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FROM BIG BANG TO PRESENT TIME

Presented by: Uttam Pudasaini

1
Presentation Online
 Big Bang
 Timeline of Universe
 Hubble's law and the age of Universe
 Universe and its composition
 Galaxy
 Stars
 Supernova
 Planets
 Formation of solar system
 Information extraction
 Telescopes
 Satellites
2
BIG BANG

Prevailing cosmological model that
describes the early development of the
Universe

 Universe was once in an
extremely hot and dense state
 After its initial expansion from
a singularity, the Universe cooled
sufficiently to allow energy to
be converted into
various subatomic particles
3
Big Bang contd…
The first element produced
was hydrogen, along with traces
of helium and lithium.

 Giant clouds of these elements
coalesce through gravity to
form stars and galaxies

4
5
Hubble's law and age of Universe
Edwin Hubble in 1920 discovered the expansion of the universe.
Farther galaxies are moving at a higher speed following the law,
v=Hod,
where v is the velocity in km/s, d is the distance
in Mpc, and Ho is the Hubble constant in km/s/Mpc.
 Velocity is determined via the redshift in the spectrum and
distance to the galaxy determined using observations of stars
Up until the 1990's, the best estimates for Ho were between 50
km/s/Mpc and 90 km/s/Mpc, giving a range on the age of the
universe between 7 and 20 billion years.
6
UNIVERSE (COMPOSITION)
Universe is 13.7 billion years old with an uncertainty of
200 million years. The WMAP value of Ho is 71 ± 4
km/s/Mpc
70% of the energy of the present universe is in the form
of dark energy.
 26% of the energy is in the form of cold (not
thermalized) dark matter, and the remaining 4% of the
energy is in the atoms and photons.
7
Dust Particles
Size: Few molecules to few microns in size
Mass spectrometer in the satellites collect them
(They get stuck on Aerogel)
Possesses Scattering property
Analyzed studying the properties of light emitted by
the dust
 ISM(Interstellar Matter),IGM(Inter Galactic Matter) and Inter Planetary Dust
Particle(IDP)

8
Dust particles contd…
Universe was homogenous and there was little-to-no structure in it
after Big Bang.
As the universe cooled clumps of Dark matter began to condense,
and within them gas began to condense.
Large scale structure of the cosmos we observe today was formed as
a consequence of the growth of the primordial fluctuations.

The primordial fluctuations gravitationally attracted gas and dark
matter to the denser areas, and thus the seeds that would later become
galaxies were formed.
9
Dust particles contd…
40 Tons of extraterrestrial matter falls to Earth
everyday
What happens to the Earth mass?????
Using the isotropic ratio we can differentiate
them from the common dust particle in the Earth

10
Formation of Galaxy
 At this point the universe was almost exclusively composed of hydrogen,
helium, and dark matter.


Soon after the first proto-galaxies formed, the hydrogen and helium gas
within them began to condense and make the first stars and finally the first
galaxies were formed.

 The discovery of a galaxy more than 13 billion years old, which existed
only 480 million years after the Big Bang, was reported in January 2011.
 A structure distributed in a great cosmic web of filaments throughout the
universe which contains the fossil clues to this earlier time
Galaxy contd..



Come in a variety of shapes, from
round, featureless elliptical galaxies to
the pancake-flat spiral galaxies.

 In Milky Way there are an estimated
6,000 molecular clouds, each with
more than 100,000 solar masses.

12
STARS
Higher density regions of the interstellar medium form clouds
or diffuse nebula
Much of the hydrogen is in the molecular (H2) form(molecular
cloud)
The nearest nebula to the Sun where massive stars are being
formed is the Orion nebula, 1,300 ly (1.2×1016 km) away.

13
14
Stars contd…
Another site of star formation is the opaque clouds of dense gas and dust
known as Bok globules; so named after the astronomer Bart Bok.
These can form in association with collapsing molecular clouds or
possibly independently.
The Bok globules are typically up to a light year across and contain a
few solar masses.
 Over half the known Bok globules have been found to contain newly
forming stars.
By other process: cloud collapse, empty space

15
Supernova
The most massive stars end their lives
as supernova, the explosive destruction
of a star.
Occurs when a massive star suddenly
becomes unable to sustain the core
against its own weight

The explosion expels much or all of a
star's material at a velocity of up to
30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of
light), driving a shock wave into the
surrounding interstellar medium.
16
Planets

17
Formation of Solar System
 Stars formed by self gravity
 Early solar system was a cloud of interstellar gas that had fairly fast rotation
so not all of the gas could fall into the star forming at the center
 Dust particles stuck by sticking process
 Planetecimals grew by sticiking process
 Protoplantes were formed
 Protoplanets finally formed planets

18
Information extraction
Telescope on Earth surface and Satellites in space
collects all the possible information
Huge amount of data is then systematically
processed

19
Telescope :Design and
working
A segmented mirror
telescope with
displacement sensors
Instead of eye a CCD
camera as a detector
Wave front distortion is
avoided with the help of
deformable mirror

Fig: Advantage of using a large diameter
telescope
20
EELT(42 m diameter
Telescopes)

21
Satellites
Hubble Space Telescope

Fitted with telescopes
for images of distant
objects
Infrared detectors of
longer wavelength helps
to take pictures of such
regions
Source:www
22
Satellites contd…
Thermal blanket working as a shield
Prior to launch subjected to a thermal vacuum
testing(temp range:-60 to 60 degree Celsius)
Suffers gravity effects, radiations and collision
with debris
High frequency transmission suffers less
attenuation
23
SDSS(Sloan Digital Sky Survey)
In February 2003, the WMAP project released an
all-sky map of the radiation emitted before there
were any stars.
Output:
287 million objects
1.3 million spectra
10 TB imaging data
2 TB catalogue data

24
Scope of Geomatics students in
Astronomy
 For those who want to continue their higher study
in the filed of Astronomy and Space science
 Site selection project for observation centers at
Earth
 Satellite communication and Space science
 Computer programming and its use in Virtual
Obeservatory
25
Some Snapshots

26
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FROM BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT TIME

  • 1. FROM BIG BANG TO PRESENT TIME Presented by: Uttam Pudasaini 1
  • 2. Presentation Online  Big Bang  Timeline of Universe  Hubble's law and the age of Universe  Universe and its composition  Galaxy  Stars  Supernova  Planets  Formation of solar system  Information extraction  Telescopes  Satellites 2
  • 3. BIG BANG Prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe  Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state  After its initial expansion from a singularity, the Universe cooled sufficiently to allow energy to be converted into various subatomic particles 3
  • 4. Big Bang contd… The first element produced was hydrogen, along with traces of helium and lithium.  Giant clouds of these elements coalesce through gravity to form stars and galaxies 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Hubble's law and age of Universe Edwin Hubble in 1920 discovered the expansion of the universe. Farther galaxies are moving at a higher speed following the law, v=Hod, where v is the velocity in km/s, d is the distance in Mpc, and Ho is the Hubble constant in km/s/Mpc.  Velocity is determined via the redshift in the spectrum and distance to the galaxy determined using observations of stars Up until the 1990's, the best estimates for Ho were between 50 km/s/Mpc and 90 km/s/Mpc, giving a range on the age of the universe between 7 and 20 billion years. 6
  • 7. UNIVERSE (COMPOSITION) Universe is 13.7 billion years old with an uncertainty of 200 million years. The WMAP value of Ho is 71 ± 4 km/s/Mpc 70% of the energy of the present universe is in the form of dark energy.  26% of the energy is in the form of cold (not thermalized) dark matter, and the remaining 4% of the energy is in the atoms and photons. 7
  • 8. Dust Particles Size: Few molecules to few microns in size Mass spectrometer in the satellites collect them (They get stuck on Aerogel) Possesses Scattering property Analyzed studying the properties of light emitted by the dust  ISM(Interstellar Matter),IGM(Inter Galactic Matter) and Inter Planetary Dust Particle(IDP) 8
  • 9. Dust particles contd… Universe was homogenous and there was little-to-no structure in it after Big Bang. As the universe cooled clumps of Dark matter began to condense, and within them gas began to condense. Large scale structure of the cosmos we observe today was formed as a consequence of the growth of the primordial fluctuations. The primordial fluctuations gravitationally attracted gas and dark matter to the denser areas, and thus the seeds that would later become galaxies were formed. 9
  • 10. Dust particles contd… 40 Tons of extraterrestrial matter falls to Earth everyday What happens to the Earth mass????? Using the isotropic ratio we can differentiate them from the common dust particle in the Earth 10
  • 11. Formation of Galaxy  At this point the universe was almost exclusively composed of hydrogen, helium, and dark matter.  Soon after the first proto-galaxies formed, the hydrogen and helium gas within them began to condense and make the first stars and finally the first galaxies were formed.  The discovery of a galaxy more than 13 billion years old, which existed only 480 million years after the Big Bang, was reported in January 2011.  A structure distributed in a great cosmic web of filaments throughout the universe which contains the fossil clues to this earlier time
  • 12. Galaxy contd..  Come in a variety of shapes, from round, featureless elliptical galaxies to the pancake-flat spiral galaxies.  In Milky Way there are an estimated 6,000 molecular clouds, each with more than 100,000 solar masses. 12
  • 13. STARS Higher density regions of the interstellar medium form clouds or diffuse nebula Much of the hydrogen is in the molecular (H2) form(molecular cloud) The nearest nebula to the Sun where massive stars are being formed is the Orion nebula, 1,300 ly (1.2×1016 km) away. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Stars contd… Another site of star formation is the opaque clouds of dense gas and dust known as Bok globules; so named after the astronomer Bart Bok. These can form in association with collapsing molecular clouds or possibly independently. The Bok globules are typically up to a light year across and contain a few solar masses.  Over half the known Bok globules have been found to contain newly forming stars. By other process: cloud collapse, empty space 15
  • 16. Supernova The most massive stars end their lives as supernova, the explosive destruction of a star. Occurs when a massive star suddenly becomes unable to sustain the core against its own weight The explosion expels much or all of a star's material at a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light), driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium. 16
  • 18. Formation of Solar System  Stars formed by self gravity  Early solar system was a cloud of interstellar gas that had fairly fast rotation so not all of the gas could fall into the star forming at the center  Dust particles stuck by sticking process  Planetecimals grew by sticiking process  Protoplantes were formed  Protoplanets finally formed planets 18
  • 19. Information extraction Telescope on Earth surface and Satellites in space collects all the possible information Huge amount of data is then systematically processed 19
  • 20. Telescope :Design and working A segmented mirror telescope with displacement sensors Instead of eye a CCD camera as a detector Wave front distortion is avoided with the help of deformable mirror Fig: Advantage of using a large diameter telescope 20
  • 22. Satellites Hubble Space Telescope Fitted with telescopes for images of distant objects Infrared detectors of longer wavelength helps to take pictures of such regions Source:www 22
  • 23. Satellites contd… Thermal blanket working as a shield Prior to launch subjected to a thermal vacuum testing(temp range:-60 to 60 degree Celsius) Suffers gravity effects, radiations and collision with debris High frequency transmission suffers less attenuation 23
  • 24. SDSS(Sloan Digital Sky Survey) In February 2003, the WMAP project released an all-sky map of the radiation emitted before there were any stars. Output: 287 million objects 1.3 million spectra 10 TB imaging data 2 TB catalogue data 24
  • 25. Scope of Geomatics students in Astronomy  For those who want to continue their higher study in the filed of Astronomy and Space science  Site selection project for observation centers at Earth  Satellite communication and Space science  Computer programming and its use in Virtual Obeservatory 25
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