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From distant criticism to constructive
engagement
Andreas Kagermeier
Trier University, Germany
Panel : Towards a Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
at the AAG Annual Meeting,
March 29 - April 2, 2016, San Francisco
Fundamental changes in the tourism market
• Demand side:
substantial changes and differentiation of lifestyles, values
and consumption orientations
=> diversified customer preferences (“hybrid tourist”).
experiences “off the beaten track,” leaving the “tourism
bubble” seeking “authentic” settings,.
• Supply side:
Former Fordist production scheme, is increasingly
complemented by small service providers addressing the
niche markets (Long Tail)
• Information and communication technology:
Social Web / Long Tail / C2C “word-of-mouse”
Sharing economy facilitated by internet platforms (Airbnb)
Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 2
New postfordist products …
Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 3AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
Casablanca
Rabat
Fes
Meknes
Sale
Oued
Tanger
Oued
Oudja
Oued
Tétouan
Oued
Oued Sebou
Kénitra
OuedMoulouya
Oum Beni Mellaler
El Jadida
Rbia
Taza
Settat
Larache
Marrakesch
Nador
Berkane
Khemisset
Sidi Kacem
Agadir
Sidi Slimane
Safi
Essaouira
Al Hoceima
Tantan
Khénifra
Sefrou
Guelmim
Taroudannt
El Kelâa Srarhna
Taourirt
Azrou
Tiflet
Errachidia
S.Arbaa Rharb
Midelt
Ben Slimane
Chefchaouen
Sidi Bennour
Tiznit
El Aioun
Asilah
Ouarzazate
Ifni
Mechra Bel Ksiri
Figuig
Bouarfa
Guercif
Taounate
Tinerhir
Erfoud
Sousse
Ziz
Draa
Design & Cartography: A. Kagermeier
0 100 200 km
Main Tourism Sites
Pays d'Accueil Touristique 2010
High Atlas
Anti Atlas
Rif
Atlantic
O
cean
Mediterranean Sea
Saidia
Chtouka-Aït Baha
Haut-Atlas
central
Zagora
Imouzer
Ida-Outanane
Ifrane
Middle
Atlas
Source: authors own photos
… need new governance approaches
1) Traditional hierarchic understanding of an authoritarian
state
2) Orientation towards central investors from outside the
region
3) Missing conscience on needs for Governance-
Structures amongst the public stakeholders
4) Missing competences at the local stakeholders
5) No compensation by NGOs / state cooperation
6) No established cooperation structures
(leadership)
Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 4
Source: authors own photos
Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 5AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
Interests of the Explorer tourists
Explorer 
tourists
Insider tips
Get into contact
Life with/like 
local
Stay in 
residential 
neighborhood
Sleep in unique 
accommodation
Explore off the 
beaten track
Search for 
authenticity
Theculturetrip.com 2015 
Visitberlin.de 2015 
Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 6AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
Airbnb listings
per 1,000 Inhab.
less than 1
1 to less than 5
5 to less than 20
20 and more
0
200
75
25
5
Numer of Airbnb listings
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
Airbnb in Berlin
Distribution of Airbnb‐offers in Berlin on the LOR‐level
Source: Own design using data from SKOWRONNEK, VOGEL & PARNOW 2015
and Land Berlin 2015
Mitte
Tempelhof-
Prenzlauer Berg
Fried-
richs-
hain
Kreuzberg/Neukölln
Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 7AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
Shifting attitude towards tourists
Invitation for round table discussion: 
“Help, the tourists are coming”; 
Green Party, 2011               ueddeutsche Zeitung.de, 2011)
“Berlin doesn’t love you” 
campaign sticker 
(Stors, 2012)
“No more trolley suitcases anymore” graffity
(Die Zeit, 2012) 
„I hope that settles all“ says head of 
visitBerlin Burkhard Kieker 2011
On the interdiction of renting out 
apartments by Airbnb
(Spiegel.de, 2011) 
Implications for research in Tourism Geography
• Transformation with consequences on destinations
= one of the core aspects of Tourism Geography
• New management and governance models must be
developed
• Social science foundation of TG allows it to take into
account developments and conditions on the demand side
as well as the more economic aspects of the supply side
• With its broad multifocal perspective, including economic,
societal and political factors such as globalisation,
sustainability or CSR discourse, Tourism Geography should
be capable of engaging itself in the actual development of
tourism.
Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 8
Implications for research in Tourism Geography
• Actual practice of academic Tourism Geography
= view from the ivory tower
• Criticising the actual practice of tourists, tourism
professionals or political stakeholders, paying homage to
the pure ideal of values and political correctness
• Often insisting on a pure ideal of development first (or
sustainability/participation/protection first)
• But: prioritising the interests of tourists and the tourism
industry has led to negative impacts in many cases
• Balancing and reconciling divergent interests might be one
of the top priorities for Tourism Geography
Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 9
Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 10AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography
Thank you for your
attention …
… and I look forward to
a lively discussion!

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From distant criticism to constructive engagement: A philippic on the future role of Tourism Geography

  • 1. From distant criticism to constructive engagement Andreas Kagermeier Trier University, Germany Panel : Towards a Research Agenda for Tourism Geography at the AAG Annual Meeting, March 29 - April 2, 2016, San Francisco Fundamental changes in the tourism market • Demand side: substantial changes and differentiation of lifestyles, values and consumption orientations => diversified customer preferences (“hybrid tourist”). experiences “off the beaten track,” leaving the “tourism bubble” seeking “authentic” settings,. • Supply side: Former Fordist production scheme, is increasingly complemented by small service providers addressing the niche markets (Long Tail) • Information and communication technology: Social Web / Long Tail / C2C “word-of-mouse” Sharing economy facilitated by internet platforms (Airbnb) Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 2
  • 2. New postfordist products … Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 3AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography Casablanca Rabat Fes Meknes Sale Oued Tanger Oued Oudja Oued Tétouan Oued Oued Sebou Kénitra OuedMoulouya Oum Beni Mellaler El Jadida Rbia Taza Settat Larache Marrakesch Nador Berkane Khemisset Sidi Kacem Agadir Sidi Slimane Safi Essaouira Al Hoceima Tantan Khénifra Sefrou Guelmim Taroudannt El Kelâa Srarhna Taourirt Azrou Tiflet Errachidia S.Arbaa Rharb Midelt Ben Slimane Chefchaouen Sidi Bennour Tiznit El Aioun Asilah Ouarzazate Ifni Mechra Bel Ksiri Figuig Bouarfa Guercif Taounate Tinerhir Erfoud Sousse Ziz Draa Design & Cartography: A. Kagermeier 0 100 200 km Main Tourism Sites Pays d'Accueil Touristique 2010 High Atlas Anti Atlas Rif Atlantic O cean Mediterranean Sea Saidia Chtouka-Aït Baha Haut-Atlas central Zagora Imouzer Ida-Outanane Ifrane Middle Atlas Source: authors own photos … need new governance approaches 1) Traditional hierarchic understanding of an authoritarian state 2) Orientation towards central investors from outside the region 3) Missing conscience on needs for Governance- Structures amongst the public stakeholders 4) Missing competences at the local stakeholders 5) No compensation by NGOs / state cooperation 6) No established cooperation structures (leadership) Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 4 Source: authors own photos
  • 3. Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 5AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography Interests of the Explorer tourists Explorer  tourists Insider tips Get into contact Life with/like  local Stay in  residential  neighborhood Sleep in unique  accommodation Explore off the  beaten track Search for  authenticity Theculturetrip.com 2015  Visitberlin.de 2015  Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 6AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography Airbnb listings per 1,000 Inhab. less than 1 1 to less than 5 5 to less than 20 20 and more 0 200 75 25 5 Numer of Airbnb listings Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf Airbnb in Berlin Distribution of Airbnb‐offers in Berlin on the LOR‐level Source: Own design using data from SKOWRONNEK, VOGEL & PARNOW 2015 and Land Berlin 2015 Mitte Tempelhof- Prenzlauer Berg Fried- richs- hain Kreuzberg/Neukölln
  • 4. Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 7AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography Shifting attitude towards tourists Invitation for round table discussion:  “Help, the tourists are coming”;  Green Party, 2011               ueddeutsche Zeitung.de, 2011) “Berlin doesn’t love you”  campaign sticker  (Stors, 2012) “No more trolley suitcases anymore” graffity (Die Zeit, 2012)  „I hope that settles all“ says head of  visitBerlin Burkhard Kieker 2011 On the interdiction of renting out  apartments by Airbnb (Spiegel.de, 2011)  Implications for research in Tourism Geography • Transformation with consequences on destinations = one of the core aspects of Tourism Geography • New management and governance models must be developed • Social science foundation of TG allows it to take into account developments and conditions on the demand side as well as the more economic aspects of the supply side • With its broad multifocal perspective, including economic, societal and political factors such as globalisation, sustainability or CSR discourse, Tourism Geography should be capable of engaging itself in the actual development of tourism. Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 8
  • 5. Implications for research in Tourism Geography • Actual practice of academic Tourism Geography = view from the ivory tower • Criticising the actual practice of tourists, tourism professionals or political stakeholders, paying homage to the pure ideal of values and political correctness • Often insisting on a pure ideal of development first (or sustainability/participation/protection first) • But: prioritising the interests of tourists and the tourism industry has led to negative impacts in many cases • Balancing and reconciling divergent interests might be one of the top priorities for Tourism Geography Andreas Kagermeier AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 9 Andreas Kagermeier 29 March – 2 April 2016, Slide 10AAG 2016 (SFO): Research Agenda for Tourism Geography Thank you for your attention … … and I look forward to a lively discussion!