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SIM alliance profile
LPA split
IoT
platform
HTTPS
Internet
Device owner/user
LwM2M-based
secure communication
IoT device with
cellular module
Provisioning
server
(SM-DP+)
Mobile
network
operator
LPAprLPAdv
UICC MODULES
AND THE IOT
ERICSSON
TECHNOLOGY
C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 0 4 ∙ 2 0 2 0
The UICCs used in all cellular devices today are complex and powerful
minicomputers capable of much more than most Internet of Things (IoT)
applications require. Until a simpler and less costly alternative becomes
available, it makes sense to find ways to reduce the complexity of using
them and use their excess capacity for additional value generation.
BENEDEK KOVÁCS,
ZSOLT VAJTA,
ZSIGMOND PAP
UICCs are used today to facilitate network
connection in all 3GPP user equipment –
mobile phones, IoT devices and so on.
■ The most important tasks of UICC modules –
commonly referred to as SIM cards – in today’s
mobile networks are to store network credentials
and to run network security and access
applications in a secure and trusted environment.
In addition, they are also capable of storing a large
amount of extra information and running multiple
toolkit applications. A UICC’s own operating
system provides a full Java environment. It can run
dozens of Java-based applications in parallel and
support powerful remote management operations.
Backward-compatibilityisprovidedbyrunning
anetworkserviceapplicationonUICCmodules,
whichcanemulatethefilesystemforstoring
necessarycredentialsandold-schoolsmartcard
protocols,extendedwithfeaturessuchasenhanced
security,extendedtelephoneregisterandoperator
logoimage.TheinterfacebetweentheUICCmodule
andtheuserequipment(devices)isstandardized,
whichenablesoperatorstorunvalue-added
applications,suchasmobilewalletormobilelottery,
ontheUICCmodule.
OPTIMIZING
UICCmodules
forIoT
applications
✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT
2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
WhiletheadvancedfeaturesofUICCmodules
continuetoprovideconsiderablevalueinmobile
phoneapplications,mostofthemaresuperfluous
inIoTapplications.Inlightofthis,theindustry
isworkingtofindalesssophisticatedsolution
thatismoreappropriateforapplicationsthat
requiremassivenumbersofdevicesinprice-
sensitiveenvironments.Industryalignmenton
suchasolutionisexpectedtobeachallengingand
time-consumingprocess,however,duetothefact
thattheIoTareaisfragmentedintomanydifferent
verticals,applicationareasandusecases.
Ericssonisfullycommittedtosupportingthe
long-term,industry-alignedsolution.Inthemeantime,
however,itisvitaltofindworkaroundstoensure
thatthecostofUICCsdoesnotstifleIoTgrowth.
Whilethedefinitivesolutiontothequestionof
whatshouldreplacetheUICCishardtopredict,
twomid-termworkaroundsareclear:thecomplexity
ofusingUICCsandleveragingtheirexcesscapacity
togenerateadditionalvalue.
ReducingthecomplexityofusingUICCs
There are three main approaches to reducing the
complexity of using UICCs in IoT applications:
optimization, usage of 3GPP standardized
certificate-based authentication, and
virtualization.
Optimization
A typical operator profile on a 3GPP consumer
mobile phone is up to tens of kilobytes; the average
IoT sensor only requires 200-300 bytes. And of all
the functionality that a UICC can provide, an IoT
device only really needs the Universal Subscriber
Identity Module application and the remote SIM
provisioning (RSP) application, which allows
remote provisioning of subscriber credentials
(also known as operator profiles).
Onegoodwaytosignificantlyreducethefootprint
oftheUICCistooptimizetheoperatorprofileand
thenecessarysoftwareenvironmentwithinthe
UICCmodule.Doingsonotonlysavesstorageinthe
devicebutalsoreducesenergyconsumptionduring
over-the-airdownload.Furthersizereduction
ofthedevicemaybeachievedwhentheUICCis
completelyintegratedintothebasebandmodem
orapplicationprocessor(integratedUICCor
iUICC[2]).Thissimplifiedandintegratedsolution
couldworkeffectivelyforusecasesthatrequire
low-cost,simple,secureandlow-powerIoTdevices
inhighvolumes.
TheuseofaniUICCrequiresaneffective
RSPprotocol[3,4]thatmakesitpossibleto
changesubscriptioncredentials.CurrentRSP
standardsaretoocomplexforiUICCsformany
reasons,includingtheiruseofHTTPS
Definition of key terms
Identity describes the link between the identifier of an entity and the credentials that it uses to prove
that it is the rightful owner of the identity.
First used in Finland in 1991, the original subscriber identity module (SIM) was a smart card with
a protected file system that stored cellular network parameters. It was designed to connect
expensive user equipment – mobile phones – with expensive subscriptions to the cellular network.
When it became clear that smart cards did not have the capacity to provide an adequate level of security
in next-generation cellular networks, they were replaced with universal integrated circuit cards (UICCs)
– minicomputers equipped with general microprocessors, memory and strong cryptographic
co-processors [1].
UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱
3APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
(HypertextTransferProtocolSecure)andreliance
onSMSsupport.HTTPSistypicallynotpartofthe
protocolstackofconstrainedlow-powerIoTdevices.
Instead,thesedevicesuseastackwithConstrained
ApplicationProtocol(CoAP),DatagramTransport
LayerSecurity(DTLS)andUserDatagram
Protocol.Insomecases,theLightweightMachine-
to-Machine(LwM2M)protocolisusedontopof
CoAPfordeviceandapplicationdatamanagement.
Theuseofonlyonestackkeepsthecostofthe
devicedown.
Ericssonproposesutilizingthesameprotocol
stackforprofiledownloadandprofilemanagement
asisusedfordeviceandapplicationdata
management.Figure1illustrateshowtoachieve
thisbyadaptingtheGSMAembedded-SIM
solutionforconsumerdevicesforusewithIoT
devices.Inthissolution,thelocalprofileassistant
(LPA)issplitintotwoparts.Toreducedevice
footprint,themainpartoftheLPA(includingthe
useofHTTPS)ismovedfromthedevicetoadevice
orconnectivitymanagementserver.Thedevice
managementprotocolstack(OpenMobileAlliance
(OMA)LwM2M[1],forexample)handlesthe
communicationbetweenthetwoLPAparts.
Profileprotectionisstillend-to-endbetween
theiUICC/embedded-UICC(eUICC)andthe
provisioningserver(SubscriptionManager-Data
Preparation–SM-DP+).
Usageof3GPPstandardized
certificate-basedauthentication
Another way to reduce the need for a UICC
is to use a network authentication mechanism
different to the classical 3GPP Authentication
and Key Agreement (AKA). The use of certificates
is a classic solution used in the internet that may
easily fit into the existing network architecture
of an enterprise/service provider. In public
5G networks, authenticating with certificates
is possible as a secondary authentication for a
service using AKA, but only after primary network
Figure 1 Remote provisioning using IoT-optimized technology
SIM alliance profile
LPA split
IoT
platform
HTTPS
Internet
Device owner/user
LwM2M-based
secure communication
IoT device with
cellular module
Provisioning
server
(SM-DP+)
Mobile
network
operator
LPAprLPAdv
✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT
4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
authentication has been performed. According to
the 3GPP, authentication in private networks
such as Industry 4.0 solutions may rely entirely
on certificate-based solutions such as Extensible
Authentication Protocol over Transport Layer
Security. Without a UICC for securely storing
and operating on secret long-term credentials
for network access authentication, another
secure environment with secure storage
solution is needed.
Forcertainapplicationsalowerlevelofsecurity
mightbeaccepted.Thevalueofthedatathatthe
IoTdeviceprovidesorhandles,inrelationtothe
costoftheIoTdevice,determinestherequired
securitylevelofthesecureenvironmentforprotecting
networkaccessauthenticationcredentials.Inthe
caseofaUICCbeingused,itdeterminesthe
realizationoftheUICCfunctionality.Forsome
low-costconstrainedIoTdevices,arealization
usingahardware-isolation-basedtrustedexecution
environmentmaybeacceptable.Asthereisno
universalandperfectsolution,operatorsmust
decidewhichsolutionismostsuitableforanygiven
application.ItislikelythattheUICCsandeUICC-
basedsolutionswillremainthetechnologyofchoice
inpublicnetworksforthenextfewyears.
Virtualization
Virtualizing the UICC is yet another alternative
that addresses the cost issue associated with
UICC technology. One way to do this is to run
a UICC environment in a virtual machine
(or at least on a separated processor core) inside
the application processor or the baseband modem.
Another approach is to store the operator profiles
in the security zone of the application processor,
then download them to empty physical UICC
hardware on demand.
Thebiggestadvantagesofthesevirtualization
solutionsisflexibilityandbetterutilizationof
existinghardwareresources,whileatthesametime
maintainingmanyoftheadvantagesofcurrent
technology.Thesemethodsareparticularlyeffective
whenanIoTdeviceneedstomanagemultiple
operatorprofiles–acircumstancethatwillbecome
increasinglycommon,accordingtoananalysis
carriedoutbytheGSMA[5].
Thedisadvantagesofvirtualizationaresimilarto
thoseofcertification-basedsolutions.Mostnotably,
certificationisharderwhenatrustedenvironment
isintegratedwiththerestofthedevicecompared
withusinganisolatedUICCoreUICC.
GeneratingadditionalvaluefromtheUICC
Experience shows that it is significantly less
expensive to limit a protected and certified
manufacturing environment to a dedicated
hardware module such as a UICC than to ensure
that all the software running in the mobile
equipmentcanbetrusted.Inlightofthis,webelieve
thatcommunicationserviceproviderswillcontinue
usingUICCmodulesforatleastthenext5-10years.
During this period, it makes sense to exploit the
potential of the UICCs to better support IoT
applications by creating value-added services
for operators and enterprises. Three examples of
this are using the UICC as cryptographic storage,
using it to run higher-layer protocolstacks,
andusingitasasupervisoryentity.
UsingtheUICCascryptographicstorage
UICC modules were designed to serve as
cryptographic storage and are used today mainly
for the storage of security credentials for 3GPP
connectivity. We propose, in accordance with
GSMA IoT SAFE [1], that the UICC itself should
also be used as a crypto-safe for the IoT platform,
providing support to establish encrypted
connection of the applications.
OPERATORSMUST
DECIDEWHICHSOLUTION
ISMOSTSUITABLEFOR
ANYGIVENAPPLICATION
UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱
5APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
AgenericIoTdevicehasmultipleidentitiesforuse
inmultiplesecuritydomains.Everyidentityhasat
leastoneidentifierandcredential,allofwhichmust
bestoredsomewhere.Althoughtherearemultiple
options,ahardwareelementthatispowerfulenough
toplaytheroleoftherootoftrustisdefinitelyneeded.
TheUICCisperfectforthisrole,asitisalreadyused
asanidentityfor3GPPnetworks,storingInternational
MobileSubscriberIdentity,intensifiedcharge-
coupleddevice,Wi-FiandOMALwM2M[6]
credentialsalongwithdozensofotheridentifiers.
Thenecessarytrustedandcertifiedenvironment
andinfrastructurearealreadyavailabletomanufacture
themodule,downloadandupdateitscontentand
carryoutremotemanagementaswell.
Tocovereveryaspect,UICC-basedsolutions
requirecooperationbetweentheUICCecosystem
andtheIoTdevicesecuritysubsystem(ARMTrust
Zone[7],forexample).IDandcredentialmanagement
itselfisdevice-independent,whichsavesdevelopment
costandincreasesthesecuritylevel.Additional
advantagesofusingUICCasarootoftrustare:
	❭ it has its own local processor
	❭ it is usually equipped with powerful
cryptographic co-processors
	❭ it comes with a powerful, standardized remote
management subsystem (RMS)
	❭ it is handled through a separate logistics chain.
The UICC can generate key-pairs and store
private keys for multiple security domains
effectively and securely. Effectiveness comes
from its powerful cryptographic co-processors,
while security is provided by the combination of
the standardized RMS and the UICC’s ability to
run cryptography processes inside the module.
This means that the keys never leave the hardware
and therefore they cannot be exposed to the
application. Not only does this architecture
provide security, it can also securely tie
the 3GPP connectivity credentials and other
IoT certificates to each other.
TherecentlyreleasedGSMAIoTSAFE[8]offers
asolutionwheretheUICCisutilizedasarootof
trustforIoTsecurity.Here,anappletontheUICC/
eUICCprovidescryptographicsupportandstorage
ofcredentialsforestablishingsecurecommunication
(forexample,usingDTLS)toanIoTservice.The
existingUICCmanagementsystem(UICCOTA
mechanism)isusedbytheoperatortoestablish
trustedcredentialsbetweenthedeviceandtheIoT
service.TheGSMAIoTSAFEdefinesanapplication
programminginterfaceforinteroperabilitybetween
SIMappletsfromdifferentoperators.
UsingtheUICCtorun
higher-layerprotocolstacks
In addition to providing security and encryption
functions, UICC modules could also serve as
main application processors. Today, a low-cost,
sensor-like IoT device usually has at least three
processors on board: one is on the UICC module,
another runs inside the baseband modem, and a
third – the application processor itself (sometimes
combined) – collects data and hosts higher level
communication stacks such as LwM2M, CoAP
or MQ Telemetry Transport.
Shiftingthehigher-levelcommunicationstack
fromtheapplicationprocessortotheUICC
modulecanleadtocheaperhardwareandlower
developmentcosts,aswellasprovidingaunique
approachtointeroperability.Asaresult,some
modemmanufacturershaveimplementedthese
protocolsinsidethemodem,runningacomplete
OMALwM2Mprotocolstackinthebasebandchip,
forexample.Whilethismayfreeupanexternal
applicationprocessorandspeedupdevice
development,thissolutionisratherinflexible.
EFFECTIVENESS
COMESFROMITS POWER-
FULCRYPTOGRAPHIC
CO-PROCESSORS
✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT
6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
Sincemodemfirmwareisaclosedenvironment,
itisdifficulttoupgradeandtocustomizeitsprotocol
stacks(extendingthemwithproprietaryadded
values).Inaddition,asmallsecurityholeinthe
protocolstackcanbeenoughforahackertotake
controlofthewholemodem.
Alternatively,thesehigher-layerprotocolstacks
canbemovedtotheUICC.Figure2depictsablock
diagramofadevice,wheretheOMALwM2M
clientrunsontheUICCmoduleandusesanon-IP
datadelivery(NIDD)protocolconnectiontosend
informationtothedevicemanagementsystem.
Runninghigher-levelprotocolsintheUICC
modulecanimprovesecurityinseveralways.
Forexample,itispossibletoruntheLwM2M
stackoveraNIDDconnection[9]andeventoallow
thiscodetoexecuteontheUICCmoduleinstead
ofonthedeviceprocessor.Inthisscenario,
command/controlisneverexposedonthe
IPlayerbecauseitisrunninginthesignaling
networkoftheoperator.Anadditionaladvantage
ofthisapproachisthatitincreasesinteroperability.
Thereisastandardizedwayofupgradingthe
communicationstackintheUICC–itiseven
possibletoinsertthecommunicationstackinto
theoperatorprofile.Thisdoesnotcompletely
solvecompatibilityandinterfacingproblems,
butacertifiedoperatorcanhandletheseissues
onahighersecurityleveltoprovidewider
solutionmatching.
InthesimplestIoTdevices,itmightevenbe
possibletoruntheactualIoTapplicationonthe
UICCmodule.Thiswouldopenforedge-computing
solutionsinwhichsimpletasksareexecutedonthe
device–datafilteringtoreducetheamountofdata
beingsentovertheair,forexample.Securitycanalso
beimprovedifthebinaryisstoredontheUICC
insteadofonthedeviceapplicationprocessor.
Figure 2 IoT device with LwM2M client running on the UICC module, using NIDD
Application
Operator
profile
PSK
IMEI
BIP
Sensor data
IoT device
UICC
PSK
NIDD/SMS/USSD
NIDD/SMS
/USSD
Dev. ID
SCEF
Radio modem
LwM2M
client
Device and
data
management
(LwM2M
server)
SIMtoolkit
UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱
7APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
UsingtheUICCasasupervisoryentity
Zero-touch provisioning (ZTP) is yet another
possibility for better utilization of the UICC
module. ZTP refers to the possibility of adding
an identity to a device when required, with
automatic setup of the working environment
(requiring manual intervention).
Aneffectiveautomaticprovisioningsystem
requiresremoteprovisioningmanagement,
keyandcredentialstorage,identitymappingof
UICCmodulesandapplicationsaswellasstrong
flexibilityincaseofoperatorprofiles,butallofthis
isfarfromenough.ProvisioningofIoTdevicesisa
complex,slowandcostlyprocedure.Althoughthere
isajointefforttoextendmobilenetworkstosupport
standardized,automaticdeviceandsubscription
provisioning,itisataveryearlystage.
Duringtheprovisioningprocedure,twoormore
identitiesaregiventothedevice,whichentails
thattheseidentifiersaredownloaded,anddifferent
subsystemsareconfigured(mobilenetwork,device
managementsystem,datamanagementsystem,
andsoon).Severalstandardizedtechnologiesexist
tosupportthisprocessbut,unfortunately,
theyarenotconnectedintoaworking,efficient,
fullyautomatedandcooperativesystem.
Themoststraightforwardwaytoconnect
differentsubsystemsinaflexibleandprogrammable
wayistorunacentralizedserviceaboveoratthe
samelevelasthesesubsystems.ThisZTPservice
isconnectedtothe3GPPnetwork(forinstance
tosubscriberdatamanagement),totheSM-DP+
system(usuallyoperatedbytheUICCmodule
vendororanindependentbootstrapoperator),
tothedevicemanagementsystemandtothedata
managementsystem.TheconnectiontotheIoT
deviceitself,tothemanufactureroreventothe
installerofthedevicecanalsobeestablished.
Themainpurposeofthisserviceistodrivethe
IoTdevicethroughthestepsofautomaticdevice
provisioningfromtheverybeginning(orderingthe
device)tothefinaldecommissioning.
Althoughthisover-the-topservice(OTT)
canspeeduptheprovisioningprocesssignificantly,
ithassomedisadvantages.Itshouldnotstoresensitive
data,butonlymanageitindirectly.Furthermore,
ifthedevicehasnoconnectionatall,itcannot
doanything.Scalingcouldalsobeaproblem.
AUICCMODULECAN
STORESENSITIVE
INFORMATION
Terms and abbreviations
AKA – Authentication and Key Agreement |BIP – Bearer Independent Protocol | CoAp – Constrained
Application Protocol | DTLS – Datagram Transport Layer Security | eUICC – Embedded UICC (soldered to
the device board) | HTTPS – Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure | IMEI – International Mobile Equipment
Identity | IOT – Internet of Things | IUICC – Integrated UICC (integrated to a microchip) | LPA – Local
Profile Assistant | LPAdv – LPA (device), interfacing to the UICC | LPApr – LPA (proxy), interacting with the
device owner and SM-DP+ | LwM2M – Lightweight Machine-to-Machine | NIDD – Non-IP Data Delivery |
OMA – Open Mobile Alliance | OTT – Over-the-Top | PSK – Pre-shared Keys | RMS – Remote Management
Subsystem | RSP – Remote SIM Provisioning (protocol) | SCEF – Service Capability Exposure Functions |
SM-DP – Subscription Manager–Data Preparation | UICC – Universal Integrated Circuit Card |
USSD – Unstructured Supplementary Service Data | ZTP – Zero-Touch Provisioning
✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT
8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
ThisiswhereaUICCapplicationcanhelpand
supportanOTTZTPservice.AUICCmodulecan
storesensitiveinformationfromdifferentsecurity
domains.AsitworksclosetotheIoTdevice,itcando
correctiveactionslocallyifthereisaproblemwith
theconnectivity(attempttoactivateanotherprofile
andconnecttoanotheroperator).Inaddition,itis
scalingtogetherwiththeIoTdevices.Sincethis
solutioniscompletelyunderthecontrolofthe
operator,itcanbeindependentoftheapplication,
therebyalsosavingdevelopmentcosts.
Figure3showsanexampleofthissystem:
acentralZTPservice,inconnectionwith
multiple subsystemsandasupportapplication
ontheUICCmodule.
ThecentralZTPserviceworkingtogetherwith
theZTPsupportapplicationontheUICCmodule
canbeveryeffective.TheZTPserviceandtheZTP
supportapplicationtogethercancoveralmost
everyusecaseandsolvetheproblemstheIoTarea
isstrugglingwithtoday.
TheUICCapplicationcanbeusedtomonitor
connectivityandfixissueslocally.Thiscanbe
highlyeffectiveifcredentialsarestoredonthe
UICCmoduleandiftheIoTprotocolstack
isalsorunningontheUICCmodule.
FornarrowbandIoT,thetraditionalprofile
downloadsolutionandthemachine-to-machine
SM-DPisineffective.Significantlybetterresults
canbeachievedbyusingtheSM-DP+inanewway.
Forexample,runningtheLPAproxyontheUICC
modulemakesitpossibletousecompletelynew
optionsfordeviceprovisioning.
Conclusion
The universal integrated circuit card (UICC)
modules present in all 3GPP IoT devices
today are costly and underutilized.
Figure 3 ZTP system with central ZTP service and UICC support
Application
IoT device
ZTP support
application
Device vendor
Data
management
Device
management
Enterprise
CRM
UICC vendor
Mobile
network
operator
Operator
profile
ZTP service
UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱
9APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
Further reading
	❭ Ericsson Technology Review, Key technology choices for optimal massive IoT devices, January 2019,
available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/ericsson-technology-review/articles/key-
technology-choices-for-optimal-massive-iot-devices
	❭ Ericsson, eSIM – Let’s talk business, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/digital-services/trending/esim
	❭ Ericsson blog, Secure IoT identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/3/secure-iot-identities
	❭ Ericsson blog, Secure brokering of digital identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/7/
secure-brokering-of-digital-identities
References
1.	 Ericsson blog, Evolving SIM solutions for IoT, May 27, 2019, Smeets, B; Ståhl, P; Fornehed, J, available at:
https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/evolving-sim-solutions-for-iot
2.	 UICC card HW specification for P5Cxxxx cards, available at: http://www.e-scan.com/smart-card/nxp.pdf
3.	 GSMA, RSP Technical Specification Version 2.1, February 27, 2017, available at:
https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/wp-content/uploads/SGP.22_v2.1.pdf
4.	 GSMA, Remote Provisioning Architecture for Embedded UICC Technical Specification Version 4.0,
February 25, 2019, available at: https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/wp-content/uploads/SGP.02-v4.0.pdf
5.	 GSMA Intelligence: The future of the SIM: potential market and technology implications for the mobile
ecosystem, February 2017, Iacopino, P; Rogers, M, available at: https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/
research/?file=3f8f4057fdd7832b0b923cb051cb6e2c&download
6.	 OMA, Lightweight Machine to Machine Technical Specification: Core, July 10, 2018, available at:
http://www.openmobilealliance.org/release/LightweightM2M/V1_1-20180710-A/OMA-TS-LightweightM2M_
Core-V1_1-20180710-A.pdf
7.	 ARM, ARM Security Technology, available at: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.prd29-
genc-009492c/PRD29-GENC-009492C_trustzone_security_whitepaper.pdf
8.	 GSMA, IoT SAFE, available at: https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-safe/
9.	 OMA, white paper, Lightweight M2M 1.1: Managing Non-IP Devices in Cellular IoT Networks, October
2018, Slovetskiy, S; Magadevan, P; Zhang, Y; Akhouri, S, available at: https://www.omaspecworks.org/wp-
content/uploads/2018/10/Whitepaper-11.1.18.pdf
The industry is looking for ways to replace them
with a next-generation solution, but for the
foreseeable future UICC modules are here to stay.
While there are a few ways to reduce the
complexity of using UICC modules and thereby
reducing the cost of IoT devices, it is also possible
to extend the application of UICC modules well
beyond the cellular domain. For example,
members of the existing UICC ecosystem can
start exploiting UICC capabilities for storing
IoT identities, executing IoT protocols,
increasing security, providing end-to-end
connectivity as a service, and/or supporting
zero-touch provisioning.
✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT
10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
theauthors
Benedek Kovács
◆ joined Ericsson in 2005.
Over the years since he has
served as a system engineer,
R&D site innovation
manager (Budapest) and
characteristics,performance
management and reliability
specialist in the development
of the 4G VoLTE solution.
Today he works on 5G
networks and distributed
cloud, as well as coordinating
global engineering projects.
Kovács holds an M.Sc. in
information engineering and
a Ph.D. in mathematics from
the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics
in Hungary.
Zsigmond Pap
◆ joined Ericsson in 2012.
After working in the cloud
native and 5G packet core
areas as technical manager
and system architect
respectively, he moved into
the IoT area. He specializes
in low-level software
development and he has
participated in multiple
hardware and firmware
developments related to
custom hardware solutions.
He holds an M.Sc. in the area
of hardware and embedded
computers and a Ph.D.
in information engineering
fromtheBudapestUniversity
of Technology and
Economics in Hungary.
Zsolt Vajta
◆ joined Ericsson in 2015
as a software developer
focused on developing
and maintaining modules
to implement the link
aggregation control protocol
in the IP operating system.
In 2018, he became involved
in research on IoT device
activation and zero-touch
provisioning. As of early
2020, he has joined the
packet core area as a
product owner. He holds
an M.Sc. in informatics and
physics as well as a Ph.D.
in nuclear physics from
the University of Debrecen
in Hungary.
The authors would
like to thank the
following people
for their
contributions
to this article:
Gergely Seres,
John Fornehed,
Per Ståhl, Peter
Mattsson, Bogdan
Dragus, Robert
Khello and
Tony Uotila.
UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱
11APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
ISSN 0014-0171
284 23-3343 | Uen
© Ericsson AB 2020
Ericsson
SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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