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ERICSSON
TECHNOLOGY
5G NEW RADIO
EVOLUTION
C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 0 2 ∙ 2 0 2 0
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
The enhancements in the 3GPP releases 16 and 17 of 5G New Radio
include both extensions to existing features as well as features that
address new verticals and deployment scenarios. Operation in unlicensed
spectrum, intelligent transportation systems, Industrial Internet of Things,
and non-terrestrial networks are just a few of the highlights.
JANNE PEISA,
PATRIK PERSSON,
STEFAN PARKVALL,
ERIK DAHLMAN,
ASBJØRN GRØVLEN,
CHRISTIAN HOYMANN,
DIRK GERSTENBERGER
According to the latest Ericsson Mobility
Report, global traffic levels hit 38 exabytes
per month at the end of 2019, with a projected
fourfold increase to 160 exabytes per month
expected by 2025 [1]. Fortunately, the 5G
system is designed to handle this massive
increase in data traffic in a way that ensures
superior performance with minimal impact
on the net costs for consumers.
■ Theevolutionof5GNewRadio(NR)has
progressedswiftlysincethe3GPPstandardizedthe
firstNRrelease(release15)inmid-2018.Notonlyis
release16nearlyfinalizedbutthescopeofrelease
17hasalsorecentlybeenapproved.Makingwise
decisionsinthemonthsandyearsaheadwill
requirethatmobilenetworkoperatorsandother
industrystakeholdershaveasolidunderstanding
ofbothreleases.
NRdevelopmentstartedinrelease15[2][3]with
theambitiontofulfillthe5Grequirementssetbythe
ITU(InternationalTelecommunicationUnion)in
IMT-2020(InternationalMobileTelecommunications-
2020).Theoveralldesignconsistsofseveralkey
components.Theextensiontomuchhighercarrier
frequenciesisanimportantoneduetothecontinuing
demandformoretrafficandhigherconsumerdata
ratesandtheassociatedneedformorespectrum
5Gevolution:3GPP RELEASES 16 & 17 OVERVIEW
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3
andwidertransmissionbandwidths.Theultra-lean
designofNRenhancesnetworkenergyperformance
andreducesinterference,whileinterworkingand
LTEcoexistencewillmakeitpossibletoutilize
existingcellularnetworks.Theforwardcompatibility
ofNRdesignwillensurethatitispreparedforfuture
evolution.Lowlatencyisalsocriticaltoimprove
performanceandenablenewusecases.Extensive
usageofbeamformingandamassivenumberof
antennaelementsfordatatransmissionandfor
control-planeproceduresarealsonotable
componentsofNRdesign.
Figure1showsthetimeplanfortheevolution
ofNRoverthenextfewyears.Release16,thefirst
stepintheNRevolution,containsseveralsignificant
extensionsandenhancements.Someoftheseare
extensions/improvementstoexistingfeatures,
whileothersareentirelynewfeaturesthataddress
newdeploymentscenariosand/ornewverticals.
5GNRrelease16–enhancements
toexistingfeatures
Themostnotableenhancementstoexistingfeatures
inrelease16areintheareasofmultiple-input,
multiple-output(MIMO)andbeamforming
enhancements,dynamicspectrumsharing(DSS),
dualconnectivity(DC)andcarrieraggregation
(CA),anduserequipment(UE)powersaving.
Multiple-input,multiple-output
andbeamformingenhancements
Release16introducesenhancedbeamhandling
andchannel-stateinformation(CSI)feedback,
aswellassupportfortransmissiontoasingleUE
frommultipletransmissionpoints(multi-TRP)and
full-powertransmissionfrommultipleUEantennas
intheuplink(UL).Theseenhancementsincrease
throughput,reduceoverhead,and/orprovide
additionalrobustness[4].Additionalmobility
enhancementsenablereducedhandoverdelays,
inparticularwhenappliedtobeam-management
mechanismsusedfordeploymentsinmillimeter
(mm)wavebands[5].	
Dynamicspectrumsharing
DSSprovidesacost-effectiveandefficientsolution
forenablingasmoothtransitionfrom4Gto5Gby
allowingLTEandNRtosharethesamecarrier.
Inrelease16,thenumberofrate-matchingpatterns
availableinNRhasbeenincreasedtoallow
spectrumsharingwhenCAisusedforLTE.
Dualconnectivityandcarrieraggregation
Release16reduceslatencyforsetupandactivation
ofCA/DC,therebyleadingtoimprovedsystem
capacityandtheabilitytoachievehigherdatarates.
Unlikerelease15,wheremeasurementconfiguration
andreportingdoesnottakeplaceuntiltheUEenters
thefullyconnectedstate,inrelease16theconnection
canberesumedafterperiodsofinactivitywithoutthe
needforextensivesignalingforconfigurationand
reporting[6].Additionally,release16introduces
aperiodictriggeringofCSIreferencesignal
transmissionsincaseoftheaggregationof
carrierswithdifferentnumerology.
Userequipmentpowersaving
ToreduceUEpowerconsumption,release16
includesawake-upsignalalongwithenhancements
tocontrolsignalingandschedulingmechanisms[7].
Figure 1 NR evolution time plan
Release 14
2016
Release 15
NR NR evolution
Release 16 Release 17 Release 18 Release 19
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
5GNRrelease16–newverticals
anddeploymentscenarios
Themostnotablenewverticalsanddeployment
scenariosaddressedinrelease16areintheareasof:
	❭ Integrated access and backhaul (IAB)
	❭ NR in unlicensed spectrum
	❭ Features related to Industrial Internet of Things
(IIoT) and ultra-reliable low latency
communication (URLLC)
	❭ Intelligent transportation systems (ITS)
and vehicle-to-anything (V2X) communications
	❭ Positioning.
Integratedaccessandbackhauling
IABprovidesanalternativetofiberbackhaulby
extendingNRtosupportwirelessbackhaul[8].
Asaresult,itispossibletouseNRforawirelesslink
fromcentrallocationstodistributedcellsitesand
betweencellsites.Thiscansimplifythedeployment
ofsmallcells,forexample,andbeusefulfortemporary
deploymentsforspecialeventsoremergency
situations.IABcanbeusedinanyfrequencyband
inwhichNRcanoperate.However,itisanticipated
thatmm-wavespectrumwillbethemostrelevant
spectrumforthebackhaullink.Furthermore,
theaccesslinkmayeitheroperateinthesame
frequencybandasthebackhaullink(knownas
inbandoperation)orbyusingaseparatefrequency
band(out-of-bandoperation).
Architecture-wise,IABisbasedontheCU/DU
splitintroducedinrelease15.TheCU/DUsplit
impliesthatthebasestationissplitintotwoparts–
acentralizedunit(CU)andoneormoredistributed
units(DUs)–wheretheCUandDU(s)maybe
physicallyseparateddependingonthedeployment.
TheCUincludestheRRC(radioresourcecontrol)
andPDC(packetdataconvergence)protocols,while
theDUincludestheRLC(radiolinkcontrol)and
MAC(multipleaccesscontrol)protocolsalongwith
thephysicallayer.TheCUandDUareconnected
throughthestandardizedF1interface.
Figure2illustratesthebasicstructureofa
networkutilizingIAB.TheIABnodecreatescells
ofitsownandappearsasanormalbasestationto
UEsconnectingtoit.ConnectingtheIABnodeto
thenetworkusesthesameinitial-accessmechanism
asaterminal.Onceconnected,theIABnodereceives
thenecessaryconfigurationfromthedonornode.
AdditionalIABnodescanconnecttothenetwork
Figure 2 High-level architecture of IAB
CU DU MT DU MT DU
F1
Donor node IAB node
Backhaul based on IAB
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Donor node IAB node IAB node
Conventional
backhaul
Access link Access link
Backhaul based on IAB
IAB node
F1
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5
throughthecellscreatedbyanIABnode,thereby
enablingmulti-hopwirelessbackhauling.
ThelowerpartofthefigurehighlightsthatanIAB
nodeincludesaconventionalDUpartthatcreates
cellstowhichUEsandotherIABnodescanconnect.
TheIABnodealsoincludesamobile-termination
(MT) partprovidingconnectivityfortheIABnode
to(theDUof)thedonornode.
NewRadioinunlicensedspectrum
Spectrumavailabilityisessentialtowireless
communication,andthelargeamountofspectrum
availableinunlicensedbandsisattractivefor
increasingdataratesandcapacityfor3GPPsystems.
Toexploitthisspectrumresource,release16enables
NRoperationinunlicensedspectrum,targetingthe
5GHzand6GHzunlicensedbands.Itsupportsboth
standaloneoperation,wherenolicensedspectrum
isnecessary,andlicensed-assistedoperation,where
acarrierinlicensedspectrumaidstheconnection
setup.Thisgreatlyaddstodeploymentflexibility
comparedwithLTE,whereonlylicensed-assisted
operationissupported.
Operationinunlicensedspectrumisdependent
onseveralkeyprinciplesincludingultra-lean
transmissionanduseoftheflexibleNRframestructure.
Bothofthesewereincludedinrelease15.
Channelaccessmechanismsbasedonlisten-
before-talk(LBT)areprobablythemostobvious
areaofenhancementinrelease16.NRlargely
reuses thesameLBTmechanismasdefined
forWi-FiandLTEinunlicensedspectrum.
Interestingly,itwasdemonstratedduring
standardizationthatreplacingoneWi-Finetwork
withanNRnetworkcanleadtoimproved
performancefortheremainingWi-Finetworks[9]
aswellasfortheNRnetworkitself.
IndustrialIoTandultra-reliable
low-latencycommunication
TheIIOTisamajorverticalfocusareaforNR
release16.TowidenthesetofpotentialIIoTuse
casesandsupportincreaseddemandfornewuse
casessuchasfactoryautomation,electricalpower
distributionandthetransportindustry,release16
includeslatencyandreliabilityenhancementsthat
buildonthealreadyverylowair-interfacelatency
andhighreliability[10]providedbyrelease15.
Supportfortime-sensitivenetworking(TSN),
whereveryaccuratetimesynchronizationis
essential,isalsointroduced.Figure3illustrates
TSNintegrationin5GNR.
Figure 3 Overview of the TSN integration
Ethernet TSN domain Ethernet TSN domain5G domain: supporting Ethernet/TSN
Time reference
IIoT
device
UE
5G Core
RAN
Ethernet
bridge
Programmable
logic controller
TSN control
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
AlthoughmanyoftheURLLC-related
improvementsaresmallinthemselves,taken
togethertheysignificantlyenhanceNRinthearea
ofURLLC[11].
Theinter-UEdownlink(DL)preemptionthatis
alreadysupportedinrelease15isextendedin
release16toincludetheUL,suchthataUE’s
previouslyscheduledlower-priorityUL
transmissioncanbepreempted(thatis,cancelled)
byanotherUE’shigher-priorityULtransmission.
Release16alsosupportsstandardizedhandling
ofintra-EUULresourceconflicts.
Toreducelatency,release16supportsmore
frequentcontrol-channelmonitoring.Furthermore,
forbothULconfiguredgrantandDLsemi-persistent
scheduling,multipleconfigurationscanbeactive
simultaneouslytosupportmultipleservices.These
enhancementsareespeciallyusefulincombination
withTSNtraffic,wherethetrafficpatternisknown
tothebasestation.
Intelligenttransportationsystems
andvehicle-to-anythingcommunications
ITS,whichprovidearangeoftransportand
traffic-managementservices,areanothermajor
verticalfocusareainrelease16.Amongother
benefits,ITSsolutionsimprovetrafficsafetyaswell
asreducingtrafficcongestion,fuelconsumption
andenvironmentalimpacts.TofacilitateITS,
communicationisrequirednotonlybetween
vehiclesandthefixedinfrastructurebutalso
betweenvehicles.Currently,25usecasesfor
advancedV2Xcommunicationshavebeendefined,
includingvehicleplatooningandcooperative
communicationusingextendedsensors[12].
Inrelease15,communicationwithfixed
infrastructureisprovidedbytheaccess-link
interfacebetweenthebasestationandtheUE.
Release16addstheoptionoftheNRsidelink(PC5),
whichcanoperateinin-coverage,out-of-coverage
andpartial-coveragescenarios,utilizingallNR
frequencybands.Itsupportsunicast,groupcastand
broadcastcommunication,andhybridautomatic
repeatrequest(hybrid-ARQ)retransmissionscan
beusedforscenariosthatrequiremorerobust
communication.Groupscanbeeitherconfigured
orformed,andthegroupmemberscommunicate
usinggroupcasttransmissions.Atruckplatoon,
forexample,couldbeconfiguredusingdedicated
hybrid-ARQsignalingbetweenthereceivers
andtransmitter,orformedinadynamicmanner
basedonthedistancebetweenthetransmitter
andreceiver(s).
Positioning
Formanyyears,UEpositioninghasbeen
accomplishedwithGlobalNavigationSatellite
Systemsassistedbycellularnetworks.Thisapproach
providesaccuratepositioningbutistypicallylimited
tooutdoorareaswithsatellitevisibility.Thereis
currentlyarangeofapplicationsthatrequires
accuratepositioningnotonlyoutdoorsbutalso
indoors.Architecture-wise,NRpositioningisbased
ontheuseofalocationserver,similartoLTE.The
locationservercollectsanddistributesinformation
relatedtopositioning(UEcapabilities,assistance
data,measurements,positionestimatesandsoon)
totheotherentitiesinvolvedinthepositioning
procedures.Arangeofpositioningmethods,both
DL-basedandUL-based,areusedseparatelyorin
combinationtomeettheaccuracyrequirementsfor
differentscenarios.
DL-basedpositioningissupportedbyproviding
anewreferencesignalcalledthepositioning
referencesignal(PRS).ComparedwithLTE,
thePRShasamoreregularstructureandamuch
largerbandwidth,whichallowsforamoreprecise
CURRENTLY, 25 USE
CASES FOR ADVANCED
V2X COMMUNICATIONS
HAVE BEEN DEFINED
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7
correlationandtimeofarrival(ToA)estimation.
TheUEcanthenreporttheToAdifferencefor
PRSsreceivedfrommultipledistinctbasestations,
andthelocationservercanusethereportsto
determinethepositionoftheUE.
UL-basedpositioningisbasedonrelease15
soundingreferencesignals(SRSs)withrelease16
extensions.BasedonthereceivedSRSs,thebase
stationscanmeasureandreport(tothelocation
server)thearrivaltime,thereceivedpowerand
theangleofarrivalfromwhichtheposition
oftheUEcanbeestimated.
ThetimedifferencebetweenDLreceptionand
ULtransmissioncanalsobereportedandusedin
round-triptime(RTT)basedpositioningschemes,
wherethedistancebetweenabasestationand
aUEcanbedeterminedbasedontheestimated
RTT.BycombiningseveralsuchRTT
measurements,involvingdifferentbasestations,
thepositioncanbedetermined.
5GNRrelease17
Theworkitemsapprovedbythe3GPPinDecember
2019willleadtotheintroductionofnewfeaturesfor
thethreemainusecasefamilies:enhancedmobile
broadband(eMBB),URLLC and massivemachine-
typecommunications(mMTC).Thepurposeisto
supporttheexpectedgrowthinmobile-datatraffic,
aswellascustomizingNRforautomotive,logistics,
publicsafety,mediaandmanufacturingusecases.
Theenhancementstoexistingfeaturesintroducedin
release17willbeforfunctionalityalreadydeployed
inliveNRnetworksorrelatetospecificnew
requirementsthatareemerginginthemarket.
ThetablepresentedinTable1summarizesthe
scopeoftheenhancementstoexistingNRfeatures
inrelease17,whilethetablein Table2 summarizes
thescopeofthenewfeatures.
Terms and abbreviations
CA – Carrier Aggregation | CSI – Channel-State Information | CU – Centralized Unit | DC – Dual
Connectivity | DL – Downlink | DSS – Dynamic Spectrum Sharing | DU – Distributed Unit | eMBB –
Enhanced Mobile Broadband | FR1, FR2 – Frequency Range 1, 2 | hyrbrid-ARQ – Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request | IAB – Integrated Access and Backhaul/Backhauling | IIoT – Industrial Internet of Things |
IoT – Internet of Things | ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems | LBT – Listen-Before-Talk |
LTE-M – LTE Machine-Type Communications | MIMO – Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output | mMTC – Massive
Machine-Type Communications | MT – Mobile Termination | MTC – Machine-Type Communications |
Multi-TRP – Multiple Transmission Points | NR – New Radio | PC5 – Direct Mode Interface |
PRS – Positioning Reference Signal | RTT – Round-Trip Time | SON – Self-Organizing Networks |
SRS – Sounding Reference Signal | ToA – Time of Arrival | TSN – Time-Sensitive Networking |
UE – User Equipment | UL – Uplink | URLLC – Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication |
V2X – Vehicle-to-Anything | XR – Anything Reality
THE ENHANCEMENTS…
RELATE TO SPECIFIC
NEW REQUIREMENTS
THAT ARE EMERGING
IN THE MARKET
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
eMBB feature
IAB •Additionof(limited)supportfornetworktopologychanges
•Improvedduplexingofaccessandbackhaullinks (simultaneousoperation
onchildandparentlink,forexample)
• Routingenhancements
MIMO •Improvementsbasedonexperiencefromcommercialnetworksfocusingon
multi-beamoperationmainlyforfrequencyrange2(FR2),supportformulti-TRP
deployment,SRSs,andCSImeasurementandreporting
DSS • Cross-carrierschedulingenhancements
• Otherschedulingenhancements
Coverage • Enhancedwide-areacoverageforbothFR1andFR2(tobestudied)
• Focusonmobilebroadbandandvoiceservicesusecases,withtheexception
ofthelow-powerwideareausecase
Multi-radio dual
connectivity
• Moreefficientactivation/deactivationmechanismofsecondarycells
• Conditionalprimary-secondarycellchange/addition
UE power saving • Improvedmechanismsintheareaofdiscontinuousreceptionandblinddecoding
ofcontrolchannels
Data collection • Simplifieddeploymentandenhancementstosupportself-organizingnetworks
(SON)withimproveddata-collectionmechanismsforSONandminimization
ofdrivetests
QoE management and
optimizations for diverse
services
• GenericframeworkfortriggeringandconfiguringQoEmeasurementcollection
andreportingforvarious5Gusecases
URLLC feature
IIoT and URLLC support • ImprovedsupportforfactoryautomationandURLLC,includingphysicallayer
feedbackenhancementsandenhancementsforsupportoftimesynchronization
• IdentificationofenhancementsforURLLC/IIoToperationincontrolled
environmentsonunlicensedbands
Positioning • Higheraccuracy(horizontalandvertical)andlowerlatency,especiallyfor
IIoTusecases
Sidelink • FocusonV2X,publicsafetyandcommercialusecases
• Resourceallocationenhancement
• Sidelinkdiscontinuousreception
RAN slicing (also relevant
for the mMTC use case)
• MechanismstoenableUEfastaccesstothecellsupportingtheintendedslice
• Mechanismstosupportservicecontinuityforintra-radio-accesstechnology
handoverserviceinterruption
mMTC feature
Small data transmissions
in inactive state
• Reducedoverheadfromconnectionestablishment
• Usecases:keep-alivemessages,wearablesandvarioussensors
Table 1 Summary of release 17 enhancements to existing features
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9
eMBB feature
Supporting NR from
52.6GHz to 71GHz
•ExtendedNRfrequencyrangetoallowexploitationofmorespectrum,
includingthe60GHzunlicensedband
•DefinitionofnewOFDM(orthogonalfrequency-divisionmultiplexing)
numerologyandchannelaccessmechanismtocomplywiththeregulatory
requirementsapplicabletounlicensedspectrum
Multicast and broadcast
services
•PrimarilytargetedatV2X,publicsafety,IPmulticast,softwaredelivery
andInternetofThings(IoT)applications
Support for multi-SIM
devices
• Pagingcollisionavoidance
• NetworknotificationwhenaUEswitchesnetworks
Support for non-
terrestrial networks
• Supportforsatellites(especiallyLowEarthorbitandgeostationarysatellites)
andhigh-altitudeplatformsasanadditionalmeanstoprovidecoverage
inruralareas
Sidelink relaying • L2versusL3relaying(studyandcompare)
• Scenariosincludesingle-hop,UE-to-UEandUE-to-networkrelaying
URLLC feature
Anything reality (XR)
evaluations
• Evaluateneedsintermsofsimultaneouslyprovidingveryhighdatarates
andlowlatencyinaresource-efficientmanner
• Intendedtosupportvariousformsofaugmentedrealityandvirtualreality,
collectivelyreferredtoasXR
mMTC feature
Support of reduced-
capability NR devices
• Targetedatmid-tierapplicationssuchasmachine-typecommunicationsfor
industrialsensors,videosurveillance,andwearableswithdataratesbetween
NarrowbandIoT/LTE-Mdataratesand“full”NRdatarates
• Addressesissuesincludingcomplexityreduction,UEpowersavingandbattery
lifetimeenhancement
Table 2 Summary of new functionality added in release 17
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
Conclusion
Theenhancementsinthe3GPP’sreleases16and
17willplayacriticalroleinexpandingboththe
availabilityandtheapplicabilityof5GNewRadio
toawiderangeofnewapplicationsandusecases
inbothindustryandpublicservices.Inorderto
makethedetailsofthesetworeleasesmoreeasily
digestible,wehaveidentifiedwhatweconsider
tobethemostsignificantenhancementsand
groupedthemintotwocategories:enhancements
toexistingfeaturesandfeaturesthataddress
newverticalsanddeploymentscenarios.
FromEricsson’spointofview,theoverall
ambitionoftheNRevolutionfromause-case
perspectivemustbetoensurethat5GNRcovers
allrelevantusecasestofulfillthevisionofubiquitous
connectivity–thatis,theabilitytoconnectanything
anywhereatanytime.Fromafeaturesperspective,
webelievethattheevolutionofNRfunctionality
mustbedrivenbythegoalofincreasingefficiency
andeffectivenesswhenandwhereitiscommercially
justified.
Lookingahead,itiscriticalthattheindustry
workstogethertoensurethatNRiseasytodeploy
andoperate,andthatitcontinuestoprovide
superiorperformancecomparedwithcompeting
technologies.WemustalsoensurethatNRprovides
ahighdegreeofenergyefficiencyonboththenetwork
anddevicesides,andthatitretainsitsabilityto
coexistsmoothlywithLTE.
AtEricsson,weareconvincedthatthebestway
forwardisforNRtocontinuetosupportalluse
casesfromoneplatform,withafocusonforward
compatibility,sufficientconfigurabilityandmaximal
simplicity.Wemustalsoworktoavoidunnecessary
updatesinthenetworkhardwareandensurethat
functionalityisspecifiedinacommonwaythat
benefitsmultipleusecases.
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11
Further reading
	❭ Leading the way to 5G through standardization, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/lte-
nr-interworking-in-5G
	❭ A new standard for Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/6/
dynamic-spectrum-sharing-standardization
	❭ Standardizing a new paradigm in base station architecture, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/
blog/2019/9/standardizing-a-new-paradigm-in-base-station-architecture
	❭ Drones and networks: mobility support, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/1/drones-and-
networks-mobility-support
	❭ How to identify uncertified drones with machine learning, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/
blog/2019/5/how-to-identify-uncertified-drones-machine-learning
	❭ An overview of remote interference management for 5G, available at: www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/9/
overview-of-remote-interference-management
References
1.	 Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/
reports/november-2019
2.	 Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology, 2018, Dahlman,
E; Parkvall, S; Sköld, J
3.	 IEEE Wireless Communications, pp. 124-130, Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications in 5G
Downlink: Physical Layer Aspects, June 2018, Ji, H; Park, S; Yeo, J; Kim, Y; Lee, J; Shim, B, available at:
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8403963
4.	 3GPP RP-182863, Enhancements on MIMO for NR, available at: www.3gpp.org
5.	 3GPP RP-190489, NR mobility enhancements, available at: www.3gpp.org
6.	 3GPP RP-191600, LTE-NR  NR-NR Dual Connectivity and NR Carrier Aggregation enhancements,
available at: www.3gpp.org
7.	 3GPP TR 38.840, Study on User Equipment (UE) power saving in NR, available at: www.3gpp.org
8.	 3GPP TR 38.874, NR; Study on Integrated Access and Backhaul, available at: www.3gpp.org
9.	 3GPP TR 38.889, Study on NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum, available at: www.3gpp.org
10.	3GPP TR 38.824, Study on physical layer enhancements for NR ultra-reliable and low latency case
(URLLC) , available at: www.3gpp.org
11.	3GPP TR 38.825, Study on NR industrial Internet of Things (IoT) , available at: www.3gpp.org
12.	3GPP TR 38.885, Study on NR Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) , available at: www.3gpp.org
✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION
12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020
theauthors
Janne Peisa
◆ has worked at Ericsson
in the research and
development of 3G, 4G
and 5G systems since 1998.
He is currently responsible
for coordinating Ericsson’s
research on 5G evolution
and beyond 5G activities.
Previously, he coordinated
Ericsson’s RAN
standardization activities
in the 3GPP and led Ericsson
Research’s 5G program.
In 2001, he received the
Ericsson Inventor of the Year
award. Peisa has authored
several publications and
patents and holds a Ph.D.
in theoretical physics from
the University of Helsinki,
Finland.
Patrik Persson
◆ joined Ericsson Research
in 2007 and currently serves
as a principal researcher.
Since 2014 he has been
responsible for the Ericsson
back-office work in the
3GPP RAN standardization
of 4G and 5G. Prior to that,
he worked extensively in the
areas of antennas and
propagation as well as
proprietary development of
LTE. Persson holds a Ph.D.
in electrical engineering
from KTH Royal Institute of
Technology in Stockholm,
Sweden.
Stefan Parkvall
◆ is a senior expert working
with future radio access.
He joined Ericsson in 1999
and played a key role in the
development of HSPA, LTE
and NR radio access.
Parkvall has also been
deeply involved in 3GPP
standardization for many
years. He is an IEEE (Institute
of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) fellow and has
coauthored several popular
books, including 4G: LTE/
LTE-Advanced for Mobile
Broadband, and 5G NR:
The Next Generation
Wireless Access Technology.
He has more than 1,500
patents in the area of mobile
communication and holds
a Ph.D. in electrical
engineering from KTH Royal
Institute of Technology.
Erik Dahlman
◆ joined Ericsson in 1993
and is currently a senior
expert in radio-access
technologies within Ericsson
Research. He has been
involved in the development
of wireless-access
technologies from early
3G to 4G LTE to 5G NR.
He is currently focusing on
the evolution of 5G as well as
technologies applicable
beyond 5G wireless access.
He is the coauthor of the
books 3G Evolution:
HSPA and LTE for Mobile
Broadband, 4G: LTE and
LTE-Advanced for Mobile
Broadband, 4G: LTE-
Advanced Pro and the Road
to 5G, and, most recently,
5G NR: The Next Generation
Wireless Access Technology.
Dahlman holds a Ph.D. in
telecommunications from
KTH Royal Institute of
Technology.
5G NR EVOLUTION ✱
MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 13
theauthors
Asbjørn Grøvlen
◆ is a principal researcher
in physical layer
standardization who
joined Ericsson in 2014.
He currently works as
Ericsson’s technical
coordinator for 3GPP RAN
WG1 and has been involved
in the standardization of
wireless-access
technologies from 3G to
4G LTE and 5G NR. His
contribution to NR (5G)
has been on initial access
and mobility. Grøvlen holds
an M.Sc. in electrical
engineering from the
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology
in Trondheim.
Christian Hoymann
◆ joined Ericsson Research
in 2007 and currently leads
a research group at Ericsson
Eurolab in Aachen, Germany.
His team focuses on
standardization of 4G and
5G radio networks (Wi-Fi,
LTE and NR). In addition,
he heads up Ericsson’s 3GPP
RAN standardization
delegation as the company’s
technical coordinator for
3GPP RAN. Hoymann
holds a Ph.D. in electrical
engineering from RWTH
Aachen University, Germany.
Dirk Gerstenberger
◆ joined Ericsson in 1997
after earning a Dipl-Ing.
in electrical engineering
from Paderborn University
in Germany. He is currently a
manager at the Standards 
Technology department
within Business Area
Networks at Ericsson,
working with the evolution
of radio-access standards
and radio-network
deployments. Gerstenberger
led the radio-access
standardization as head of
Ericsson’s RAN1 delegation
and chairman of 3GPP RAN1
during standardization of
3G and 4G, and he was also
engaged in industry
initiatives leading to the
standardization of 5G.
He received the Ericsson
Inventor of the Year award
in 2008 and is named as
the inventor in more than
100 patents.
ISSN 0014-0171
284 23-3341 | Uen
© Ericsson AB 2020
Ericsson
SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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Ericsson Technology Review: 5G evolution: 3GPP releases 16 & 17 overview (update)

  • 1. CU DU MT DU MT DU F1 Donor node IAB node Backhaul based on IAB Access link Donor node IAB node IAB node Conventional backhaul Access link Ac Backhaul based on IAB IAB node F1 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY 5G NEW RADIO EVOLUTION C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 0 2 ∙ 2 0 2 0
  • 2. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 The enhancements in the 3GPP releases 16 and 17 of 5G New Radio include both extensions to existing features as well as features that address new verticals and deployment scenarios. Operation in unlicensed spectrum, intelligent transportation systems, Industrial Internet of Things, and non-terrestrial networks are just a few of the highlights. JANNE PEISA, PATRIK PERSSON, STEFAN PARKVALL, ERIK DAHLMAN, ASBJØRN GRØVLEN, CHRISTIAN HOYMANN, DIRK GERSTENBERGER According to the latest Ericsson Mobility Report, global traffic levels hit 38 exabytes per month at the end of 2019, with a projected fourfold increase to 160 exabytes per month expected by 2025 [1]. Fortunately, the 5G system is designed to handle this massive increase in data traffic in a way that ensures superior performance with minimal impact on the net costs for consumers. ■ Theevolutionof5GNewRadio(NR)has progressedswiftlysincethe3GPPstandardizedthe firstNRrelease(release15)inmid-2018.Notonlyis release16nearlyfinalizedbutthescopeofrelease 17hasalsorecentlybeenapproved.Makingwise decisionsinthemonthsandyearsaheadwill requirethatmobilenetworkoperatorsandother industrystakeholdershaveasolidunderstanding ofbothreleases. NRdevelopmentstartedinrelease15[2][3]with theambitiontofulfillthe5Grequirementssetbythe ITU(InternationalTelecommunicationUnion)in IMT-2020(InternationalMobileTelecommunications- 2020).Theoveralldesignconsistsofseveralkey components.Theextensiontomuchhighercarrier frequenciesisanimportantoneduetothecontinuing demandformoretrafficandhigherconsumerdata ratesandtheassociatedneedformorespectrum 5Gevolution:3GPP RELEASES 16 & 17 OVERVIEW
  • 3. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 andwidertransmissionbandwidths.Theultra-lean designofNRenhancesnetworkenergyperformance andreducesinterference,whileinterworkingand LTEcoexistencewillmakeitpossibletoutilize existingcellularnetworks.Theforwardcompatibility ofNRdesignwillensurethatitispreparedforfuture evolution.Lowlatencyisalsocriticaltoimprove performanceandenablenewusecases.Extensive usageofbeamformingandamassivenumberof antennaelementsfordatatransmissionandfor control-planeproceduresarealsonotable componentsofNRdesign. Figure1showsthetimeplanfortheevolution ofNRoverthenextfewyears.Release16,thefirst stepintheNRevolution,containsseveralsignificant extensionsandenhancements.Someoftheseare extensions/improvementstoexistingfeatures, whileothersareentirelynewfeaturesthataddress newdeploymentscenariosand/ornewverticals. 5GNRrelease16–enhancements toexistingfeatures Themostnotableenhancementstoexistingfeatures inrelease16areintheareasofmultiple-input, multiple-output(MIMO)andbeamforming enhancements,dynamicspectrumsharing(DSS), dualconnectivity(DC)andcarrieraggregation (CA),anduserequipment(UE)powersaving. Multiple-input,multiple-output andbeamformingenhancements Release16introducesenhancedbeamhandling andchannel-stateinformation(CSI)feedback, aswellassupportfortransmissiontoasingleUE frommultipletransmissionpoints(multi-TRP)and full-powertransmissionfrommultipleUEantennas intheuplink(UL).Theseenhancementsincrease throughput,reduceoverhead,and/orprovide additionalrobustness[4].Additionalmobility enhancementsenablereducedhandoverdelays, inparticularwhenappliedtobeam-management mechanismsusedfordeploymentsinmillimeter (mm)wavebands[5]. Dynamicspectrumsharing DSSprovidesacost-effectiveandefficientsolution forenablingasmoothtransitionfrom4Gto5Gby allowingLTEandNRtosharethesamecarrier. Inrelease16,thenumberofrate-matchingpatterns availableinNRhasbeenincreasedtoallow spectrumsharingwhenCAisusedforLTE. Dualconnectivityandcarrieraggregation Release16reduceslatencyforsetupandactivation ofCA/DC,therebyleadingtoimprovedsystem capacityandtheabilitytoachievehigherdatarates. Unlikerelease15,wheremeasurementconfiguration andreportingdoesnottakeplaceuntiltheUEenters thefullyconnectedstate,inrelease16theconnection canberesumedafterperiodsofinactivitywithoutthe needforextensivesignalingforconfigurationand reporting[6].Additionally,release16introduces aperiodictriggeringofCSIreferencesignal transmissionsincaseoftheaggregationof carrierswithdifferentnumerology. Userequipmentpowersaving ToreduceUEpowerconsumption,release16 includesawake-upsignalalongwithenhancements tocontrolsignalingandschedulingmechanisms[7]. Figure 1 NR evolution time plan Release 14 2016 Release 15 NR NR evolution Release 16 Release 17 Release 18 Release 19 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
  • 4. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 5GNRrelease16–newverticals anddeploymentscenarios Themostnotablenewverticalsanddeployment scenariosaddressedinrelease16areintheareasof: ❭ Integrated access and backhaul (IAB) ❭ NR in unlicensed spectrum ❭ Features related to Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) ❭ Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and vehicle-to-anything (V2X) communications ❭ Positioning. Integratedaccessandbackhauling IABprovidesanalternativetofiberbackhaulby extendingNRtosupportwirelessbackhaul[8]. Asaresult,itispossibletouseNRforawirelesslink fromcentrallocationstodistributedcellsitesand betweencellsites.Thiscansimplifythedeployment ofsmallcells,forexample,andbeusefulfortemporary deploymentsforspecialeventsoremergency situations.IABcanbeusedinanyfrequencyband inwhichNRcanoperate.However,itisanticipated thatmm-wavespectrumwillbethemostrelevant spectrumforthebackhaullink.Furthermore, theaccesslinkmayeitheroperateinthesame frequencybandasthebackhaullink(knownas inbandoperation)orbyusingaseparatefrequency band(out-of-bandoperation). Architecture-wise,IABisbasedontheCU/DU splitintroducedinrelease15.TheCU/DUsplit impliesthatthebasestationissplitintotwoparts– acentralizedunit(CU)andoneormoredistributed units(DUs)–wheretheCUandDU(s)maybe physicallyseparateddependingonthedeployment. TheCUincludestheRRC(radioresourcecontrol) andPDC(packetdataconvergence)protocols,while theDUincludestheRLC(radiolinkcontrol)and MAC(multipleaccesscontrol)protocolsalongwith thephysicallayer.TheCUandDUareconnected throughthestandardizedF1interface. Figure2illustratesthebasicstructureofa networkutilizingIAB.TheIABnodecreatescells ofitsownandappearsasanormalbasestationto UEsconnectingtoit.ConnectingtheIABnodeto thenetworkusesthesameinitial-accessmechanism asaterminal.Onceconnected,theIABnodereceives thenecessaryconfigurationfromthedonornode. AdditionalIABnodescanconnecttothenetwork Figure 2 High-level architecture of IAB CU DU MT DU MT DU F1 Donor node IAB node Backhaul based on IAB Access link Donor node IAB node IAB node Conventional backhaul Access link Access link Backhaul based on IAB IAB node F1
  • 5. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 throughthecellscreatedbyanIABnode,thereby enablingmulti-hopwirelessbackhauling. ThelowerpartofthefigurehighlightsthatanIAB nodeincludesaconventionalDUpartthatcreates cellstowhichUEsandotherIABnodescanconnect. TheIABnodealsoincludesamobile-termination (MT) partprovidingconnectivityfortheIABnode to(theDUof)thedonornode. NewRadioinunlicensedspectrum Spectrumavailabilityisessentialtowireless communication,andthelargeamountofspectrum availableinunlicensedbandsisattractivefor increasingdataratesandcapacityfor3GPPsystems. Toexploitthisspectrumresource,release16enables NRoperationinunlicensedspectrum,targetingthe 5GHzand6GHzunlicensedbands.Itsupportsboth standaloneoperation,wherenolicensedspectrum isnecessary,andlicensed-assistedoperation,where acarrierinlicensedspectrumaidstheconnection setup.Thisgreatlyaddstodeploymentflexibility comparedwithLTE,whereonlylicensed-assisted operationissupported. Operationinunlicensedspectrumisdependent onseveralkeyprinciplesincludingultra-lean transmissionanduseoftheflexibleNRframestructure. Bothofthesewereincludedinrelease15. Channelaccessmechanismsbasedonlisten- before-talk(LBT)areprobablythemostobvious areaofenhancementinrelease16.NRlargely reuses thesameLBTmechanismasdefined forWi-FiandLTEinunlicensedspectrum. Interestingly,itwasdemonstratedduring standardizationthatreplacingoneWi-Finetwork withanNRnetworkcanleadtoimproved performancefortheremainingWi-Finetworks[9] aswellasfortheNRnetworkitself. IndustrialIoTandultra-reliable low-latencycommunication TheIIOTisamajorverticalfocusareaforNR release16.TowidenthesetofpotentialIIoTuse casesandsupportincreaseddemandfornewuse casessuchasfactoryautomation,electricalpower distributionandthetransportindustry,release16 includeslatencyandreliabilityenhancementsthat buildonthealreadyverylowair-interfacelatency andhighreliability[10]providedbyrelease15. Supportfortime-sensitivenetworking(TSN), whereveryaccuratetimesynchronizationis essential,isalsointroduced.Figure3illustrates TSNintegrationin5GNR. Figure 3 Overview of the TSN integration Ethernet TSN domain Ethernet TSN domain5G domain: supporting Ethernet/TSN Time reference IIoT device UE 5G Core RAN Ethernet bridge Programmable logic controller TSN control
  • 6. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 AlthoughmanyoftheURLLC-related improvementsaresmallinthemselves,taken togethertheysignificantlyenhanceNRinthearea ofURLLC[11]. Theinter-UEdownlink(DL)preemptionthatis alreadysupportedinrelease15isextendedin release16toincludetheUL,suchthataUE’s previouslyscheduledlower-priorityUL transmissioncanbepreempted(thatis,cancelled) byanotherUE’shigher-priorityULtransmission. Release16alsosupportsstandardizedhandling ofintra-EUULresourceconflicts. Toreducelatency,release16supportsmore frequentcontrol-channelmonitoring.Furthermore, forbothULconfiguredgrantandDLsemi-persistent scheduling,multipleconfigurationscanbeactive simultaneouslytosupportmultipleservices.These enhancementsareespeciallyusefulincombination withTSNtraffic,wherethetrafficpatternisknown tothebasestation. Intelligenttransportationsystems andvehicle-to-anythingcommunications ITS,whichprovidearangeoftransportand traffic-managementservices,areanothermajor verticalfocusareainrelease16.Amongother benefits,ITSsolutionsimprovetrafficsafetyaswell asreducingtrafficcongestion,fuelconsumption andenvironmentalimpacts.TofacilitateITS, communicationisrequirednotonlybetween vehiclesandthefixedinfrastructurebutalso betweenvehicles.Currently,25usecasesfor advancedV2Xcommunicationshavebeendefined, includingvehicleplatooningandcooperative communicationusingextendedsensors[12]. Inrelease15,communicationwithfixed infrastructureisprovidedbytheaccess-link interfacebetweenthebasestationandtheUE. Release16addstheoptionoftheNRsidelink(PC5), whichcanoperateinin-coverage,out-of-coverage andpartial-coveragescenarios,utilizingallNR frequencybands.Itsupportsunicast,groupcastand broadcastcommunication,andhybridautomatic repeatrequest(hybrid-ARQ)retransmissionscan beusedforscenariosthatrequiremorerobust communication.Groupscanbeeitherconfigured orformed,andthegroupmemberscommunicate usinggroupcasttransmissions.Atruckplatoon, forexample,couldbeconfiguredusingdedicated hybrid-ARQsignalingbetweenthereceivers andtransmitter,orformedinadynamicmanner basedonthedistancebetweenthetransmitter andreceiver(s). Positioning Formanyyears,UEpositioninghasbeen accomplishedwithGlobalNavigationSatellite Systemsassistedbycellularnetworks.Thisapproach providesaccuratepositioningbutistypicallylimited tooutdoorareaswithsatellitevisibility.Thereis currentlyarangeofapplicationsthatrequires accuratepositioningnotonlyoutdoorsbutalso indoors.Architecture-wise,NRpositioningisbased ontheuseofalocationserver,similartoLTE.The locationservercollectsanddistributesinformation relatedtopositioning(UEcapabilities,assistance data,measurements,positionestimatesandsoon) totheotherentitiesinvolvedinthepositioning procedures.Arangeofpositioningmethods,both DL-basedandUL-based,areusedseparatelyorin combinationtomeettheaccuracyrequirementsfor differentscenarios. DL-basedpositioningissupportedbyproviding anewreferencesignalcalledthepositioning referencesignal(PRS).ComparedwithLTE, thePRShasamoreregularstructureandamuch largerbandwidth,whichallowsforamoreprecise CURRENTLY, 25 USE CASES FOR ADVANCED V2X COMMUNICATIONS HAVE BEEN DEFINED
  • 7. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 correlationandtimeofarrival(ToA)estimation. TheUEcanthenreporttheToAdifferencefor PRSsreceivedfrommultipledistinctbasestations, andthelocationservercanusethereportsto determinethepositionoftheUE. UL-basedpositioningisbasedonrelease15 soundingreferencesignals(SRSs)withrelease16 extensions.BasedonthereceivedSRSs,thebase stationscanmeasureandreport(tothelocation server)thearrivaltime,thereceivedpowerand theangleofarrivalfromwhichtheposition oftheUEcanbeestimated. ThetimedifferencebetweenDLreceptionand ULtransmissioncanalsobereportedandusedin round-triptime(RTT)basedpositioningschemes, wherethedistancebetweenabasestationand aUEcanbedeterminedbasedontheestimated RTT.BycombiningseveralsuchRTT measurements,involvingdifferentbasestations, thepositioncanbedetermined. 5GNRrelease17 Theworkitemsapprovedbythe3GPPinDecember 2019willleadtotheintroductionofnewfeaturesfor thethreemainusecasefamilies:enhancedmobile broadband(eMBB),URLLC and massivemachine- typecommunications(mMTC).Thepurposeisto supporttheexpectedgrowthinmobile-datatraffic, aswellascustomizingNRforautomotive,logistics, publicsafety,mediaandmanufacturingusecases. Theenhancementstoexistingfeaturesintroducedin release17willbeforfunctionalityalreadydeployed inliveNRnetworksorrelatetospecificnew requirementsthatareemerginginthemarket. ThetablepresentedinTable1summarizesthe scopeoftheenhancementstoexistingNRfeatures inrelease17,whilethetablein Table2 summarizes thescopeofthenewfeatures. Terms and abbreviations CA – Carrier Aggregation | CSI – Channel-State Information | CU – Centralized Unit | DC – Dual Connectivity | DL – Downlink | DSS – Dynamic Spectrum Sharing | DU – Distributed Unit | eMBB – Enhanced Mobile Broadband | FR1, FR2 – Frequency Range 1, 2 | hyrbrid-ARQ – Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request | IAB – Integrated Access and Backhaul/Backhauling | IIoT – Industrial Internet of Things | IoT – Internet of Things | ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems | LBT – Listen-Before-Talk | LTE-M – LTE Machine-Type Communications | MIMO – Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output | mMTC – Massive Machine-Type Communications | MT – Mobile Termination | MTC – Machine-Type Communications | Multi-TRP – Multiple Transmission Points | NR – New Radio | PC5 – Direct Mode Interface | PRS – Positioning Reference Signal | RTT – Round-Trip Time | SON – Self-Organizing Networks | SRS – Sounding Reference Signal | ToA – Time of Arrival | TSN – Time-Sensitive Networking | UE – User Equipment | UL – Uplink | URLLC – Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication | V2X – Vehicle-to-Anything | XR – Anything Reality THE ENHANCEMENTS… RELATE TO SPECIFIC NEW REQUIREMENTS THAT ARE EMERGING IN THE MARKET
  • 8. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 eMBB feature IAB •Additionof(limited)supportfornetworktopologychanges •Improvedduplexingofaccessandbackhaullinks (simultaneousoperation onchildandparentlink,forexample) • Routingenhancements MIMO •Improvementsbasedonexperiencefromcommercialnetworksfocusingon multi-beamoperationmainlyforfrequencyrange2(FR2),supportformulti-TRP deployment,SRSs,andCSImeasurementandreporting DSS • Cross-carrierschedulingenhancements • Otherschedulingenhancements Coverage • Enhancedwide-areacoverageforbothFR1andFR2(tobestudied) • Focusonmobilebroadbandandvoiceservicesusecases,withtheexception ofthelow-powerwideareausecase Multi-radio dual connectivity • Moreefficientactivation/deactivationmechanismofsecondarycells • Conditionalprimary-secondarycellchange/addition UE power saving • Improvedmechanismsintheareaofdiscontinuousreceptionandblinddecoding ofcontrolchannels Data collection • Simplifieddeploymentandenhancementstosupportself-organizingnetworks (SON)withimproveddata-collectionmechanismsforSONandminimization ofdrivetests QoE management and optimizations for diverse services • GenericframeworkfortriggeringandconfiguringQoEmeasurementcollection andreportingforvarious5Gusecases URLLC feature IIoT and URLLC support • ImprovedsupportforfactoryautomationandURLLC,includingphysicallayer feedbackenhancementsandenhancementsforsupportoftimesynchronization • IdentificationofenhancementsforURLLC/IIoToperationincontrolled environmentsonunlicensedbands Positioning • Higheraccuracy(horizontalandvertical)andlowerlatency,especiallyfor IIoTusecases Sidelink • FocusonV2X,publicsafetyandcommercialusecases • Resourceallocationenhancement • Sidelinkdiscontinuousreception RAN slicing (also relevant for the mMTC use case) • MechanismstoenableUEfastaccesstothecellsupportingtheintendedslice • Mechanismstosupportservicecontinuityforintra-radio-accesstechnology handoverserviceinterruption mMTC feature Small data transmissions in inactive state • Reducedoverheadfromconnectionestablishment • Usecases:keep-alivemessages,wearablesandvarioussensors Table 1 Summary of release 17 enhancements to existing features
  • 9. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9 eMBB feature Supporting NR from 52.6GHz to 71GHz •ExtendedNRfrequencyrangetoallowexploitationofmorespectrum, includingthe60GHzunlicensedband •DefinitionofnewOFDM(orthogonalfrequency-divisionmultiplexing) numerologyandchannelaccessmechanismtocomplywiththeregulatory requirementsapplicabletounlicensedspectrum Multicast and broadcast services •PrimarilytargetedatV2X,publicsafety,IPmulticast,softwaredelivery andInternetofThings(IoT)applications Support for multi-SIM devices • Pagingcollisionavoidance • NetworknotificationwhenaUEswitchesnetworks Support for non- terrestrial networks • Supportforsatellites(especiallyLowEarthorbitandgeostationarysatellites) andhigh-altitudeplatformsasanadditionalmeanstoprovidecoverage inruralareas Sidelink relaying • L2versusL3relaying(studyandcompare) • Scenariosincludesingle-hop,UE-to-UEandUE-to-networkrelaying URLLC feature Anything reality (XR) evaluations • Evaluateneedsintermsofsimultaneouslyprovidingveryhighdatarates andlowlatencyinaresource-efficientmanner • Intendedtosupportvariousformsofaugmentedrealityandvirtualreality, collectivelyreferredtoasXR mMTC feature Support of reduced- capability NR devices • Targetedatmid-tierapplicationssuchasmachine-typecommunicationsfor industrialsensors,videosurveillance,andwearableswithdataratesbetween NarrowbandIoT/LTE-Mdataratesand“full”NRdatarates • Addressesissuesincludingcomplexityreduction,UEpowersavingandbattery lifetimeenhancement Table 2 Summary of new functionality added in release 17
  • 10. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 Conclusion Theenhancementsinthe3GPP’sreleases16and 17willplayacriticalroleinexpandingboththe availabilityandtheapplicabilityof5GNewRadio toawiderangeofnewapplicationsandusecases inbothindustryandpublicservices.Inorderto makethedetailsofthesetworeleasesmoreeasily digestible,wehaveidentifiedwhatweconsider tobethemostsignificantenhancementsand groupedthemintotwocategories:enhancements toexistingfeaturesandfeaturesthataddress newverticalsanddeploymentscenarios. FromEricsson’spointofview,theoverall ambitionoftheNRevolutionfromause-case perspectivemustbetoensurethat5GNRcovers allrelevantusecasestofulfillthevisionofubiquitous connectivity–thatis,theabilitytoconnectanything anywhereatanytime.Fromafeaturesperspective, webelievethattheevolutionofNRfunctionality mustbedrivenbythegoalofincreasingefficiency andeffectivenesswhenandwhereitiscommercially justified. Lookingahead,itiscriticalthattheindustry workstogethertoensurethatNRiseasytodeploy andoperate,andthatitcontinuestoprovide superiorperformancecomparedwithcompeting technologies.WemustalsoensurethatNRprovides ahighdegreeofenergyefficiencyonboththenetwork anddevicesides,andthatitretainsitsabilityto coexistsmoothlywithLTE. AtEricsson,weareconvincedthatthebestway forwardisforNRtocontinuetosupportalluse casesfromoneplatform,withafocusonforward compatibility,sufficientconfigurabilityandmaximal simplicity.Wemustalsoworktoavoidunnecessary updatesinthenetworkhardwareandensurethat functionalityisspecifiedinacommonwaythat benefitsmultipleusecases.
  • 11. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11 Further reading ❭ Leading the way to 5G through standardization, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/lte- nr-interworking-in-5G ❭ A new standard for Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/6/ dynamic-spectrum-sharing-standardization ❭ Standardizing a new paradigm in base station architecture, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/ blog/2019/9/standardizing-a-new-paradigm-in-base-station-architecture ❭ Drones and networks: mobility support, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/1/drones-and- networks-mobility-support ❭ How to identify uncertified drones with machine learning, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/ blog/2019/5/how-to-identify-uncertified-drones-machine-learning ❭ An overview of remote interference management for 5G, available at: www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/9/ overview-of-remote-interference-management References 1. Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/ reports/november-2019 2. Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology, 2018, Dahlman, E; Parkvall, S; Sköld, J 3. IEEE Wireless Communications, pp. 124-130, Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications in 5G Downlink: Physical Layer Aspects, June 2018, Ji, H; Park, S; Yeo, J; Kim, Y; Lee, J; Shim, B, available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8403963 4. 3GPP RP-182863, Enhancements on MIMO for NR, available at: www.3gpp.org 5. 3GPP RP-190489, NR mobility enhancements, available at: www.3gpp.org 6. 3GPP RP-191600, LTE-NR NR-NR Dual Connectivity and NR Carrier Aggregation enhancements, available at: www.3gpp.org 7. 3GPP TR 38.840, Study on User Equipment (UE) power saving in NR, available at: www.3gpp.org 8. 3GPP TR 38.874, NR; Study on Integrated Access and Backhaul, available at: www.3gpp.org 9. 3GPP TR 38.889, Study on NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum, available at: www.3gpp.org 10. 3GPP TR 38.824, Study on physical layer enhancements for NR ultra-reliable and low latency case (URLLC) , available at: www.3gpp.org 11. 3GPP TR 38.825, Study on NR industrial Internet of Things (IoT) , available at: www.3gpp.org 12. 3GPP TR 38.885, Study on NR Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) , available at: www.3gpp.org
  • 12. ✱ 5G NR EVOLUTION 12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 theauthors Janne Peisa ◆ has worked at Ericsson in the research and development of 3G, 4G and 5G systems since 1998. He is currently responsible for coordinating Ericsson’s research on 5G evolution and beyond 5G activities. Previously, he coordinated Ericsson’s RAN standardization activities in the 3GPP and led Ericsson Research’s 5G program. In 2001, he received the Ericsson Inventor of the Year award. Peisa has authored several publications and patents and holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of Helsinki, Finland. Patrik Persson ◆ joined Ericsson Research in 2007 and currently serves as a principal researcher. Since 2014 he has been responsible for the Ericsson back-office work in the 3GPP RAN standardization of 4G and 5G. Prior to that, he worked extensively in the areas of antennas and propagation as well as proprietary development of LTE. Persson holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Stefan Parkvall ◆ is a senior expert working with future radio access. He joined Ericsson in 1999 and played a key role in the development of HSPA, LTE and NR radio access. Parkvall has also been deeply involved in 3GPP standardization for many years. He is an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) fellow and has coauthored several popular books, including 4G: LTE/ LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, and 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology. He has more than 1,500 patents in the area of mobile communication and holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Erik Dahlman ◆ joined Ericsson in 1993 and is currently a senior expert in radio-access technologies within Ericsson Research. He has been involved in the development of wireless-access technologies from early 3G to 4G LTE to 5G NR. He is currently focusing on the evolution of 5G as well as technologies applicable beyond 5G wireless access. He is the coauthor of the books 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, 4G: LTE and LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, 4G: LTE- Advanced Pro and the Road to 5G, and, most recently, 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology. Dahlman holds a Ph.D. in telecommunications from KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
  • 13. 5G NR EVOLUTION ✱ MARCH 9, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 13 theauthors Asbjørn Grøvlen ◆ is a principal researcher in physical layer standardization who joined Ericsson in 2014. He currently works as Ericsson’s technical coordinator for 3GPP RAN WG1 and has been involved in the standardization of wireless-access technologies from 3G to 4G LTE and 5G NR. His contribution to NR (5G) has been on initial access and mobility. Grøvlen holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. Christian Hoymann ◆ joined Ericsson Research in 2007 and currently leads a research group at Ericsson Eurolab in Aachen, Germany. His team focuses on standardization of 4G and 5G radio networks (Wi-Fi, LTE and NR). In addition, he heads up Ericsson’s 3GPP RAN standardization delegation as the company’s technical coordinator for 3GPP RAN. Hoymann holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Dirk Gerstenberger ◆ joined Ericsson in 1997 after earning a Dipl-Ing. in electrical engineering from Paderborn University in Germany. He is currently a manager at the Standards Technology department within Business Area Networks at Ericsson, working with the evolution of radio-access standards and radio-network deployments. Gerstenberger led the radio-access standardization as head of Ericsson’s RAN1 delegation and chairman of 3GPP RAN1 during standardization of 3G and 4G, and he was also engaged in industry initiatives leading to the standardization of 5G. He received the Ericsson Inventor of the Year award in 2008 and is named as the inventor in more than 100 patents.
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