same time reducing the environmental
impact and preserving natural resources for future generations.
INTRODUCTION
Some of the negative impacts of agriculture on the Environment are as
follows:
1. Conversion of forest habitats for agricultural use.
2. Degradation of soil quality.
3. Pollution of soil and surface water through excessive use of
pesticides and fertilizers.
4. Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of methane (CH4).
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
1. Conversion of forest habitats for agricultural use:
• Forest conversion is the clearing of natural forests (deforestation) to
use the land for another purpose, often agricultural but also for mines,
infrastructure or urbanization. Forest conversion is the largest cause of
global deforestation today.
• During COP26, it was highlighted that about 90% of the world's
deforestation is caused by agriculture.
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
2. Degradation of soil quality:
According to the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use
Planning (2023), 146.8 million hectares, around 30% of the soil in
India is Degraded.
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
3. Pollution of soil and surface water through excessive use of
pesticides and fertilizers:
• Farmers in Bhatinda, Ropar, and Malwa districts of Punjab are today
battling environment-related health problems including a noticeable
rise in cancer cases, kidney problems, immunological disorders, and
infertility as a result of large-scale use of pesticides and fertilizers
(Mohapatra et al., 2010. Survey Based Research Paper).
• Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides in fields can lead to their
seepage into the ground and mixing with groundwater. They can also
be washed away with rain and carried to water bodies, where they can
contaminate the water and the aquatic animals, especially fish.
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
4. Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of methane
(CH4):
• According to International Energy Agency Report 2021, The Global
Methane Budget provide global figures for methane emissions from
2008 to 2017. The largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions
is agriculture, responsible for around one quarter of emissions, closely
followed by the energy sector, which includes emissions from coal,
oil, natural gas and biofuels.
(US Methane Emissions in 2021 Source: US EPA’s Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2021)
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE
IMPACTS
*These solutions are based on the issues that we previously
discussed.*
1. Agroforestry models:
Agroforestry means combining agriculture and trees. Agroforestry is a
land management approach with multiple benefits.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE
IMPACTS
2. Conservation tillage methods, such as reduced tillage, help to
retain moisture, improve organic matter content, and Practice crop
rotation by alternating the types of crops grown in your particular
fields each season.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE
IMPACTS
3. Organic farming: Organic farming reduces carbon emissions,
improves soil health, and reloads natural ecosystems for cleaner water,
soil, and air, all while avoiding hazardous pesticide residues.
• Sikkim: First Fully Organic State (2016)
Productivity Trends of Rice and Maize in Sikkim:
(Source: Envis Hub, Sikkim)
(in kg/Ha)
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE
IMPACTS
4. More new technologies have to come to reduce the load from soil
agriculture:
Hydroponics Technique: It involves growing plants vegetables and
fruits in water that is mixed with solutions containing all the ingredients
required for the development of a plant.
"The greatest threat to our planet is the belief that someone else
will save it." - Robert Swan
THANK YOU!!

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Impacts of agriculture on the environment.

  • 1. IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 3. INTRODUCTION WHAT IS AGRICULTURE? • Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and rearing animals to produce food, fiber, and other useful products. • Farmers work hard to prepare the soil, plant seeds, provide water, and protect crops from pests and diseases. • They also raise livestock, such as cows, chickens, and pigs, for meat, milk, and eggs. • Agriculture requires knowledge of seasons, weather patterns, and proper care for different plants and animals.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • It is well known that about one-third of the world’s land surface is under agriculture. The environment directly influences the existence and sustainability of agriculture as it depends upon the use of natural resources. Undoubtedly, agriculture has a greater environmental impact on Earth (Steinfeld et al., 2006). • According to IPCC 2007 report, the three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels land use, and agriculture.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION • So by these observations we can say that Agriculture can have significant impacts on the environment. While negative impacts are serious and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices. • A key challenge for the agriculture sector is to feed an increasing global population, while at the same time reducing the environmental impact and preserving natural resources for future generations.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION Some of the negative impacts of agriculture on the Environment are as follows: 1. Conversion of forest habitats for agricultural use. 2. Degradation of soil quality. 3. Pollution of soil and surface water through excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers. 4. Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of methane (CH4).
  • 7. ISSUES & CHALLENGES 1. Conversion of forest habitats for agricultural use: • Forest conversion is the clearing of natural forests (deforestation) to use the land for another purpose, often agricultural but also for mines, infrastructure or urbanization. Forest conversion is the largest cause of global deforestation today. • During COP26, it was highlighted that about 90% of the world's deforestation is caused by agriculture.
  • 8. ISSUES & CHALLENGES 2. Degradation of soil quality: According to the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (2023), 146.8 million hectares, around 30% of the soil in India is Degraded.
  • 9. ISSUES & CHALLENGES 3. Pollution of soil and surface water through excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers: • Farmers in Bhatinda, Ropar, and Malwa districts of Punjab are today battling environment-related health problems including a noticeable rise in cancer cases, kidney problems, immunological disorders, and infertility as a result of large-scale use of pesticides and fertilizers (Mohapatra et al., 2010. Survey Based Research Paper). • Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides in fields can lead to their seepage into the ground and mixing with groundwater. They can also be washed away with rain and carried to water bodies, where they can contaminate the water and the aquatic animals, especially fish.
  • 10. ISSUES & CHALLENGES 4. Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of methane (CH4): • According to International Energy Agency Report 2021, The Global Methane Budget provide global figures for methane emissions from 2008 to 2017. The largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions is agriculture, responsible for around one quarter of emissions, closely followed by the energy sector, which includes emissions from coal, oil, natural gas and biofuels. (US Methane Emissions in 2021 Source: US EPA’s Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2021)
  • 11. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE IMPACTS *These solutions are based on the issues that we previously discussed.* 1. Agroforestry models: Agroforestry means combining agriculture and trees. Agroforestry is a land management approach with multiple benefits.
  • 12. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE IMPACTS 2. Conservation tillage methods, such as reduced tillage, help to retain moisture, improve organic matter content, and Practice crop rotation by alternating the types of crops grown in your particular fields each season.
  • 13. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE IMPACTS 3. Organic farming: Organic farming reduces carbon emissions, improves soil health, and reloads natural ecosystems for cleaner water, soil, and air, all while avoiding hazardous pesticide residues. • Sikkim: First Fully Organic State (2016) Productivity Trends of Rice and Maize in Sikkim: (Source: Envis Hub, Sikkim) (in kg/Ha)
  • 14. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE IMPACTS 4. More new technologies have to come to reduce the load from soil agriculture: Hydroponics Technique: It involves growing plants vegetables and fruits in water that is mixed with solutions containing all the ingredients required for the development of a plant.
  • 15. "The greatest threat to our planet is the belief that someone else will save it." - Robert Swan THANK YOU!!