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Control to control
in production line
Automated container
transport in port
Cooperative AGVs in
a production line
Remote control with
video/audio
Remote control with
AR overlay
Remote control with
haptic feedback
Machine vision for
intersection safety
Collaborative
mobile robots
Cloud-assisted
basic AR
10s of ms latency
99% reliability
1s of ms latency
99.999% reliability
Time-criticality
Premium experience
cloud-assisted AR Interactive VR
cloud gaming
Cloud-rendered
AR
Media production
Cloud gaming
Cloud motion
control of AGVs
Cooperative maneuvering
of vehicles
Closed-loop
process control
Process
monitoring
Machine vision
for robotics
PLC to robot controller
Smart grid control
Motion control
Industrial control
Open or closed-loop
control of industrial
automation systems
Automated control loops
for mobile vehicles and
robots
Human control of
remote devices
Real, virtual and
combined
environments
Mobility automation
Remote control
Real-time media
Local area
Confined wide area
General wide area
Deployment scenarios
Industries
Time-critical use cases common across multiple industries
Entertainment
Automotive
Transportation
Health care
Education
Media production
Forestry
Public safety
Utilities
Oil & gas
Railways
Agriculture
Manufacturing
Warehousing
Mining
Ports
Construction
CRITICAL IOT
CONNECTIVITY
ERICSSON
TECHNOLOGY
C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 0 6 ∙ 2 0 2 0
Critical Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity is ideal for a wide range
of time-critical use cases across most industry verticals, and mobile
network operators are uniquely positioned to deliver it.
FREDRIK ALRIKSSON,
LISA BOSTRÖM,
JOACHIM SACHS,
Y.-P. ERIC WANG,
ALI ZAIDI
Cellular Internet of Things (IoT) is driving
transformation across various sectors by
enabling innovative services for consumers
and enterprises. There are currently more
than one billion cellular IoT connections, and
Ericsson forecasts that there will be around
five billion connections by 2025 [1].
■ As 5G deployments gain momentum globally,
enterprises in almost every industry are exploring
the potential of 5G to transform their products,
services and businesses. Since the requirements
for wireless connectivity in different industries
vary, it is useful to group them into four distinct
IoT connectivity segments: Massive IoT,
Broadband IoT, Critical IoT and Industrial
Automation IoT [2].
WhileMassiveIoTandBroadbandIoTalready
existin4Gnetworks,CriticalIoTwillbeintroduced
withmoreadvanced5Gnetworks.Industrial
AutomationIoT,thefourthsegment,includes
capabilitiesontopofCriticalIoTthatenable
integrationofthe5Gsystemwithreal-time
Ethernetandtime-sensitivenetworking(TSN)
usedinwiredindustrialautomationnetworks.
CriticalIoTaddressesthetime-critical
communicationneedsofindividuals,
enterprisesandpublicinstitutions.Itisintended
fortime-criticalapplicationsthatdemanddata
deliverywithinaspecifiedtimedurationwith
requiredguarantee(reliability)levels,suchas
datadeliverywithin50mswith99.9percent
likelihood(reliability).
CriticalIoTisaparadigmshiftfromtheenhanced
mobilebroadband(eMBB)connectivity,wherethe
datarateismaximizedwithoutanyguaranteeon
latency[3].Manyindustrysectorshavealready
startedpilotingtime-criticalusecases.
IDEAL FOR TIME-CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS
CriticalIoT
connectivity
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
Time-criticalusecases
Themajorityoftime-criticalusecasescanbe
classified into the following four use case families:
	❭ Industrial control
	❭ Mobility automation
	❭ Remote control
	❭ Real-time media
Each family is relevant for multiple industries and
includes a wide range of use cases with more or
less stringent time-critical requirements, as shown
in Figure 1.
Furthermore,therearethreemainnetwork
deploymentscenariosdependingonthecoverage
needsoftime-criticalservicesindifferentindustries:
	❭ Local area
	❭ Confined wide area
	❭ General wide area
Local-area deployment includes both indoor
and outdoor coverage for a small geographical
area such as a port, farm, factory, mine or hospital.
Confinedwide-areadeploymentisforapredefined
geographicalarea–alongahighway,between
certain electrical substations, or within a city
center,forexample.Generalwide-areadeployment
is about serving devices virtually anywhere.
Commontoalltime-criticalusecasesisthefact
thatthecommunicationservicerequirements
dependonthedynamicsoftheusecaseandthe
applicationimplementation.Ahighlydynamic
systemrequiresfastercontrolwithshorterround-
triptimes(RTTs),whileaslowercontrolloopis
sufficientforasystemthatoperatesmoreslowly.
Variousfactors–suchasdeviceprocessing
capabilities,theprocessingsplitbetweenthedevice
andtheapplicationserver,theapplication’sabilityto
extrapolateandpredictdataincaseofmissing
Figure 1 Examples of use cases enabled by Critical IoT
Control to control
in production line
Automated container
transport in port
Cooperative AGVs in
a production line
Remote control with
video/audio
Remote control with
AR overlay
Remote control with
haptic feedback
Machine vision for
intersection safety
Collaborative
mobile robots
Cloud-assisted
basic AR
10s of ms latency
99% reliability
1s of ms latency
99.999% reliability
Time-criticality
Premium experience
cloud-assisted AR Interactive VR
cloud gaming
Cloud-rendered
AR
Media production
Cloud gaming
Cloud motion
control of AGVs
Cooperative maneuvering
of vehicles
Closed-loop
process control
Process
monitoring
Machine vision
for robotics
PLC to robot controller
Smart grid control
Motion control
Industrial control
Open or closed-loop
control of industrial
automation systems
Automated control loops
for mobile vehicles and
robots
Human control of
remote devices
Real, virtual and
combined
environments
Mobility automation
Remote control
Real-time media
Local area
Confined wide area
General wide area
Deployment scenarios
Industries
Time-critical use cases common across multiple industries
Entertainment
Automotive
Transportation
Health care
Education
Media production
Forestry
Public safety
Utilities
Oil & gas
Railways
Agriculture
Manufacturing
Warehousing
Mining
Ports
Construction
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
3JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
Time-critical use case trials
In partnership with leading industry partners and mobile network operators, Ericsson has trialed various
Critical IoT use cases including:
	❭ Industrial control for manufacturing vehicles: https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/cases/accelerate-
factory-automation-with-5g-urllc
	❭ Industrial control for manufacturing jet engines: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZWC_ttighM
	❭ Remote control in mining: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4l0UKZ-FCc&t=7s
	❭ Remote control of autonomous trucks: https://www.ericsson.com/en/press-releases/2018/11/ericsson-
einride-and-telia-power-sustainable-self-driving-trucks-with-5g
	❭ Remote bus driving: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPyzGTD5FtM
	❭ Cooperative vehicle maneuvers: https://5gcar.eu/
	❭ Virtual reality and real-time media: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/5/its-all-green-flags-for-5g-at-
the-indianapolis-motor-speedway
	❭ Augmented reality: https://www.ericsson.com/en/news/2018/3/5g-augmented-reality
	❭ Smart harbor: https://www.ericsson.com/en/press-releases/2019/2/ericsson-and-china-unicom-announce-
5g-smart-harbor-at-the-port-of-qingdao
packets,rateadaptivityandwhichcodecsareused
–impactboththeapplicationRTTandthelatency
requirementsonthecommunicationnetwork.
Industrialcontrolincludesaverybroadsetof
applications,presentinmostindustryverticals[4].
Theseapplicationstypicallyconsiderlatemessages
aslost.Processmonitoring,controller-to-controller
communicationbetweenproductioncellsandsome
controlfunctionsfortheelectricitygridareexamples
ofusecaseswithmodesttime-criticality,whileuse
casessuchasclosed-loopprocesscontroland
motioncontrolhaveverystringentrequirements.
Mobilityautomationreferstotheautomationof
controlloopsformobilevehiclesandrobots.
Examplesoftheleasttime-criticalusecasesinthis
categoryincludetherelativelyself-sufficient
automatedguidedvehicles(AGVs)equippedwith
advancedon-boardsensorsthatareusedfor
transportationinportsandmines.Infrastructure-
assistedvehiclessuchasfast-movingAGVs
inawarehouseandcollaborativemaneuveringon
publicroadsareexamplesofmoretime-critical
mobilityautomationusecases,whilethe
collaborativemobilerobotsusedinflexible
productioncellsrepresentanevenhigherdegree
oftime-criticality.
Remotecontrolreferstotheremotecontrol
ofequipmentbyhumans.Theabilitytoremotely
controlequipmentisanimportantstepinthe
evolutiontowardautonomousvehicles(totake
temporarycontrolofadriverlessbusinscenarios
notcoveredbyitsownautomationfunctions)
andforflyingdronesbeyondvisualline-of-sight.
Remotecontrolcanalsoimprovework
environmentsandproductivitybymovinghumans
outofinconvenientorhazardousenvironments
–remote-controlledminingequipment[5]
isoneexample.Suchsolutionsalsoofferthe
benefitofprovidingenterpriseswithaccess
toabroaderworkforce.
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
Thecommunicationservicerequirementsfor
remotecontroldependonhowfasttheremote
environmentchanges,therequiredprecisionofthe
taskandtherequiredQoE.Control-looplatencyand
audio/videoqualityareimportantfactorsforQoEand
theergonomicsfortheremoteoperator.Hapticfeed-
backandaugmentedreality(AR)canbeusedto
furtherimprovetheoperatorQoEandtaskprecision,
andwillmaketheacceptablelatenciesevenstricter.
Real-timemediacomprisesusecaseswhere
mediaisproducedandconsumedinrealtime,
anddelayshaveanegativeimpactonQoE.
Mobileapplicationsforgamingandentertainment,
includingARandvirtualreality(VR),arecommon,
withprocessingandrenderingdonelocallyinthe
device.Time-criticalcommunicationwillmakeit
possibletooffloadpartsoftheprocessingand
renderingtothecloud[6],therebyimprovingthe
userexperienceandenablingtheuseofmore
lightweightdevices(head-mounted,forexample).
Time-criticalcommunicationcanenablecloud
gamingovercellularnetworksaswellasnew
applicationsinsectorssuchasmanufacturing,
education,healthcareandpublicsafety.Itis
expectedtodrivemorewidespreaduseofmobile
ARandVR.Advancedmediaproduction(suchas
real-timeproductionofliveperformances)withits
strictdelayandsynchronizationrequirements,
isanotherareawheretime-criticalcommunication
canenablenewusecases.
Keynetworktechnologiesandarchitectures
Achievable end-to-end (E2E) latencies depend on
the available network and compute infrastructure,
softwarefeatures,andhowtheusecaseisimple-
mented. In remote control, the physical distance
between the remote operator and the teleoperated
equipment is a physical property of the use case.
In other use cases, the physical distance between
end nodescanbereducedbydistributedcloud
processing,asinARcloudgaming, where the AR
overlay can be rendered in an edge cloud to limit
interaction latencies. Network orchestration
optimizestheplacementofnetworkandapplication
functions to ensure efficient use of the compute
and network infrastructure while restricting the
transmission paths according to latency needs [7].
The5Gnetworkcomprisestwofunctionaldomains:
thenextgeneration(5G)RAN(NG-RAN)andthe
5GCore(5GC),whicharebuiltonanunderlying
transportnetwork.Allthree–theNG-RAN,the
5GCandthetransportnetwork–contributetothe
E2Ereliabilityandlatency,whichisfurtheraffected
bythedeviceimplementation.
TheNG-RANisdeployedinadistributedfashion
toprovideradiocoveragewithgoodperformance,
availabilityandcapacity.The5GCprovides
connectivityofthedevicetotheexternalservices
andapplications.Thenetworklatencybetweenthe
applicationandtheRANcanbeamajorcontributor
toE2Elatency.
Terms and abbreviations
5GC – 5G Core | AAS – Advanced Antenna System | AGV – Automated Guided Vehicle |
AR – Augmented Reality | CA – Carrier Aggregation | DC – Data Center | DL – Downlink |
E2E – End-to-End | eMBB – Enhanced Mobile Broadband | FDD – Frequency Division Duplex|
IOT – Internet of Things | MNO – Mobile Network Operator | NG-RAN – Next Generation RAN |
NPN – Non-Public Network | NR – New Radio | PLC – Programmable Logic Controller | RTT – Round-Trip
Time | TDD – Time Division Duplex | TSN – Time-Sensitive Networking | UE – User Equipment |
UL – Uplink | URLLC – Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication | VR – Virtual Reality
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
5JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
Figure2providesexamplesofnetwork
architecturesforlowlatencyand/orhighreliability,
andillustratestheeffectofmovingtheapplication
closertothedevice.Ifanapplicationishostedina
centralnationaldatacenter(DC),thetransport
networkround-triplatencycanbeintheorderof
10-40ms,dependingonthedistancetotheDC
andhowwellthetransportnetworkisbuiltout.
Transportlatencycanbereducedto5-20msby
movingapplicationstoaregionalDCorevento
1-5msforedgesites.Forlocalnetworkdeployments
withnetworkingfunctionsandapplicationshosted
on-premises,transportlatenciesbecomenegligible.
Controlofthenetworktopologyandthetransport
latencycanbeachievedbyplacingvirtualizedcore
networkfunctionsforexecutionatanylocation
withinthedistributedcomputingplatformofthe
network.Thissoftware-baseddesignprovides
flexibilityinupdatingthenetworkwithnew
functionalityandreconfiguringitaccordingto
requirements.Inadditiontorunning
telecommunicationfunctions,thedistributed
computingplatformallowsthehostingof
applicationfunctionsinthenetwork[8].
Networkslicingmakesitpossibletocreate
multiplelogicalnetworksthatshareacommon
networkinfrastructure.Adedicatednetworkslice
canbecreatedbyconfiguringandconnecting
computingandnetworkingresourcesacrossthe
radio,transportandcorenetworks.Byreserving
resources,ahighavailabilityoftime-critical
servicescanbeensuredandlatenciesfor
queuingcanbeavoided.
Networkorchestrationautomatesthecreation,
modificationanddeletionofslicesaccordingtoa
sliceservicerequirement[2].Thiscanimplythat
computelocationsareselectedaccordingto
guaranteedresourceavailabilityandtransport
latencyratherthanthelowestcomputecosts,for
example.5GNewRadio(NR)providesseveral
capabilitiesforultra-reliablelow-latency
communication(URLLC)[7,9].Fromthefirst
Figure 2 Examples of network architectures for low latency and/or high reliability
Core user plane
Core control plane
Network exposure
Subscription data management
Application server
Redundant connection (optional)
Alternative options
On-premises
~0-1ms RTT
National DC
Edge DC
Edge sites
1-5ms RTT
Regional DC
~5-20ms RTT
National DC
~10-40ms RTT
General wide area
Confined wide area
Local area
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
NRstandardrelease,thetargethasbeentoenable
one-waylatenciesthroughtheRANofdownto1ms,
whereatimelydatadeliverycanbeensuredwith
99.999percentprobability.
Featuresaddressinglowlatencyincludeultra-
shorttransmissions,instanttransmission
mechanismstominimizethewaitingtimefor
uplink(UL)data,rapidretransmissionprotocols
thatminimizefeedbackdelaysfromareceiver
tothetransmitter,instantpreemptionand
prioritizationmechanisms,interruption-free
mobilityandfastprocessingcapabilitiesof
devicesandbasestations.
Featuresaddressinghighreliabilityincludearange
ofrobustsignaltransmissionformats.Thereare
methodsforduplicatetransmissionstoimprove
reliabilitythroughdiversity,bothwithinacarrier
usingtransmissionsthroughmultipleantenna
points,aswellasbetweencarriersthrougheither
carrieraggregation(CA)ormulti-connectivity.
Advancedantennasystems(AAS)have
tremendouspotentialtoimprovethelinkbudget
andreduceinterference.Thevendor-specificradio
networkconfiguration,algorithmsforscheduling,
linkadaptation,admissionandloadcontrolthatare
attheheartofNRmakeitpossibletofulfillservice
requirementswhileensuringanoptimized
utilizationofavailableresources.
Supportforhighlyreliablecommunication
hasalsobeenaddressedforthe5GC,byintroducing
optionsforredundantdatatransmission.
Multipleredundantuser-planeconnections
withdisjointroutesandnodescanbeestablished
simultaneously.Thismayincludetheusageof
separateuserequipment(UE)onthedifferent
routes.5GprovidesQoS,andbyconfiguringa
suitableQoSflowthroughthe5Gsystemfor
transportingtime-criticalcommunication,
queuinglatenciesduetoconflictingtrafficcan
beavoidedbytrafficseparationwithresource
reservationsand/ortrafficprioritization.
Foratime-criticalcommunicationservice
thatisrequestedbyaconsumer,adatasession
withasuitableQoSflowprofileisestablished,
accordingtoacorrespondingservicesubscription.
Largercustomers,likeanenterprise,aretypically
interestedinconnectivityforanentiredevicegroup.
Forthispurpose,5Ghasdefinednon-publicnetworks
(NPNs),whicharerealorvirtualnetworksthatare
restrictedforusagebyanauthorizedgroupof
devicesfortheirprivatecommunication[10].
AnNPNcanberealizedasastandalonenetwork
notcoupledtoapublicnetworkthatispurpose-
builttoprovidecustomerservicesatthe
customer premises.
Alternatively,anNPNmaysharepartsofthe
networkinfrastructurewithapublicnetwork,
likeacommonRANthatissharedforprivateand
publicusers.BeyondthesharedRAN,theNPN
mayhaveaseparatededicatedcorenetworkand
localbreakout–thatis,itmaybelocatedonthe
customer’spremiseswithitsowndevice
authentication,servicehandlingandtraffic
management.Finally,anNPNcanbeanetwork
servicethatisprovidedbyamobilenetworkoperator
(MNO)asacustomer-specificnetworkslice.
SomeNPNsmaybecustomizedtoprovide
dedicatedfunctionalityforindustrialautomation,
including5G-LANservicesandEthernetsupport,
providingultra-lowdeterministiclatency,
interworkingwithIEEE(theInstituteofElectrical
andElectronicsEngineers)TSN,andtime-
synchronizationtosynchronizedevicesover5G
toareferencetime[11,12].Enhancedservice
exposureofthe5Gsystemmakesitpossibletobetter
integrate5Gintoanindustrialsystem[13]bymeans
ofserviceinterfacesfordevicemanagement
(deviceonboarding,connectivitymanagementand
monitoring,forexample)andnetworkmanagement.
...[AAS]HAVETREMENDOUS
POTENTIAL TO IMPROVE THE
LINK BUDGET AND REDUCE
INTERFERENCE
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
7JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
5Gspectrumflexibility
5G NR allows MNOs to take full advantage
of all available spectrum assets. NR can be
deployed using the spectrum assets used for
the LTE networks, either through refarming
or spectrum sharing [14]. Most of the LTE
spectrum assets are in the low and mid bands,
which in the 5G era will continue to be used
for wide-area coverage. Traffic growth will
drive the need for increased network capacity
throughout the 5G era.
Increasedcapacitycanbeachievedbyadding
morespectrumassets,densifyingthenetworkand/
orupgradingcapabilitiesatexistingsites.New5G
spectrumoptionsinthemidbands(around3.5GHz)
andinthehighbands(suchasthemillimeterwave
frequencies)presentgreatopportunitieswithlarge
bandwidths.
Operatingwiththesenewspectrumassets,the
addedRANnodescanalsouseadvancedhardware
featuressuchasanAAStofullycapitalizeonthe
benefitsofNR.Thecoverageprovidedbythe
low-bandandmid-bandspectrumassetsiskeyto
enableCriticalIoTservicesinwide-areadeployments.
Addingnetworkcapacityovertimewillnotonly
increasethecapacityforeMBB,butalsoboost
thecapacityforCriticalIoT.
Casestudies
To illustrate how 5G spectrum assets can be
utilized for Critical IoT, we have put together
case studies for two deployment scenarios:
wide-area deployment and local-area
deployment inside a factory.
Thewide-areascenarioisbasedonamacro-
deploymentincentralLondonwithaninter-site
distanceofapproximately450m,assuminglow-
bandFDD,mid-bandFDDandmid-bandTDD
spectrumoptions.Forthemid-banddeployments,
weincludeanAAS,witheightantennacolumnsfor
3.5GHzandfourfor2GHz.Deviceswithfour
receiverbranchesareusedintheevaluation.
Thelocalfactorysetupisbasedonafactory
automationscenario[15]andassumesmid-band
andhigh-bandTDDoptions.Table1liststhe
spectrumoptionschoseninthecasestudies.
ThetophalfofFigure3presentstheserved
capacitypercellversusvariousreliabilityand
round-tripRANlatencyrequirementsforoutdoor
UEsinthecentralLondonwide-areadeployment
scenario.AlltheTDDcasesassumeaTDDpattern
with3:1downlink(DL)andULsplit.Observethe
costintermsofcapacitywhenpushingfortighter
reliabilityandlatencyrequirements.Generally,
atighterreliabilityorlatencyrequirementleads
Spectrum option Frequency allocation Deployment scenario Subcarrier spacing
Low-bandFDD 2x10MHz@800MHz Widearea 15kHz
Mid-bandFDD 2x20MHz@2GHz Widearea 15kHz
Mid-bandTDD 50MHz@3.5GHz Widearea 30kHz
Mid-bandTDD 100MHz@3.5GHz Localfactory 30kHz
High-bandTDD 400MHz@30GHz Localfactory 120kHz
Table 1 Spectrum assets considered in the case studies
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
toahigherconsumptionofradioresources,asthe
schedulerneedstoprovisionalargerlinkadaptation
margintoreducethelikelihoodoffailuresinthe
initialtransmissions.Furthermore,weobservethat
themid-bandoptionscanofferasignificantcapacity
boostforthewide-areascenario,thankstolarge
availablebandwidthsanduseofAAS.
Amongthetwomid-bandoptionsstudied,FDD
at2GHzisattractivewhengreaterULcoverage
(99percent)isdesired.Ourcasestudiesalsoshow
thatitischallengingforthewide-areadeployment
toprovidefullindoorULCriticalIoTcoverage
usingmid-bandspectrumoptions,duetobuilding-
penetrationloss.Ingeneral,indoorcoverage
dependsonbuildingmaterialsandbuildingsizes.
Underfavorableconditions,suchaslow-loss
facadesandlimitedbuildingsizes(thatis,
lessthan3,600sqminfootprint),itisfeasible
tohave95percentindoorULcoverageevenusing
themid-bandcarriers,althoughtheachievable
capacityislimited.Localindoordeployments
areaprerequisiteinhigh-lossorverylargebuildings,
andarealsonecessaryinotherbuildingsifhigh
indoorcoverageandcapacityisdesired.
Althoughsuburbanandruralscenariostypically
havelargercells,itisnonethelesspossibletoachieve
similarresultsthere.Thisisbecauseantennasin
suburbanandruralenvironmentstendtobe
installedatagreaterheight,therearefewer
obstaclesandthesmallerbuildingsresultinless
wall-penetrationloss.Thesefactorscompensate
forthedifferencesincellrange,makingitfeasible
toachieveverygoodCriticalIoTperformance
insuburbanandruralscenariosaswell.
Forlocal-areastudies(scenario#2),the
deploymentusing3.5GHzspectrumisbased
Figure 3 Served capacity per cell versus various reliability and round-trip RAN latency requirements for the two scenarios
140
Downlink traffic [Mbps]
Downlink traffic [Mbps]
Uplink traffic [Mbps]
120
100
80
60
200
150
100
350
300
250
450
400
50
0
40
20
99%
24ms
800MHz 2GHz 3.5GHz
8ms 24ms 8ms 24ms 8ms
99.9% 99%
90% coverage 95% coverage 99% coverage
100% coverage
99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9%
3.5GHz 30GHz
5ms 2ms 5ms 2ms
99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999%
99%
24ms
800MHz 2GHz 3.5GHz
8ms 24ms 8ms 24ms 8ms
99.9% 99%
90% coverage 95% coverage 99% coverage
99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9% 99% 99.9%
444 432 222
645941
63
54
39 37
31
26
118
112
87
117
101
85 92
73
55
83
61
42
30
27
21
140 140 140 140
389
316
189
125
Uplink traffic [Mbps]
200
150
100
350
300
250
450
400
50
0
100% coverage
3.5GHz 30GHz
5ms 2ms 5ms 2ms
99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999% 99.9% 99.999%
160 160 160
80
395
308
165
114
210.2
0
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
433 332 22 1 110.2
464636
454535
352922
292418
312717302615
17156 1513 1
Scenario #2 Factory indoor deployment
Scenario #1: Central London wide-area
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
9JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
onasingle-celldeploymentwitheightantennas
installedintheceiling,uniformlydistributedacross
theentirefactory,andaDLandULsymmetric
TDDpattern.Forthehigh-banddeployment,
eighttransmissionpointswithfullfrequencyreuse
areconsidered.The3GPPindoorfactorychannel
modelwithdenseclusters,includingmachinery,
assemblylines,storageshelvesandsoon[16],isused.
Toachieve2msround-tripRANlatency,NRmini-
slotandconfiguredgrantfeaturesareused.(Using
thesamefeatures,anFDDcarrierwith15kHz
subcarrierspacingcanalsoachievesimilarlatency.)
ThebottomhalfofFigure3showsthatboth
DLandULtrafficachieve100percentcoverage.
TighteningCriticalIoTrequirementsreduces
capacity,however,andthisismoreevidentinthe
high-bandcase.Forthemid-bandcase,allusers
consistentlyreachthehighestspectralefficiency
exceptforULtrafficwiththemoststringent
requirements,duetogoodcoverageandthe
absenceofinterferenceachievedbythesingle-cell
distributedantennadeployment.
5GNRCAallowsradioresourcesfrommultiple
carriersinmultiplebandstobepooledtoservea
user.Forexample,DLtrafficcanbedeliveredusing
amid-bandcarrierevenwhentheULservice
requirementsarenotattainableonthatmid-band
carrier,byusingalow-bandcarrierfortheUL
controlanddatatraffic.ThisallowstheDLcapacityof
themid-bandcarriertobeutilizedtoagreaterextent.
Inessence,inter-bandCAallowsanMNOto
improvecoverage,spectralefficiencyandcapacity
bydynamicallydirectingthetrafficthroughthe
bettercarrier,dependingontheoperatingcondition,
userlocationandusecaserequirements.
Withalow-bandcarrier,therearealsobenefits
ofpoolinganFDDcarrierandaTDDcarrierfrom
alatencypointofview,usingtheFDDcarrier
tomitigatetheextraalignmentdelayintroduced
onaTDDcarrierduetotheDL-ULpattern.
Deploymentstrategy
MNOs have started to upgrade some 4G LTE
radio base station equipment to 5G NR through
software upgrades. The dynamic spectrum
sharing solution allows efficient coexistence
of LTE and NR in the same spectrum band
down to millisecond level [14].
MNOscanstarttoaddresstime-criticalusecases
inthewidearea(theentertainment,healthcareand
educationsectors,forexample)byaddingsupport
forCriticalIoTconnectivitytotheNRcarriers
throughsoftwareupgrades.Morestringent,time-
criticalrequirementscallforradionetwork
densification,edgecomputing,andfurther
distributionandduplicationofcorenetwork
functions,whichcanbedonegraduallyovertime,
whilemaximizingreturnsoninvestment.
Intheconfinedwide-areascenarios(railways,
utilities,publictransportandthelike),relatively
stringentrequirementscanbeaddressedwith
reasonableinvestmentsinexistingandnew
infrastructure.Inlocal-areascenariossuchas
factories,portsandmines,evenextremetime-
criticalrequirementscanbesupportedoncethe
E2Eecosystemisestablished.
Dedicatedspectrumhasbeenallocatedtosome
industrysectorsincertainregions.Inthewide-area
scenariossuchaspublicsafetyandrailways,the
allocatedbandwidthsaretypicallysmall(10MHz
orbelow)andunabletomeetthecapacitydemands
ofemergingusecases,especiallythosewithtime-
criticalrequirements.
MNOsCANSTART
TOADDRESSTIME-CRITICAL
USECASES...THROUGH
SOFTWAREUPGRADES
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
Insomeregions,significantTDDspectrumhas
beenallocatedtoenterprisesforlocaluse(inthe
orderof100MHz)inmid-bandandmillimeter-wave
frequencyranges.Forbothconfinedwide-areaand
local-areascenarios,thereuseofMNOs’existing
infrastructureandtheirflexiblespectrumassets
(incombinationwithdedicatedspectrum,ifavailable)
bringsmajorvalueandopportunities.Thisapproach
makesitpossibletoexploitthefullpotentialofvarious
bandcombinationsandsupportseamlessmobility
andinteractionbetweenpublicanddedicated
communicationinfrastructure.
Conclusion
Critical Internet of Things connectivity addresses
time-critical communication needs across
various industries, enabling innovative services
for consumers and enterprises. Mobile network
operators are uniquely positioned to enable
time-critical services with advanced 5G networks
in a systematic and cost-effective way, taking
full advantage of flexible spectrum assets,
efficient reuse of existing footprint and flexible
software-based network design.
Further reading
	❭ Ericsson, Evolving Cellular IoT for industry digitalization, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/
networks/offerings/cellular-iot
	❭ Ericsson, IoT connectivity, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/internet-of-things/iot-connectivity
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
11JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
References
1.	 Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/
reports/november-2019
2.	 Ericsson white paper, Cellular IoT in the 5G era, February 2020, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/
reports-and-papers/white-papers/cellular-iot-in-the-5g-era
3.	 3GPP TR38.913, Study on Scenarios and Requirements for Next Generation Access Technologies, 2017,
available at: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp//Specs/archive/38_series/38.913/38913-e30.zip
4.	 5G-ACIA white paper, 5G for Automation in Industry – Primary use cases, functions and service
requirements, July 2019, available at: https://www.5g-acia.org/fileadmin/5G-ACIA/Publikationen/5G-ACIA_
White_Paper_5G_for_Automation_in_Industry/WP_5G_for_Automation_in_Industry_final.pdf
5.	 Ericsson Consumer and IndustryLab Insight Report, A case study on automation in mining, June 2018,
available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/consumerlab/reports/a-case-study-on-
automation-in-mining
6.	 GSMA, Cloud AR/VR Whitepaper, May 8, 2019, available at: https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/
resources/gsma-online-document-cloud-ar-vr-whitepaper/
7.	 Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, Issue 2, pp. 325-349, Adaptive 5G Low-Latency Communication for
Tactile Internet Services, February 2019, Sachs, J. et al., available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/
stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8454733&isnumber=8626773
8.	 Ericsson Technology Review, Distributed cloud – a key enabler of automotive and industry 4.0 use cases,
November 20, 2018, Boberg, C; Svensson, M; Kovács, B, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-
and-papers/ericsson-technology-review/articles/distributed-cloud
9.	 Academic Press, Cellular Internet of Things – From Massive Deployments to Critical 5G Applications,
October 2019, Liberg, O; Sundberg, M; Wang, E; Bergman, J; Sachs, J; Wikström, G, available at:
https://www.elsevier.com/books/cellular-internet-of-things/liberg/978-0-08-102902-2
10.	NGMN white paper, 5G E2E Technology to Support Verticals' URLLC Requirements, November 18, 2019,
availableat:https://www.ngmn.org/publications/5g-e2e-technology-to-support-verticals-urllc-requirements.html
11.	EricssonTechnologyReview,Boostingsmartmanufacturingwith5Gwirelessconnectivity,January2019,
available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/ericsson-technology-review/articles/boosting-
smart-manufacturing-with-5g-wireless-connectivity
12.	Ericsson Technology Review, 5G-TSN integration meets networking requirements for industrial
automation, August 2019, Farkas, J; Varga, B; Miklós, G; Sachs; J, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/
en/ericsson-technology-review/archive/2019/5g-tsn-integration-for-industrial-automation
13.	5G-ACIA, Exposure of 5G Capabilities for Connected Industries and Automation Applications
(white paper), June 2020, available at: https://www.5g-acia.org/publications/
14.	Ericsson Spectrum Sharing, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/offerings/5g/sharing-
spectrum-with-ericsson-spectrum-sharing
15.	3GPP TR 38.824, Study on physical layer enhancements for NR URLLC, 2019, available at:
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp//Specs/archive/38_series/38.824/38824-g00.zip
16.	3GPP TR 38.901, Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz, 2019, available at:
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp//Specs/archive/38_series/38.901/38901-g00.zip
✱ CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY
12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 2, 2020
theauthors
Fredrik Alriksson
◆ is a researcher at
Development Unit Networks,
where he leads strategic
technology and concept
development within IoT &
New Industries. He joined
Ericsson in 1999 and has
worked in R&D with
architecture evolution
covering a broad set of
technology areas including
RAN, Core, IMS and VoLTE.
Alriksson holds an M.Sc. in
electrical engineering from
KTH Royal Institute of
Technology in Stockholm,
Sweden
Lisa Boström
◆ is a researcher at
Development Unit Networks,
where she does research and
concept development within
IoT & New Industries. She
joined Ericsson in 2006 and
has worked extensively with
RAN R&D and standard-
ization. Boström holds an M.
Sc. in media engineering
from Luleå University of
Technology in Sweden.
Joachim Sachs
◆ is a principal researcher at
Ericsson Research in
Stockholm and coordinates
research activities on 5G for
industrial IoT solutions and
cross-industry research
collaborations. He holds a
Ph.D. from the Technical
University of Berlin in
Germany. Sachs is coauthor
of the book Cellular Internet
of Things: From Massive
Deployments to Critical 5G
Applications.
Y.-P. Eric Wang
◆ joined Ericsson in 1995
and is currently a principal
researcher at Ericsson
Research. He holds a Ph.D. in
electrical engineering from
the University of Michigan
(Ann Arbor) in the US. Wang
is coauthor of the book
Cellular Internet of Things:
From Massive Deployments
to Critical 5G Applications.
Ali Zaidi
◆ is a strategic product
manager for Cellular IoT at
Ericsson and also serves as
the company’s head of IoT
Competence. He holds a
Ph.D. in telecommunications
from KTH Royal Institute of
Technology in Stockholm.
Since joining Ericsson in
2014, he has been working
withtechnologyandbusiness
development of 4G and 5G
radio access at Ericsson.
Zaidi is currently responsible
for LTE-M, URLLC, Industrial
IoT, vehicle-to-everything
and local industrial networks.
The authors would
like to thank
Yanpeng Yang,
Anders Furuskär,
Kittipong
Kittichokechai,
Anders Bränneby,
Fedor
Chernogorov,
Gustav Wikström,
Jari Vikberg,
MattiasAndersson,
Ralf Keller,
Kun Wang,
Torsten Dudda and
Marie Hogan for
their contributions
to this article.
CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY ✱
13JUNE 2, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
ISSN 0014-0171
284 23-3345 | Uen
© Ericsson AB 2020
Ericsson
SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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