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The post-socialist transformation in East-Berlin
as a facilitator and incubator
for new ways of tourism
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier
Trier University, Germany
6th International Urban Geographies of Post-communist States Conference:
25 years of urban change
Prague, 23-26 September 2015
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln
Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
Berlin 1945-1990; divided city
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 2
Source: authors own photos
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln
Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
Berlin 1945-1990; divided city
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 3
Source: authors own photos
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln
Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
Berlin 1945-1990; divided city
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 4
Source: authors own photos
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln
Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
1990: Fall of the wall
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 5
Source: authors own photos
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln
Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
90ies: Gentrification of East Berlin
19th century quarters
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 6
Source: authors own photos
Driving forces of the gentrification
Domestic/local (East Berlin) demand
Demand from West Berlin
Demand due to the new function as capital
=> Gentrification faster and more intensive
than in other Eastern European cities
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 7
Restaurants, bars & clubs as part of the
gentrification process
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 8
Source: Krajewski 2004, p.17)
Tourist arrivals and overnight stays
in Berlin 1992 – 2014
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 9
Source: Own design using data from Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2015
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Arrivals Overnight stays
Tourist arrivals in Berlin 1992 – 2014
by region of origin
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 10
0
2.000.000
4.000.000
6.000.000
8.000.000
10.000.000
12.000.000
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Germany Europe Other
Source: Own design using data from Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2015
Tourist arrivals in Top Ten European Cities 2014
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 11
Source: Own design using data from ECM 2015, p. 3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
London
Paris
Berlin
Rom
Barcelona
Madrid
Prag
Wien
München
Hamburg
Mio. Arrivals
Socialist heritage as tourist attractor
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 12
Source: authors own photos
Restaurants, bars & clubs on
devastated brownfield area
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 13
Source: authors own photos
Restaurants, bars & clubs on
transformed former brownfield area
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 14
Source: authors own photos
Restaurants, bars & clubs in gentrified quarters
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 15
Source: authors own photos
Shopping facilities in gentrified quarters
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 16
Source: authors own photos
Driving forces of the touristification
Explorer tourists
(authentic experience, live like the locals)
Transformation process giving opportunities
(temporary usage, un(der)used space)
 Intensity of the gentrification process
 Domestic (German) demand
(new capital and former traditional destination)
 International demand (Iconic place “Wall”)
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 17
Berlin as a Tourist City: Top 10 sights
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 18
Visitberlin.de 2015
Own map, based upon ArcGIS Webmap
Interests of the Explorer tourists
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 19
Explorer
tourists
Insider tips
Get into contact
Life with/like
local
Stay in
residential
neighborhood
Sleep in unique
accommodation
Explore off the
beaten track
Search for
authenticity
Theculturetrip.com 2015
Visitberlin.de 2015
The explorer tourist meets the Share Economy
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 20
Explorer
tourists
Insider tips
Get into contact
Life with/like
local
Stay in
residential
neighborhood
Sleep in unique
accommodation
Explore off the
beaten track
Authenticity
Highest impact on accommodation sector
Reason for switching from classic accommodations to private hosts?
Apart from budget orientation: => unique & authentic experience?!
Airbnb in Germany
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 21
Hamburg
Hannover
Bremen
Düsseldorf
Duisburg
Essen
Wuppertal
Bonn
Köln
Münster Bielefeld
Bochum
Dortmund
Frankfurt
Stuttgart
München
Nürnberg
Berlin
Dresden
Leipzig
Offers per 100,000 inhab.
less than 25
25 to less than 50
50 to less than 100
100 to less than 200
200 and more
AirBnB offers
50100
1.000
5.000
10.000
Source: Own design using data from Skowronnek, Vogel & Parnow 2015
Data: 25.02.2014
City Airbnb-Offers
Berlin 11.700
Paris 13.000
London 11.000
Skowronnek, A. et al. 2015; Data: 11.01.2015
Airbnb listings
per 1,000 Inhab.
less than 1
1 to less than 5
5 to less than 20
20 and more
0
200
75
25
5
Numer of Airbnb listings
Mitte
Friedrichshain-
Kreuzberg
Pankow
Charlottenburg-
Wilmersdorf
Spandau
Steglitz-
Zehlendorf
Tempelhof-
Schöneberg
Neukölln Treptow-
Köpenick
Marzahn-
Hellersdorf
Lichten-
berg
Reinickendorf
Airbnb in Berlin
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 22
Distribution of Airbnb-offers in Berlin on the LOR-level
Source: Own design using data from SKOWRONNEK, VOGEL & PARNOW 2015
and Land Berlin 2015
Mitte
Tempelhof-
Prenzlauer Berg
Fried-
richs-
hain
Kreuzberg/Neukölln
(Mass)Tourism and its negative consequences
in local neighborhoods
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 23
(Berliner Kurier 2014)
(Tagesspeigel.de 2015)
(Berliner Zeitung.de 2015)
Shifting attitude towards tourists
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 24
Invitation for round table discussion: Help,
tourists are coming, Green Party, 2011
(Sueddeutsche Zeitung.de, 2011)
“Berlin doesn’t love you”-
campaign sticker
(Own pictures, 2012)
No more suitcases-graffit
(Die Zeit, 2012)
„I hope that settles all“ says head
of visitBerlin Burkhard Kieker
2011 (Spiegel.de, 2011)
Governmental initiatives
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 25
More public toilets, dustbins, lights, street cleaning etc.
Round table “nightlife” and/or nighttime mayor (like in
Paris and Amsterdam)
Social projects against drug abuse
Green Party action plan proposal for „Warschauer Brücke“ 2014
Pantomime art-projects are intended to raise
awareness for local residents’ needs
Successful project in Paris, Genève and Brussels
(rbb-online.de & Tagesspiegel.de 2015)
(Green Party 2014)
Conclusion
Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 26
• In the period from 1945-1990 Berlin had the particular role of the divided city with
typical construction and economic practices in the Eastern part and a lack of
investments in the West.
• After the fall of the Berlin Wall extensive gentrification processes set off due to the
twofold catch-up demand and the regained capital function.
• A large, alternative bar and club scene was (re-)installed, which was one of the main
starting points for the off the beaten track tourism-scene in Berlin, developing parallel
to the well-established high class cultural tourism.
• The cornucopia of high and subcultural attractions draws i.a. the explorer tourist who
searches for ‘authentic’ parts of the city and personal encounters, e.g. by using Airbnb.
• However, growing mass and party tourism provide new challenges for the government,
since gentrifiers’ expectations and those of the partying crowd are difficult to reconcile.
• First approaches to tame this party and neighbourhood tourism need to be carefully
chosen by the government to avoid brand damage, since Berlin’s image is one of its
most valuable but fragile goods.
• And generally spoken, to steer and control increasing tourism figures is probably one of
the most challenging tasks in tourism management in both, Eastern and Western
metropolises nowadays and in the future.
Thank you for your
attention …
… and we are looking
forward to a lively
discussion!
RSA - Tourism Research Network Workshop, BudapestNatalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier 29th of January 2015, Slide 27

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  • 1. The post-socialist transformation in East-Berlin as a facilitator and incubator for new ways of tourism Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier Trier University, Germany 6th International Urban Geographies of Post-communist States Conference: 25 years of urban change Prague, 23-26 September 2015 Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf Berlin 1945-1990; divided city Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 2 Source: authors own photos
  • 2. Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf Berlin 1945-1990; divided city Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 3 Source: authors own photos Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf Berlin 1945-1990; divided city Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 4 Source: authors own photos
  • 3. Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf 1990: Fall of the wall Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 5 Source: authors own photos Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf 90ies: Gentrification of East Berlin 19th century quarters Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 6 Source: authors own photos
  • 4. Driving forces of the gentrification Domestic/local (East Berlin) demand Demand from West Berlin Demand due to the new function as capital => Gentrification faster and more intensive than in other Eastern European cities Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 7 Restaurants, bars & clubs as part of the gentrification process Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 8 Source: Krajewski 2004, p.17)
  • 5. Tourist arrivals and overnight stays in Berlin 1992 – 2014 Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 9 Source: Own design using data from Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2015 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Arrivals Overnight stays Tourist arrivals in Berlin 1992 – 2014 by region of origin Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 10 0 2.000.000 4.000.000 6.000.000 8.000.000 10.000.000 12.000.000 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Germany Europe Other Source: Own design using data from Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2015
  • 6. Tourist arrivals in Top Ten European Cities 2014 Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 11 Source: Own design using data from ECM 2015, p. 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 London Paris Berlin Rom Barcelona Madrid Prag Wien München Hamburg Mio. Arrivals Socialist heritage as tourist attractor Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 12 Source: authors own photos
  • 7. Restaurants, bars & clubs on devastated brownfield area Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 13 Source: authors own photos Restaurants, bars & clubs on transformed former brownfield area Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 14 Source: authors own photos
  • 8. Restaurants, bars & clubs in gentrified quarters Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 15 Source: authors own photos Shopping facilities in gentrified quarters Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 16 Source: authors own photos
  • 9. Driving forces of the touristification Explorer tourists (authentic experience, live like the locals) Transformation process giving opportunities (temporary usage, un(der)used space)  Intensity of the gentrification process  Domestic (German) demand (new capital and former traditional destination)  International demand (Iconic place “Wall”) Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 17 Berlin as a Tourist City: Top 10 sights Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 18 Visitberlin.de 2015 Own map, based upon ArcGIS Webmap
  • 10. Interests of the Explorer tourists Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 19 Explorer tourists Insider tips Get into contact Life with/like local Stay in residential neighborhood Sleep in unique accommodation Explore off the beaten track Search for authenticity Theculturetrip.com 2015 Visitberlin.de 2015 The explorer tourist meets the Share Economy Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 20 Explorer tourists Insider tips Get into contact Life with/like local Stay in residential neighborhood Sleep in unique accommodation Explore off the beaten track Authenticity Highest impact on accommodation sector Reason for switching from classic accommodations to private hosts? Apart from budget orientation: => unique & authentic experience?!
  • 11. Airbnb in Germany Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 21 Hamburg Hannover Bremen Düsseldorf Duisburg Essen Wuppertal Bonn Köln Münster Bielefeld Bochum Dortmund Frankfurt Stuttgart München Nürnberg Berlin Dresden Leipzig Offers per 100,000 inhab. less than 25 25 to less than 50 50 to less than 100 100 to less than 200 200 and more AirBnB offers 50100 1.000 5.000 10.000 Source: Own design using data from Skowronnek, Vogel & Parnow 2015 Data: 25.02.2014 City Airbnb-Offers Berlin 11.700 Paris 13.000 London 11.000 Skowronnek, A. et al. 2015; Data: 11.01.2015 Airbnb listings per 1,000 Inhab. less than 1 1 to less than 5 5 to less than 20 20 and more 0 200 75 25 5 Numer of Airbnb listings Mitte Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Pankow Charlottenburg- Wilmersdorf Spandau Steglitz- Zehlendorf Tempelhof- Schöneberg Neukölln Treptow- Köpenick Marzahn- Hellersdorf Lichten- berg Reinickendorf Airbnb in Berlin Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 22 Distribution of Airbnb-offers in Berlin on the LOR-level Source: Own design using data from SKOWRONNEK, VOGEL & PARNOW 2015 and Land Berlin 2015 Mitte Tempelhof- Prenzlauer Berg Fried- richs- hain Kreuzberg/Neukölln
  • 12. (Mass)Tourism and its negative consequences in local neighborhoods Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 23 (Berliner Kurier 2014) (Tagesspeigel.de 2015) (Berliner Zeitung.de 2015) Shifting attitude towards tourists Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 24 Invitation for round table discussion: Help, tourists are coming, Green Party, 2011 (Sueddeutsche Zeitung.de, 2011) “Berlin doesn’t love you”- campaign sticker (Own pictures, 2012) No more suitcases-graffit (Die Zeit, 2012) „I hope that settles all“ says head of visitBerlin Burkhard Kieker 2011 (Spiegel.de, 2011)
  • 13. Governmental initiatives Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 25 More public toilets, dustbins, lights, street cleaning etc. Round table “nightlife” and/or nighttime mayor (like in Paris and Amsterdam) Social projects against drug abuse Green Party action plan proposal for „Warschauer Brücke“ 2014 Pantomime art-projects are intended to raise awareness for local residents’ needs Successful project in Paris, Genève and Brussels (rbb-online.de & Tagesspiegel.de 2015) (Green Party 2014) Conclusion Natalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier CATference: 25 years of urban change, Prague 29-26 September 2015, Slide 26 • In the period from 1945-1990 Berlin had the particular role of the divided city with typical construction and economic practices in the Eastern part and a lack of investments in the West. • After the fall of the Berlin Wall extensive gentrification processes set off due to the twofold catch-up demand and the regained capital function. • A large, alternative bar and club scene was (re-)installed, which was one of the main starting points for the off the beaten track tourism-scene in Berlin, developing parallel to the well-established high class cultural tourism. • The cornucopia of high and subcultural attractions draws i.a. the explorer tourist who searches for ‘authentic’ parts of the city and personal encounters, e.g. by using Airbnb. • However, growing mass and party tourism provide new challenges for the government, since gentrifiers’ expectations and those of the partying crowd are difficult to reconcile. • First approaches to tame this party and neighbourhood tourism need to be carefully chosen by the government to avoid brand damage, since Berlin’s image is one of its most valuable but fragile goods. • And generally spoken, to steer and control increasing tourism figures is probably one of the most challenging tasks in tourism management in both, Eastern and Western metropolises nowadays and in the future.
  • 14. Thank you for your attention … … and we are looking forward to a lively discussion! RSA - Tourism Research Network Workshop, BudapestNatalie Stors & Andreas Kagermeier 29th of January 2015, Slide 27