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Ericsson Technology Review: Issue 2/2019

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The rise of the innovation platform

Society and industry are transforming at an unprecedented rate. At the same time, the network platform is emerging as an innovation platform with the potential to offer all the connectivity, processing, storage and security needed by current and future applications. In my 2019 trends article, featured in this issue of Ericsson Technology Review, I share my view of the future network platform in relation to six key technology trends.

This issue of the magazine also addresses critical topics such as trust enablement, the extension of computing resources all the way to the edge of the mobile network, the growing impact of the cloud in the telco domain, overcoming latency and battery consumption challenges, and the need for end-to-end connectivity. I hope it provides you with valuable insights about how to overcome the challenges ahead and take full advantage of new opportunities.

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Ericsson Technology Review: Issue 2/2019

  1. 1. ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | V O L U M E 1 0 0 I 2 0 1 9 – 0 2 TECHNOLOGYTRENDS MANIFESTING THE INNOVATION PLATFORM CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN IN THE TELECOM DOMAIN BLOCKCHAINS FACILITATINGTRUST ONLINE
  2. 2. CONTENTS ✱ #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 08 FACILITATING ONLINE TRUST WITH BLOCKCHAINS Blockchain technology remains highly relevant a decade after its launch because it is still one of very few internet-age technologies that can facilitate trust online. At Ericsson, we see significant value in blockchains as a trust enabler and potential disruptorthatcanenablecompletelynewbusinessmodelsinthedigitalassetmarket. 18 SERVICE EXPOSURE: A CRITICAL CAPABILITY IN A 5G WORLD To meet the requirements of use cases in areas such as the IoT, AR/VR, Industry 4.0 and the automotive sector, operators need to be able to provide computing resources across the whole telco domain, all the way to the edge of the mobile network. Service exposure and APIs will play a key role in creating solutions that are both effective and cost efficient. 40 CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN IN THE TELECOM DOMAIN The rise of the cloud-native paradigm is driving the transformation of virtual network functions into cloud-native applications (CNAs). Ericsson’s application development framework eases the transition by providing a set of architecture principles, design rules, and best practices that guide the fundamental design decisions for all our CNAs. 50 MEETING 5G LATENCY REQUIREMENTS WITH INACTIVE STATE The Radio Resource Control (RRC) state model in the standalone version of the 5G New Radio standard features a new, Ericsson-developed state called inactive. On top of overcoming latency and battery consumption challenges, the new state also increases overall system capacity by decreasing the processing effort in the network. 60 5G-TSN INTEGRATION MEETS NETWORKING REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is becoming the standard Ethernet-based technology for converged networks of Industry 4.0. Future industrial automation will depend to a large extent on a combination of TSN features and 5G URLLC capabilities to provide deterministic connectivity end to end. FEATURE ARTICLE Six key trends manifesting the platform for innovation Ericsson CTO Erik Ekudden shares his insights into how six key trends are influencing the evolution of the future network platform. Trends 1 and 2 – the Internet of Skills and cyber-physical systems – are demanding use cases that the platform will need to support, while trends 3-6 are technology areas that are crucial to the platform’s ongoing evolution. 28 50 Cloud native Culture OrganizationArchitecture Automation 28 40 Devices/ local network Access sites Application cloud Network slices Management and monetization Web-scale player platform and device SDK Mobile Fixed Cloud infrastructure Access, mobility and network applications Transport Distributed sites National sites Web-scale player SDK SDK SDK SDK Market- place 18 LTE/NR RAN Legacy idle-to-connected transition New inactive-to-connected transition NR RANCN UEUE RRC connnection request Initial radio synchronization RRC resume request RRC resume RRC resume complete UL/DL user data RRC connection setup RRC connection complete (service request) RRC security setup RRC security complete UL/DL user data RRC reconfiguration (bearer setup) RRC reconfiguration complete Initial UE message (service request) UE context setup (keys, bearers) Initial radio synchronization UE context setup complete Initial radio synchronization 60 08
  3. 3. EDITORIAL ✱ #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 ✱ EDITORIAL ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 Ericsson Technology Review brings you insights into some of the key emerging innovations that are shaping the future of ICT. Our aim is to encourage an open discussion about the potential, practicalities, and benefits of a wide range of technical developments, and provide insight into what the future has to offer. a d d r e s s Ericsson SE -164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 8 719 00 00 p u b l i s h i n g All material and articles are published on the Ericsson Technology Review website: www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review p u b l i s h e r Erik Ekudden e d i t o r s Tanis Bestland, lead editor (Nordic Morning) tanis.bestland@nordicmorning.com Liam James (Nordic Morning) liam.james@nordicmorning.com e d i t o r i a l b o a r d Håkan Andersson, Anders Rosengren, Mats Norin, Erik Westerberg, Magnus Buhrgard, Gunnar Thrysin, Håkan Olofsson, Dan Fahrman, Robert Skog, Patrik Roseen, Jonas Högberg, John Fornehed, Jan Hägglund, Per Willars and Sara Kullman f e at u r e a r t i c l e Six key trends manifesting the platform for innovation by Erik Ekudden a r t d i r e c t o r Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning) p r o j e c t m a n a g e r Susanna O’Grady (Nordic Morning) l ay o u t Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning) i l l u s t r at i o n s Jenny Andersén (Nordic Morning) s u b e d i t o r s Ian Nicholson (Nordic Morning) Paul Eade (Nordic Morning) i s s n : 0 0 1 4 - 0 17 1 Volume: 100, 2019 ■ there’s no doubt about it: society and industry are transforming at an unprecedented rate in response to new technologies in areas such as the IoT, distributed computing and AI, and connectivity is playing a pivotal role. Self-driving vehicles, intelligent manufacturing robots and real-time drone control are just a few examples. The trends I highlighted in 2018 as the five to watch were right on target, and they have only continued to grow in strength and relevance over the course of the past year. In this year’s trends article, which you can find on page 28, I build on last year’s conclusions and share my view of the future net- work platform in relation to an updated list that now includes six trends. The evolution characterized by this year’s trends points to 5G and beyond, toward the future definition of 6G. I truly believe that the defining characteristic of the future network platform will be its ability to instantaneously meet any application need, anytime. Achievingthisrequiresubiquitousradioaccess,security assurance, zero-touch networks, and distributed compute and storage – four of this year’s six trends. The other two trends – the Internet of Skills and cyber- physical systems – are important examples of use cases that a future network platform needs to support. The other articles in this issue of the magazine address critical issues such as trust enablement, the extension of computing resources all the way to the edge of the mobile network, the growing impact of the cloud in the telco domain, overcoming latency and battery consumption challenges, and the need for end-to-end connectivity. THE RISE OF THE INNOVATION PLATFORM At Ericsson, we see significant value in blockchains as a trust enabler and potential disruptor that can enable completely new business models in the digital asset market. A decade after its launch, blockchain technology is still one of very few internet-age technologies that can facilitate trust online. In this issue, we explore its potential in telco. Service exposure and APIs will play a key role in creating solutions that enable operators to provide computingresourcesacrossthewholetelcodomain to the edge of the mobile network – a capability that is essential to meet the requirements of use cases in areas such as the IoT, AR/VR, Industry 4.0 and the automotive sector. The transformation of virtual network functions into cloud-native applications (CNAs) is already underway, and we are determined to make it as smooth as possible. We’ve developed an application development framework that includes a set of architecture principles, design rules, and best practices that guide the fundamental design decisions for all our CNAs. As the IoT continues to expand, latency and battery consumption issues are a growing challenge. The new ‘inactive state’ in the standalone version of the 5G NR standard overcomes those challenges, and increases overall system capacity by decreasing the processing effort in the network. We know that future industrial automation will be highly dependent on operators’ ability to provide deterministic connectivity end to end, and Time-Sensitive Networking is quickly becoming the standard Ethernet-based technology for converged networks of Industry 4.0. Our TSN article explores the benefits of combining TSN features with 5G URLLC capabilities. Ibelievethatthecontentsofthisissuedemonstrate that the network platform has the potential to offer all the connectivity, processing, storage and security needed by current and future applications. Please feel free to share it with your colleagues and business partners. You can find both PDF and HTML versions of it at: www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review THEEVOLUTIONCHARACTERIZED BYTHISYEAR’STRENDSPOINTSTO 5GANDBEYOND ERIK EKUDDEN SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AND HEAD OF GROUP FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY
  4. 4. 8 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 9 ✱ BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST ✱ 2 APRIL 4, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 4, 2019 3 A decade after its launch, blockchain is still the only internet-age technology that is able to facilitate online trust using mathematics and collective protocolling exclusively. DANIEL BERGSTRÖM, BEN SMEETS, MIKAEL JAATINEN, JAMES KEMPF, JONAS LUNDBERG, NICKLAS SANDGREN, GASPAR WOSA Terms and abbreviations ABI – Application Binary Interface | IOT – Internet of Things | JSON – JavaScript Object Notation | POW – Proof of Work | REST– Representational State Transfer | SOFIE – Secure Open Federation for Internet Everywhere | TEE – Trusted Execution Environment blockchains FACILITATING ONLINE TRUST WITH intermsofthroughput.Whiledigitalcurrenciesare stronglyassociatedwithblockchains–the“coins” aregeneratedbycontributingresourcestothe networksandspentbymakingtransactionsthatare processedbythenetworks–thevalueofblockchains goesbeyonddigitalcurrencies. Publicversusprivateblockchains BitcoinandEthereumarebothclassifiedaspublic, permissionlessblockchains.Thesesystemshave threepropertiesthatformthebasisoftrust.Firstly, anyonecanbecomeaparticipantbycontributing computingresources–thereisnoneedtohavea priorrelationtoanyothernodeinthesystem. Secondly,generatinganewblockontheblockchain iscomputationallyexpensive,astheconsensus mechanismisdesignedtorequireacertainamount ofwall-clocktimetocompleteregardlessofthesize ofthenetwork.Andlastly,itisimpossibletopredict whichcontributorwillbethefirsttocompletethe nextblock. Ifmorethanhalfofthecomputationalresources inthesystemaretechnicallywell-behaved,their resultswilldominateanymaliciousor malfunctioningnodesthatmaytrytoalterthe historyofthesysteminanerroneousdirection.In theconsensusmethodusedinthesesystems,known asproofofwork(PoW),therearenoshortcutsto generatingnewblocks;itcanonlybedonethrougha computationallyintensivehashingprocess.Other schemesforconsensusarebeingdevelopedand discussed,butthesehaveyettoseewidespreaduse. Thedifferencebetweenpublicblockchainsand private,permissionedonesisthatthelatteremploy strongidentities,usermanagementandaprotected datastructure.Privateblockchainstargetusecases somewherebetweenapublicblockchaininan untrustedpublicenvironmentandadistributed databasehostedinafullytrustedinternal deployment.Thissegmentincludesbankconsortia, forexample,thathaveamutualrelianceandatleast somelevelofpreestablishedtrust,butwherea privatelymanagedbackendfortransaction managementisnotafeasiblealternative.Duetothe differenceinnetworkconstitutionandthepresence ofatleastpartialtrust,thecomputationallyexpensive PoWschemeisnotrequiredinprivateblockchains. Instead,theycanusethesameconsensusalgorithms thatareusedinotherdistributedsystems,designed tocompensateforbothmaliciousandmalfunctioning nodes. Thedifferencesinscopebetweenpublicand privateblockchainshavealargeimpacton technologychoices.Fromatechnicalstandpoint, thereisvirtuallynooverlapbetweenthetwodifferent typesofblockchains.Itisalsosignificanttonotethat publicblockchainsarebydesignverydifficultfor companiestomonetize,whichiswhymostfirmshave chosentofocusonprivateblockchainsinstead. One of the fundamental challenges in the online, digital world is that implicit, fundamental concepts in the off-line, physical world need to be formalized and made explicit. Trust is a prime example. ■ Inthephysicalworld,trustisintangiblebutitis nonethelesscentraltoourinteractionswithother peopleandtoourconsumptionofservices.Creating anonlineenvironmentinwhichpeoplefeelsecure wheninteractingandconsuminginasimilarway requiresthedevelopmentoftechnologiesand protocolsthatformalizeanddigitalizetrust. Thecurrentsolutiontothechallengeoffacilitating trustonlineistorelyontrustedthirdpartiessuchas banksandmajorinternetcompaniestoactastrust anchors,creatingandattestingcertificatesfor peopleorweb-basedservices.Eachdevice,browser andoperatingsystemcomespreconfiguredwitha listofthesetrustedthirdpartiesandtheir certificates–theirdigitalfingerprints.Byinstructing ourdevicestotrusttherootcertificateofthetrusted thirdparty,theyareabletocomputationallyinfer trustinallunderlyingentities. Theprimaryweaknessofthishierarchical approachtoestablishingtruststemsfromthe underlyingstructureofcentralizedpower.Theroot keysofeachcertificateauthorityareacoreassetof today’sinternet,buttheyareprivatelymanagedand sensitivetoexposure.Blockchainwasoriginally designedtouprootthishierarchyandcreateanew kindoftrustsystemforelectronictransactions.In essence,theblockchainitselfbecomesitsowntrust anchorbasedonadistributed,transparentand community-driveninfrastructure. Ablockchainremovestheneedfortrustedthird parties,distributesthecentralizedpowerofthe certificateauthorities,andallowsanonymous memberstojoinandcontributetotheinfrastructure attheirowndiscretion–althoughataveryhighcost [PRIVATEBLOCKCHAINS] EMPLOYSTRONGIDENTITIES, USERMANAGEMENTANDA PROTECTEDDATASTRUCTURE 8 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 9
  5. 5. 10 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 11 ✱ BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST ✱ 4 APRIL 4, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 4, 2019 5 Hashgraphs ThedrawbacksofthePoWconsensusalgorithm usedbypublicblockchains(intermsofdelay, throughput,energyefficiencyandtransactioncosts) haveinspiredthedevelopmentofothertechnologies targetingthechallengeofdistributedtrust. Hashgraphsareonesuchexample.Hashgraphs reorganizethetransactionblocksfromachainof blockstoadirectedacyclicgraphofblocks,which enablesnewblockstobeaddedtothesystemwithout waitingforallpreviousblockstobeorganized. Theorganizationofblocksenablesmultiplelines oftransactionstoberuninparallel,andintheory allowsforasystemthathasconsiderablylower delaysandhigherthroughputcomparedwitha conventionalblockchain.Hashgraphsalsotryto replacethecomputationallyexpensivePoW consensusalgorithmswithotherapproachesto increasethethroughputandenergyefficiencyofthe system.Smartcontractscanrunonhashgraphsina waythatissimilartohowtheyrunonblockchains. Hashgraphsrepresentaboldtechnologicalleap thatstrivestoovercomeallthedrawbacksofpublic blockchains.However,currenthashgraph technologiesarenotopenandavailableinthesame wayaspublicblockchaintechnologiesare,which arguablymakesthembettersuitedtosolvedifferent usecasesthatareclosertothoseofprivate blockchains.Somehashgraphtechnologiesarealso designedaroundpatentedalgorithmsandbuilt-in claimstopartsoftherevenue,whichgoesagainstthe originalintentionofblockchaintocreatea decentralizedanddemocraticinfrastructure. TrustedExecutionEnvironments ATrustedExecutionEnvironment(TEE)is establishedwithinanindividualdevicebyusingan enclave–ahardware-protectedpartoftheCPU chipsetthatoperatesonencryptedmemoryand storageforsecuritypurposes.Thisapproachenables theexecutionofselectedsoftwareinisolationfromthe underlyingoperatingsystemlayers,effectivelyin isolationfromanyattacksoriginatingfromhacking orexploitingoperatingsystemsoftware.The technologywasinitiallylaunchedforsomechipsetsin theearly2000sbuthasonlyrecentlyreachedwide-scale deploymentindevice,desktopandserverhardware. Fromapublicblockchainperspective,TEEsmay offerabreakthroughintermsofconsensus algorithms.AkeyfeatureofmodernTEEsisthe abilitytoattestthecoderunninginsidetheenclave throughahardware-supportedasymmetrickey exchange.Theabilitytoexecutetrustedand verifiablecodeonotherwisecompromisedsystems laysthefoundationforanewgenerationofconsensus algorithms,anchoringthetrustinthesignatureofthe codebeingexecutedratherthanintheworkbeing carriedoutortheidentityofthenodeowner.Early resultsofthisdevelopmentinpublicblockchainsshow considerablyincreasedtransactionspeedsandreduced energyconsumption.Theimplicationsareyettobe fullydeterminedforprivateblockchainsthatrelyon classicaldistributedsystemalgorithmsforconsensus. Usecasesandapplications AtEricsson,webelievethatarobustblockchain foundationcanincreaseecosysteminvolvementand enablenewbusinessmodelsforrevenuegeneration. Inlightofthis,wehavebeentestingtheapplication ofblockchaintechnologyintherealmof telecommunicationforsometime,andwehave identifiedthreeusecasesthatareparticularly promisingintermsofserviceswithmonetization potential.Oneiscalledthesmartcontractplatform, thesecondisknownasIDbrokering,andthethirdis aNubo-basedvirtualservicesmarketplace. Themostcommonlyusedsoftwaretechnology torealizeprivateblockchaininstallationsis HyperledgerFabric. Keytechnicalpropertiesofsuitableusecases Wehaveidentifiedfourkeytechnicalproperties ofthepartial-trustusecasesthatweexpecttobe suitableforblockchains:(1)asharedtrustedhistory, (2)structurebuiltonmultiplestakeholdersof equalstanding,(3)largelyindependentnodes, and(4)accesstodatahistory. Sharedtrustedhistory Thekeybenefitoftheblockchainistrustbetween stakeholders,andtoestablishahistoryof transactionsthatisveryhardtotamperwith. Multiple,equalstakeholders Themainnicheofblockchainsliesintheareaof partialtrustbetweenroughlyequalstakeholders. Largelyindependentnodes Usecaseswhereeachnodeoperatesindependently andusestheblockchainforsupportaredesirable duetotherelativelyhighcostand/ordelayofrunning transactionsontheblockchain. Accesstodatahistory Becausethehistoricaldataisnormallyretained indefinitely,itishighlybeneficialifthereisavalueto theusecaseinhavingaccesstohistorical transactions. Relatedtechnologies Thetechnicaldevelopmentandbroadeningof blockchainsisconstantlyongoing.Byalteringor extendingthecorefunctionality,wecanbothwiden thescopeandapplicabilityofblockchainsasa technologyandmitigatethelimitationsofexisting offerings. Smartcontracts Withtraditionaldatabases,itisstraightforwardto createsoftwarethatmonitorsadatabase,determines whetherornotacertainconditionhasbeenfulfilled, andupdatesthedatabaseaccordingly.Thisisexactly whatsmartcontractsdoaswell,butinthetrusted environmentofblockchains.Asmartcontractis neithersmartnoralegalcontract;rather,itisan agreementbetweentwoormorepartiesthatis formulatedandenforcedwithimmutable cryptographiccode.Thiscodeisexecutedonevery nodewithintheblockchainnetworkanddetermines howdatainthedistributedledgerismodified.Ifa smartcontractdependsonexternalinformation,an oraclemustbeusedtofeedthisinformationintothe ledgertomakeitaccessibletothesmartcontracts. Smartcontractsremoverelianceontrusted intermediarieswhenmakingbusinessagreements. Typically,asmartcontractincludestermsand conditions,performancemetricsandpossibly penalties.Duringexecution,thesmartcontractwill monitor,verifyandenforceagreedconditions automatically,whichcanpotentiallysavetimeand moneyforthepartiesinvolved. Thetechnologybehindsmartcontractsis promising,buttherearesomecaveats;smart contractsneedtobeverycarefullydesignedand implementedtoensurethattheresultingcontract actsexactlyasintendedgivenanyinputorevent. Misconfiguredsmartcontractsarevirtually impossibletocancel(unlesstheyhavebeendesigned forrenegotiationfromthestart),whichconsiderably increasesthedemandsofdeployingasmartcontract. TEEsMAYOFFERA BREAKTHROUGHIN TERMSOFCONSENSUS ALGORITHMS THESMARTCONTRACT WILLMONITOR,VERIFY ANDENFORCEAGREED CONDITIONS AUTOMATICALLY 10 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 11
  6. 6. 12 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 13 ✱ BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST ✱ 6 APRIL 4, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 4, 2019 7 canbedistributedandgoverninadecentralized mannerandthroughdataintegrityandtransparency supportedbetweenthecounterparties. IDbrokering Wehavedesignedandimplementedadecentralized systemforIDbrokeringbasedonaconceptthat createstrustrelationsbetweendigitalidentities andthesystemsthathandlethem.Thesystem capitalizesonthestrengthofblockchainsto expressandmanagetrustrelationsinindustry- widesolutionsandcreatesaunifiedmechanism forIDmanagementacrossunderlying heterogeneousIDtechnologies. IDbrokeringmakesiteasytoestablishencrypted andtrustedconnectivityforIoTdevicesthatare onthemove,orforpersonaldevicesthatarecarried acrossdifferentadministrativenetworkdomains. Forexample,byallowingdeviceIDstoactasdigital passportsandregisteringthe(non-sensitive) passportIDsofdeviceswhenbookingatrip,the networksthedevicespassthrough(including airports,hotelsandconferencefacilities)canuse theirowntrustedIDstograntsecureinternet accesswithoutmanualauthentication. TheIDbrokeringconceptisbasedon threekeyaspects: 1. the self-sovereignty of ID domains, where devices are provisioned with any secure ID technology deemed appropriate, and where the ID secret is securely stored in a TEE 2. authentication utilizes the trust relation expressed in a blockchain-based backend, where instantaneous access rights for specific devices in specific networks are managed 3. the blockchain backend enables the system to reach a shared consensus on a global scale, as no single party is the main controller or beneficiary of the system. EricssondemonstratedanIDbrokering implementation–inthiscaseacustomlayerontopof HyperledgerFabricusingblockchainsandTEEs–at MobileWorldCongressin2017.Init,eachIoTdevice isrepresentedbyanode,belongstoadomain,and hasrelationswithownersexpressedbylinks,as illustratedinFigure2.Withthisapproach,we emphasizethedecentralizednatureofapplications enabledbytheblockchain.EachdomainownerSmartcontractplatformforservicesproviders Thesmartcontractplatformisaninnovation platformdrivenbyEricssonthatallowsoperators whoareinnovatingwithustoexploreblockchain andsmart-contracttechnologytooffernew services,evaluateplatformbusinessopportunities andaddressinternalefficienciestoreduce thecostofdoingbusiness.Oneinteresting usecasefortheplatformisitsapplicationto roamingclearanceandsettlementservices[1] asdepictedinFigure1. Thehandlingofroamingsubscriberstoday reliesontrustedthirdparties(dataclearing companies,forexample)tomanagetheclearing processesandsettlementrelatedtobilling. Thesmartcontractplatformroamingsettlement applicationreplacesthese(oftenexpensive)third partieswithatrusted,distributedanddecentralized blockchainsolutionthatincludessmartcontracts (forexample,HyperledgerFabricchaincode). Thesmartcontractplatformcantakeadvantage ofcoreattributesofblockchain’ssharedledger approachtoprovidetrust,securityandtransparency acrosstheparticipatingecosystem.Smartcontracts canbeusedtosupportthefollowingthreemain groupsofservices: ❭ roaming management, including agreement definition and archiving ❭ data clearing, such as billing record creation, conversion services and fraud management ❭ financial clearing and settlement services for voice, SMS, MMS and data transactions. Theinsightsfromsmartcontractplatformexperiments willvalidatethekeytechnicalpropertieswheretrust Figure 1 Roaming clearance and settlement, with and without third-party support Roaming settlement via data clearing house Roaming settlement based on blockchain and smart contracts Operator A Operator C Operator C Operator B Operator BOperator A With data clearing house Without data clearing house (blockchain enabled) Figure 2 ID domain creation and ID crosslinking with the support of blockchain Owner1 Owner2 Owner3 OwnerD3 User3D1 User2D1 User3D1 User1D3 User2D3 Blockchain Domain D1 Domain D2 Domain D3 Owner 1 User1D1 User2D1 User3D1 Owner2 Owner3 OwnerD2 User1D3 User2D3 12 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 13
  7. 7. 14 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 15 ✱ BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST ✱ 8 APRIL 4, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 4, 2019 9 microservice(knownasSaranyu)utilizestheJ.P. MorganQuorumblockchain,whichsupportssmart contractswritteninSolidity. Tenantsandserviceshavecontractaccountson theblockchain,whichgoverntheirinteractionwith themarketplaceandeachother.Serviceslisttheir resourceofferingsontheblockchainthrough SaranyuintheformofaJSON(JavaScriptObject Notation)documentdescribingtheattributesofthe resources.Attributescanbequotalimitedorhave chargesassociatedwiththem.Tenantsrequestthe delegationofresourcesandmustcryptographically signtheJSONdocument,indicatingthatthey committoabidebythechargingandquota advertisedintheresourceofferings. Servicesrecordtenantusageandsendusage recordstoSaranyu,whichSaranyustoresinthe Cassandradistributeddatabase,depositingasigned hashoftherecordintotheblockchaintoensurethe recordsarenotchanged.Periodically,Saranyuruns abillingcycleinwhichtenantchargesforservices aretotaledupandsubmittedtoasettlement processor,whichcanbeacreditcardprocessorora cryptocurrencyaccount. Nubocanalsosupportcloudcompute/ networking/storageservicesaswellasserverless functionsordistributedoperatingsystemtypesof services.AprototypeofNubowasdevelopedat Ericssonin2018,featuringanexperimental cryptocurrencychargingsystemthatchargedfor servicesusingaprivateEthereumaccountdeployed intheEricssonResearchDataCenterinLund, Sweden.ServiceslistedincludedtheNefeleCloud 3.0distributedoperatingsystem,theEthereum serverlessfunctionsystem,andtheUniversityof California,Berkeley,RISELabartificialintelligence executionenvironmentRay. Standardizationandexternalcollaboration The massadoptionofblockchainswillrequireboth technicalandbusiness-modelinteroperability betweenorganizations,permissionedblockchain consortia,andevenpermissionlessblockchains. Consequently,blockchainstandardizationis underwayandseveralindustryconsortiahave formedtostriveforinteroperabilityandharmonized processes.Ericssoniscontributingtothe standardizationprocessthroughouractive involvementintheGSMAandallmajortelecom andICTstandardizationbodies,aswellasby becomingafoundingmemberinanETSI (EuropeanTelecommunicationsStandards Institute)workinggrouponpermission distributedledgers. Withrespecttocollaboration,theEUand severalnationalgovernmentsarecurrently sponsoringacademicandindustrialcollaboration forblockchainresearchandbusinessacceleration. EricssonhaschosentoparticipateintheEUH2020- IoTSOFIE(SecureOpenFederationforInternet Everywhere)project2018-2020togetherwith severalindustry-leadingcompaniesandacademic institutionstoresearchblockchaininteroperability acrosssiloedIoTapplications,includingthe demonstrationofresultsthroughseverallivepilots. Wearealsocollaboratingdirectlywithglobal technologycompaniesintheareasoftrusted computingandblockchains. Conclusion Ericssonseessignificantvalueinblockchainsasa trustenablerandpotentialdisruptorthatcanenable completelynewbusinessmodelsinthedigitalasset market.Theusecaseswehaveevaluatedforprivate blockchainssofar,bothin-houseandtogetherwith hasfullsovereigntyoftheirdomain,andshared contextoftheblockchainenablesadomainto interactandtograntandrevokeaccessdynamically. TheIDbrokeringsolutionsharestheconceptof self-sovereigntywiththeSovrinsystem[2],andis oblivioustothespecificIDtechnologiesusedfor authenticationandIDprovisioning.Since2017, wehavebeenworkingonIDbrokeringandits coexistencewithpublickeyinfrastructuresolutions. Nubo virtualservicesmarketplace New5Gfeaturesenableoperatornetworkstobe virtuallysegmentedintodifferentlogicalnetworks (slices)similarlytohownetworkresourcesincloud infrastructurecanprovidedifferentvirtualnetworks fordifferenttenants.Theriseofvirtualnetwork functions–thatis,virtualizedandsoftware-based routersorfirewalls–hascreatedthefoundationfora marketofnetworkserviceswherethesetof componentscanbecomposedspecificallyforeach tenant.Withslicingandvirtualizationofnetwork componentsin5G,weenvisionthatfuture5G operatorservicesarelikelytohavesimilar characteristics,withatailoredcompositionof servicesforeachnetworkslice. WedesignedtheNubovirtualservices marketplacetomeetthespecificrequirementsof virtualizationusecases.Itsarchitectureisillustrated in Figure3.TheNubomarketplaceismadeupof buyersofvirtualizedservices,referredtoas“tenants”, andthesellersofthoseservices,referredtoas “serviceproviders”.Thetenantscanbeindividual users,enterprisecustomersorevenoperators.A blockchainwithsmartcontractsprovidesthetenants withthebasictrustplatformforpricediscoveryon theservices.Nubo’stenantandservicemanagement Figure 3 Nubo virtual services marketplace architecture Nubo portal Tenant Service provider Settlement processor Saranyu tenant REST Saranyu tenant REST Web3 ABI Bulk service usage data Saranyu Dapp Cassandra Quorum Service manager Non-multi- tenant services Multi-tenant services Saranyu service REST Service manager REST Saranyu service REST THEMASSADOPTION OFBLOCKCHAINSWILL REQUIREBOTHTECHNICAL ANDBUSINESS-MODEL INTEROPERABILITY 14 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 15
  8. 8. 16 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 17 ✱ BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST BLOCKCHAINS AND ONLINE TRUST ✱ 10 APRIL 4, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 4, 2019 11 Daniel Bergström ◆ is a senior researcher in distributed computing at Ericsson Research. He joined Ericsson in 2014 and works with all things distributed. His current focus is on secure infrastructures for artificial intelligence workloads. He holds a Ph.D. in computing science from Umeå University, Sweden. Ben Smeets ◆ is a senior expert in trusted computing at Ericsson Research. He holds a Ph.D. in information theory from Lund University, Sweden, where he also serves as a professor. He joined Ericsson in 1998, working on security solutions for mobile phone platforms. Smeets is currently working on trusted computing technologies in connection with containers and secure enclaves. Mikael Jaatinen ◆ is a security specialist at Business Area Technologies and New Businesses. He joined Ericsson in 1996 and has been working with blockchains since 2014. He holds an M.Sc. in computer science from Åbo Akademi University in Turku, Finland. Jaatinen is currently responsible for work packages in the blockchain project SOFIE and with artificial intelligence/ machine learning-based security analytics. James Kempf ◆ worked for Ericsson Research in Silicon Valley as a principal researcher from 2008 to 2018. He earned a Ph.D. in systems engineering from the University of Arizona in Tucson, the US, in 1984, holds 21 patents and is the author of three books and many papers. He currently works as a senior principal architect for Equinix in Sunnyvale, California. Jonas Lundberg ◆ joined Ericsson in 1997 and currently serves as a senior researcher at Ericsson Research. His research interests include distributed computing and blockchain technology, and his current focus is blockchain platforms for rapid prototyping. Lundberg holds an M.Sc. in computer science from Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. Nicklas Sandgren ◆ is a senior researcher in the field of distributed computing at Ericsson Research. He joined Ericsson in 1998 and has worked in many different areas, including speech and channel coding, VoIP prototyping, WebRTC and DevOps. He holds an M.Sc. in computer science from Luleå University of Technology. Gaspar Wosa ◆ currently serves as innovation manager at Ericsson ONE in Business Area Technologies and New Businesses. He joined Ericsson in 1997 and his primary interest at present is the business model impact of blockchain and smart contracts. He holds a B.Sc. in telecommunication engineering from Polytechnic University of Indonesia and an MBA from IPMI International Business School in Kalibata, Indonesia. theauthOrs Further reading ❭ Ericsson, blog, Secure brokering of digital identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/7/secure-brokering-of-digital-identities ❭ Ericsson, blog, Smart contracts for identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/10/smart-contracts-for-identities ❭ Ericsson, blog, Secure IoT identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/3/secure-iot-identities References 1. Monitor Deloitte, Blockchain @ Telco: How blockchain can impact the telecommunications industry and its relevance to the C-Suite, 2016, available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/za/ Documents/technology-media-telecommunications/za_TMT_Blockchain_TelCo.pdf 2. White paper, Evernym in cooperation with the Sovrin Foundation, What Goes on the Ledger?, September 2018, available at: https://sovrin.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/What-Goes-On-The-Ledger.pdf globaltelcoandenterprisecustomers,haveachieved promisingresults.Todate,wehavedemonstrated thevalueofblockchainforroamingsettlementand otherusecasessuchasIoTdatamonetization,supply chainmanagement,handlingofprivacy-sensitive data,licensemanagementandIDmanagement. OURNEXTSTEPS WILLINCLUDEFURTHER EXPLORATIONOFTHE POTENTIALOFPUBLIC BLOCKCHAINSAND HASHGRAPHS Ournextstepswillincludefurtherexplorationof thepotentialofpublicblockchainsandhashgraphs. Whilewearekeentoaccelerateourblockchain effortsfromexplorationtocommodificationand massadoption,werecognizethatanumberof fundamentalissuesmustberesolvedbefore wegetthere.Appropriategovernancemodels aroundblockchainconsortiamustbeestablished, forexample,alongwithtechnologyandbusiness modelinteroperability.Thequestionsofhowto createaviableplatformbusinessandhowto ensurethatcontractsactontrustworthydata mustalsobeanswered.Wewillcontinuetowork ontheseaspectsinclosecollaborationwithour customersandotherindustrystakeholders throughstandardizationandjointinnovation. 16 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 17
  9. 9. 18 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 1918 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 19 ✱ SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G ✱ 2 MAY 7, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 7, 2019 3 Exposure – and service exposure in particular – will be critical to the creation of the programmable networks that businesses need to communicate efficiently with Internet of Things (IoT) devices, handle edge loads and pursue the myriad of new commercial opportunities in the 5G world. JAN FRIMAN, MATTIAS EK, PETER CHEN, JITENDRA MANOCHA, JOÃO SOARES While service exposure has played a notable role in previous generations of mobile technology – by enabling roaming, for example, and facilitating payment and information services over the SMS channel – its role in 5G will be much more prominent. ■ Thehighexpectationsonmobilenetworks continuetorise,withnever-endingrequestsfor higherbandwidth,lowerlatency,increased predictabilityandcontrolofdevicestoservea varietyofapplicationsandusecases.Atthesame time,wecanseethatindustriessuchashealthcare andmanufacturinghavestarteddemandingmore customizedconnectivitytomeettheneedsoftheir services.Whilesomeofthesedemandscanbemet throughimprovednetworkconnectivitycapabilities, thereareotherareaswherethoseimprovements alonewillnotbesufficient. Forexample,inrecentyears,contentdelivery networks(CDNs)havebeenusedinsituationswhere deploymentswithintheoperatornetworkbecamea necessitytoaddressrequirementslikehigh bandwidth.Morerecently,however,newuse-case categoriesinareassuchasaugmentedreality(AR)/ virtualreality(VR),automotiveandIndustry4.0 havemadeitclearthatcomputingresourcesneedto beaccessibleattheedgeofthenetwork.This developmentrepresentsagreatopportunityfor operators,enterprisesandapplicationdevelopersto Service exposure:A CRITICAL CAPABILITY IN A 5G WORLD introduceandcapitalizeonnewservices.The opportunityalsoextendstoweb-scaleproviders (Amazon,Google,Microsoft,Alibabaandsoon) thathaveinvestedinlarge-scaleanddistributed cloudinfrastructuredeploymentsonaglobalscale, therebybecomingthemass-marketproviderof cloudservices. Severalweb-scaleprovidershavealreadystarted providingon-premisessolutions(acombinationof full-stacksolutionsandsoftware-onlysolutions)to meettherequirementsofcertainusecases. However,theabilitytoexpandtheavailabilityof web-scaleservicestowardtheedgeoftheoperator infrastructurewouldmakeitpossibletotacklea multitudeofotherusecasesaswell.Suchascenario ismutuallybeneficialbecauseitallowstheweb-scale providerstoextendthereachofservicesthatbenefit frombeingattheedgeofthenetwork(suchasthe IoTandCDNs),whileenablingtelecomoperatorsto becomepartofthevaluechainofthecloud computingmarket. SUCHASCENARIO...[ENABLES] TELECOMOPERATORSTOBECOME PARTOFTHEVALUECHAINOFTHE CLOUDCOMPUTINGMARKET Defining exposure Exposure in the IT/telecom sphere can be divided into a number of subareas. Data exposure is the process by which any kind of consumer (human or machine) can access data in a system via secure and controlled mechanisms. Data is normally exchanged in one direction only. Common examples of data exposure include accessing data via an application programming interface (API), downloading a file or retrieving observations from a server. Service exposure goes beyond data exposure to also include the ordering of execution of operations in the underlying system. Using an API to initiate operations and/or processes is a good example of service exposure. Services can be invoked bidirectionally by triggering events, for example. Data can also be updated via a service. Service exposure can be applied in a domain, as in network exposure, which exposes both data and services of the network. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship management (CRM) are other examples of domains where service exposure can be applied. To maintain security, the details of the underlying system are typically hidden in exposure scenarios.
  10. 10. 20 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 21 ✱ SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G ✱ 4 MAY 7, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 7, 2019 5 above10Gbps,whilemassivemachine-type communications(mMTC)cansupportmorethan1 millionconnectionspersquarekilometer.Ultra- reliablelow-latencycommunications(uRLLC) guaranteeslessthan1mslatency. FulfillingtheseeMBB,mMTCanduRLLC requirementsnecessitatessignificantchangesto boththeRANandthecorenetwork.Oneofthemost significantchangesisthatthecorenetworkfunctions (NFs)inthe5GCore(5GC)interactwitheachother usingaService-basedArchitecture(SBA).Itisthis changethatenablesthenetworkprogrammability, therebyopeningupnewopportunitiesforgrowth andinnovationbeyondsimplyaccelerating connectivity. Service-basedArchitecture TheSBAofthe5GCnetworkmakesitpossiblefor 5GCcontrolplaneNFstoexposeService-based Interfaces(SBIs)andactasserviceconsumersor producers.TheNFsregistertheirservicesinthe networkrepositoryfunction,andservicescanthen bediscoveredbyotherNFs.Thisenablesaflexible deployment,whereeveryNFallowstheother authorizedNFstoaccesstheservices,which providestremendousflexibilitytoconsumeand exposeservicesandcapabilitiesprovidedby5GC forinternalorexternalthirdparties.Thissupportof theservicessubscriptionmakesitcompletely differenttothe4G/5GEvolvedPacketCorenetwork. Becauseitisservice-driven,SBAenablesnew servicetypesandsupportsawidevarietyof diversifiedservicetypesassociatedwithdifferent technicalrequirements.5GprovidestheSBIfor differentNFs(forexampleviaSBIHTTP/2Restful APIs).TheSBIcanbeusedtoaddressthediverse servicetypesandhighlydemandingperformance requirementsinanefficientway.Itisanenablerfor shorttimetomarketandcloud-nativeweb-scale technologies. The3GPPisnowworkingonconceptualizing5G usecasestowardindustryverticals.Manyusecases canbecreatedon-demandasaresultoftheSBA. Distributedcloudinfrastructure Theabilitytodeploynetworkslices–animportant aspectof5G–inanautomatedandon-demand mannerrequiresadistributedcloudinfrastructure. Further,theabilitytorunworkloadsattheedgeof thenetworkrequiresthedistributedcloud infrastructuretobeavailableattheedge.Whatthis essentiallymeansisthatdistributedcloud deploymentswithintheoperatornetworkwillbean inherentpartoftheintroductionof5G.Thescale, growthrate,distributionandnetworkdepth(howfar outinthenetworkedge)ofthosedeploymentswill varydependingonthetelconetworkinquestionand thefirstusecasestobeintroduced. Ascloudbecomesanaturalassetoftheoperator infrastructurewithwhichtohostNFsandservices (suchasnetworkslicing),theabilitytoallowthird partiestoaccesscomputingresourcesinthissame infrastructureisanobviousnextstep.Contraryto thetraditionalclouddeploymentsoftheweb-scale players,however,computingresourceswithinthe operatornetworkwillbescarcerandmuchmore geographicallydistributed.Asaresult,resources willneedtobeusedmuchmoreefficiently,and mechanismswillbeneededtohidethecomplexityof thegeographicaldistributionofresources. Cloud-nativeprinciples Theadoptionofcloud-nativeimplementation principlesisnecessarytoachievetheautomation, optimizedresourceutilizationandfast,low-cost introductionofnewservicesthatarethekeyfeatures ofadynamicandconstrainedecosystem.Cloud- nativeimplementationprinciplesdictatethat softwaremustbebrokendownintosmaller,more manageablepiecesaslooselycoupledstateless Figure1illustrateshowacollaborationwithweb- scaleprovidersontelecomdistributedcloudscould bestructured.Wearecurrentlyexploringa partnershiptoenablesystemintegratorsand developerstodeployweb-scaleplayerapplication platformsseamlesslyontelecomdistributedclouds. Distributedcloudabstractionontheweb-scale playermarketplaceencompassesedgecompute, latencyandbandwidthguaranteeandmobility. InterworkingwithIoTsoftwaredevelopmentkits (SDKs)anddevicemanagementprovides integrationwithprovisioningcertificatehandling servicesandassignmenttodistributedcloudtenant breakoutpoints. Inthemidtolongterm,serviceexposurewillbe criticaltothesuccessofsolutionsthatrelyonedge computing,networkslicinganddistributedcloud. Withoutit,thegrowingnumberoffunctions,nodes, configurationsandindividualofferingsthatthose solutionsentailrepresentsasignificantriskof increasedoperationalexpenditure.Thekeybenefit ofserviceexposureinthisrespectisthatitmakesit possibletouseapplicationprogramminginterfaces (APIs)toconnectautomationflowsandartificial intelligence(AI)processesacrossorganizational, technology,business-to-business(B2B)andother borders,therebyavoidingcostlymanualhandling. AIandanalytics-basedservicesareparticularly goodcandidatesforexposureandexternal monetization. Keyenablers The5Gsystemarchitecturespecifiedby3GPPhas beendesignedtosupportawiderangeofusecases basedonkeyrequirementssuchashighbandwidth/ throughput,massivenumbersofconnecteddevices andultra-lowlatency.Forexample,enhancedmobile broadband(eMBB)willprovidepeakdatarates Figure 1 Collaboration with web-scale providers on telecom distributed clouds Devices/ local network Access sites Application cloud Network slices Management and monetization Web-scale player platform and device SDK Mobile Fixed Cloud infrastructure Access, mobility and network applications Transport Distributed sites National sites Web-scale player SDK SDK SDK SDK Market- place CORENETWORKFUNCTIONS INTHE5GCINTERACTWITHEACH OTHERUSINGASERVICE-BASED ARCHITECTURE 20 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 21
  11. 11. 22 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 23 ✱ SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G ✱ 6 MAY 7, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 7, 2019 7 Functionalarchitectureforserviceexposure Thefunctionalarchitectureforserviceexposureis builtaroundfourcustomerscenarios: ❭ internal consumers ❭ business-to-consumers (B2C) ❭ business-to-business (B2B) ❭ business-to-business-to-business/consumers (B2B2X). Inthecaseofinternalconsumers,applicationsfor monitoring,optimizationandinternalinformation sharingoperateunderthecontrolandownershipof theenterpriseitself.InthecaseofB2C,consumers directlyuseservicesviaweborappsupport.B2C examplesincludecallcontrolandself-service managementofpreferencesandsubscriptions. TheB2Bscenarioconsistsofpartnersthatuse servicessuchasmessagingandIoTcommunication tosupporttheirbusiness.TheB2B2Xscenariois madeupofmorecomplexvaluechainssuchas mobilevirtualnetworkoperators,webscale,gaming, automotiveandtelcocloudthroughweb-scaleAPIs. Figure2illustratesthefunctionalarchitecturefor serviceexposure.Itisdividedintothreelayersthat eachactasaframeworkfortherealization.Domain- specificfunctionalityandknowledgeareappliedand addedtotheframeworkasconfigurations,scripts, plug-ins,modelsandsoon.Forexample,theaccess controlframeworkdeliversthebuildingblocksfor specializingtheaccesscontrolsforaspecificarea. Theabstractionandresourcelayerisresponsible forcommunicatingwiththeassets.Ifsomeassetsare locatedoutsidetheenterprise–atasupplieror partnerfacilityinafederationscenario,forexample –B2Bfunctionalitywillalsobeincludedinthislayer. Thebusinessandservicelogiclayerisresponsible fortransformationandcomposition–thatis,when servicesandstatefulbackingservices.Thisisusually achievedbyusingamicroservicearchitecture, whereeachpiececanbeindividuallydeployed, scaledandupgraded.Inaddition,microservices communicatethroughwell-definedandversion- controllednetwork-basedinterfaces,which simplifiesintegrationwithexposure. Threetypesofserviceexposure Therearethreemaintypesofserviceexposureina telecomenvironment: ❭ network monitoring ❭ network control and configuration ❭ payload interfaces. Examplesofnetworkmonitoringservice exposureincludenetworkpublishinginformationas real-timestatuses,eventstreams,reports,statistics, analyticinsightsandsoon.Thisalsoincludesread requeststothenetwork. Serviceexposurefornetworkcontroland configurationinvolvesrequestingcontrolservices thatdirectlyinteractwiththenetworktrafficor requestconfigurationchanges.Configurationcan alsoincludetheuploadofcompletevirtualnetwork functions(VNFs)andapplications. Examplesofservice-exposure-enabledpayload interfacesincludemessagingandlocalbreakout,but itshouldbenotedthatmanyconnectivity/payload interfacesbypassserviceexposureforlegacy reasons.EventhoughIPconnectivitytodevicesisa servicethatisexposedtotheconsumer,forexample, itiscurrentlynotachievedviaserviceexposure.The mainbenefitofaddingserviceexposurewouldbeto makeitpossibletointeractwiththedatastreams throughlocalbreakoutforoptimizationfunctions. Leveragingsoftwaredevelopmentkits AtEricsson,wearepositioningserviceexposure capabilitiesinrelationtodeveloperworkflowsand practices.DevelopersaretheoneswhouseAPIsto createsolutions,andweknowtheyrelyheavilyon SDKs.Therearecurrentlyadvanceddeveloper frameworksforallsortsofadvancedapplications includingdrones,AR/VR,theIoT,roboticsand gaming.Beyondtheintrinsicvalueinexposing nativeAPIs,anSDKapproachalsocreates additionalvalueintermsofenablingtheuseof softwarelibraries,integrateddevelopment environments(IDEs)plug-ins,third-partyprovider (3PP)cloudplatformextensionsand3PPruntimes onedgesites,aswellascloudmarketplacesto exposethesecapabilities. Softwarelibrariescanbecreatedbyprepackaging higher-levelservicessuchaslow-latencyvideo streamingandreversecharging.Thiscanbe achieved,forexample,byusingthecapabilitiesof networkexposurefunctions(NEF)andservice capabilityexposurefunctions(SCEF),creating ready-to-deployfunctionsorcontainersthatcanbe distributedthroughopenrepositories,oreven marketplaces,insomecases.Thispossibilityis highlyrelevantforedgecomputingframeworks. SupportforIDEplug-inseasestheintroductionof 3PPserviceswithjustafewadditionalclicks. Selectedcapabilitieswithin3PPcloudplatform extensionscanalsocreatevaluebyextendingIoT devicelife-cyclemanagement(LCM)forcellular connecteddevices,forexample.Theautomated provisioningofpopular3PPedgeruntimesontelco infrastructureenables3PPruntimesonedgesites. Finally,cloudmarketplacesareanidealplaceto exposeallofthesecapabilities.Thedeveloper subscribestocertainservicesthroughtheirexisting account,gainingtheabilitytoactivateavarietyof libraries,functionsandcontainers,alongwithaccess toplug-instheycanworkwithand/ortheautomated provisioningrequiredforexecution. Figure 2 Functional architecture for service exposure API gateway Operator's internal applications Operator’s consumer services Operator’s services to enterprises Enterprises’ services to consumers/enterprises Developer portal, marketplace & SDK API management Exposed service execution APIs & exposed management BSS/OSS Transformation Composition Orchestration Business & service logic Protocol stacks Radio Core OSS BSS Cloud CoS Partner/ supplier Routing Adaptation Abstraction and resource layer Internal B2B B2B B2B2X In-house assets providing raw capabilities CLOUDMARKETPLACES AREANIDEALPLACETO EXPOSEALLOFTHESE CAPABILITIES 22 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 23
  12. 12. 24 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 25 ✱ SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G ✱ 8 MAY 7, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 7, 2019 9 ❭ scalability (configurable latency and scalable throughput) to support different deployments ❭ diversified API types for payload/connectivity, including messaging APIs (request-response and/or subscribe-notify type), synchronous, asynchronous, streaming, batch, upload/ download and so on ❭ multiple interface bindings such as restful, streaming and legacy ❭ multivendor and partner support (supplier/ federation/aggregator/web-scale value chains) ❭ security and access control functionality. Deploymentexamples Serviceexposurecanbedeployedinamultitudeof locations,eachwithadifferentsetofrequirements thatdrivemodularityandconfigurabilityneeds. Figure3illustratesafewexamples. InthecaseofOperatorBinFigure3,service exposureisdeployedtoexposeservicesinafullB2B context.BSSintegrationandsupportisrequiredto handleallcommercialaspectsoftheexposureand LCMofcustomers,contracts,orders,servicesand soon,alongwithchargingandbilling.OperatorB alsousesthedeployedB2Bcommercialsupportto acquireservicesfromasupplier. InthecaseofOperatorA,serviceexposureis deployedbothatthecentralsiteandattheedgesite tomeetlatencyorpayloadrequirements.Services areonlyexposedtoOperatorA’sownapplications/ VNFs,whichlimitstheneedforB2Bsupport. However,duetothefactthatOperatorAhostssome applicationsforanexternalpartner,bothcentrally andattheedge,fullB2Bsupportmustbedeployed fortheexternallyownedapps. TheaggregatorinFigure3deploystheservice exposurerequiredtocreateservicesputtogetherby thereisaneedtoraisetheabstractionlevelofa servicetocreatecombinedservices. TheexposedserviceexecutionAPIsandexposed managementlayerareresponsibleformakingthe servicediscoverableandreachablefortheconsumer. ThisisdonethroughtheAPIgateway,withthe supportofportal,SDKandAPImanagement. Businesssupportsystems(BSS)andoperations supportsystems(OSS)playadoubleroleinthis architecture.Firstly,theyserveasresourcesthatcan exposetheirvalues–OSScanprovideanalytics insights,forexample,andBSScanprovide“charging onbehalfof”functionality.Atthesametime,OSS areresponsibleformanagingserviceexposureinall assurance,configuration,accounting,performance, securityandLCMaspects,suchasthediscovery, orderingandchargingofaservice. Oneofthekeycharacteristicsofthearchitecture presentedinFigure2isthattheserviceexposure frameworklifecycleisdecoupledfromtheexposed services,whichmakesitpossibletosupportboth short-andlong-tailexposedservices.Thisisrealized throughtheinclusionandexposureofnewservices throughconfiguration,plug-insandthepossibilityto extendtheframework. Anotherkeycharacteristictonoteisthatitis possibletodeploycommonexposurefunctionsboth inadistributedwayandindividually–in combinationwithothermicroservicesforefficiency reasons,forexample.Typicalcasesaredistributed cloudwithedgecomputingandweb-scalescenarios suchasdownload/upload/streamingwheretheedge siteandterminalareinvolvedintheoptimization. Theexposureframeworkisrealizedasasetof looselyconnectedcomponents,allofwhichare cloud-nativecompliantandmicroservicebased, runningincontainers.Thereisnotaone-size-fits-all deployment–someofthecomponentsareavailable inseveralvariantstofitdifferentscenarios.For example,componentsintheAPIgatewaysupport B2Bscenarioswithfullchargingbuttherearealso scaled-downversionsthatonlysupportreporting, intendedfordeploymentininternalexposure scenarios. Otherkeypropertiesoftheserviceexposure frameworkare: Figure 3 Service exposure deployment (dark pink boxes indicate deployed components) Operator A Customer app Operator app/VNF Customer app Operator app/VNF Customer Access/local site Regional/national site Supplier B2B Operator B Aggregator Customer App Direct exposed services Aggregated services Operator app Hosted app Services at the edge Federated/ roaming services Supplied service B2BB2BB2B B2B B2B COMMONEXPOSURE FUNCTIONS[CANBEDEPLOYED] BOTHINADISTRIBUTEDWAY ANDINDIVIDUALLY Terms and abbreviations 3PP – Third-party Provider | 5GC – 5G Core | AI – Artificial Intelligence | API – Application Programming Interface | AR – Augmented Reality | B2B – Business-to-Business | B2BCX – Business-to-Business-to- Business/Consumers | B2C – Business-to-Consumers | BSS – Business Support Systems | CDN – Content Delivery Network | CoS – Communication Services | CRM – Customer Relationship Management | eMBB – Enhanced Mobile Broadband | ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning | IDE– Integrated Development Environment | IOT – Internet of Things | LCM – Life-cycle Management | mMTC – Massive Machine-type Communications | NEF – Network Exposure Functions | NF – Network Function | ONAP – Open Network Automation Platform | OSS – Operations Support Systems | SBA – Service-based Architecture | SBI – Service-based Interface | SCEF – Service Capability Exposure Functions | SDK – Software Development Kit | uRLLC – Ultra-reliable Low-latency Communications | VNF – Virtual Network Function | VR – Virtual Reality 24 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 25
  13. 13. 26 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 27 ✱ SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G SERVICE EXPOSURE IN 5G ✱ 10 MAY 7, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 7, 2019 11 Further reading ❭ Ericsson web page, Service enablement, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/digital-services/cloud-core/service--enablement ❭ Ericsson web page, Cloud core exposure server, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/digital-services/cloud-core/cloud-unified-data-management-and- policy/cloud-core-exposure-server ❭ Ericsson web page, Cloud packet core, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/digital-services/cloud-core/cloud-packet-core morethanonesupplier.UnifiedDeliveryNetwork andweb-scaleintegrationbothfallintothiscategory. Asexposuretotheconsumerisdonethroughthe aggregator,thisalsoservesasaB2Binterfaceto handlespecificrequirements.Examplesofthis includetheadvertisinganddiscoveryofservicesvia theportalsofweb-scaleproviders. AsubsetofB2Bsupportisalsodeployedto providetheserviceexposurethathandlesthe federationrelationshipbetweenOperatorAand OperatorB,inwhichbothpartiesareonthesame levelintheecosystemvaluechain. Conclusion Thereareseveralcompellingreasonsfortelecom operatorstoextendandmodernizetheirservice exposuresolutionsaspartoftherolloutof5G.One ofthekeyonesisthedesiretomeettherapidly developingrequirementsofusecasesinareassuch astheInternetofThings,AR/VR,Industry4.0and theautomotivesector,whichwilldependon operators’abilitytoprovidecomputingresources acrossthewholetelcodomain,allthewaytotheedge ofthemobilenetwork.Serviceexposureisakey componentofthesolutiontoenabletheseusecases. Recentadvancesintheserviceexposurearea haveresultedfromthearchitecturalchanges introducedinthemovetoward5Gandtheadoption ofcloud-nativeprinciples,aswellasthecombination ofService-basedArchitecture,microservicesand containertechnologies.Asoperatorsbegintouse 5Gtechnologytoautomatetheirnetworksand supportsystems,serviceexposureprovidesthem withtheadditionalbenefitofbeingabletouse automationincombinationwithAItoattract partnersthatareexploringnew,5G-enabled businessmodels.Web-scaleprovidersarealso showinginterestinunderstandinghowtheycan offertheircustomersaneasyextensiontowardthe networkedge. Modernizedserviceexposuresolutionsare designedtoenablethecommunicationandcontrol ofdevices,providingaccesstoprocesses,data, networksandOSS/BSSassetsinasecure, predictableandreliablemanner.Theycandothis bothinternallywithinanoperatororganizationand externallytoathirdparty,accordingtothetermsofa ServiceLevelAgreementand/oramodelfor financialsettlement. Serviceexposureisanexcitingandrapidly evolvingareaandEricssonisplayinganactiverolein itsongoingdevelopment.Asacomplementtoour standardizationeffortswithinthe3GPPand Industry4.0forums,wearealsoengagedinopen- sourcecommunitiessuchasONAP(theOpen NetworkAutomationPlatform).Thisworkis importantbecauseweknowthatmodernized serviceexposuresolutionswillbeatheartof efficient,innovativeandsuccessfuloperator networks. Jan Friman ◆ is an OSS/BSS expert in the Architecture and Technology team within Business Area Digital Services, where he is driving the architecture of service exposure. Since joining Ericsson in 1997, he has held various OSS/BSS- related positions within the company’s R&D, system management and strategic product management organizations. He holds an M.Sc. in computer science from Linköping University, Sweden. Mattias Ek ◆ joined Ericsson in 1996 and currently serves as a strategic product manager. He has extensive experience in service delivery platforms and service enablement domains, specializing in consumer interaction, mobile commerce and consumer self-service. His focus in recent years has shifted toward exposure and enablement solutions for cellular IoT, massive IoT and machine-type communications. Today, Ek leads the IoT Enabler and Network Exposure team in Solution Area Packet Core with responsibility for commercial and product strategies. Peter Chen ◆ is the technical product manager leading the technical solution and evolution for the network exposure area in Product Development Unit UDM & Policy. He has been working in different areas within the core network at Ericsson since 2006 including IMS, voice over Wi-Fi and Unified Data Management (UDM), and he has contributed more than 10 patents in these areas in recent years. He holds a B.Sc. in materials science and engineering from Dalian University of Technology, China. Jitendra Manocha ◆ is strategic product manager (5G Core) in Solution Area Packet Core within Business Area Digital Services, where he is responsible for the Cloud Core Exposure Server, a component of Ericsson’s 5G Cloud Core solution. He joined Ericsson in 2004 and has held various leading positions in product lines, R&D and services. He holds an M.Sc. from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. João Soares ◆ is a solution manager for distributed cloud, leading Ericsson’s strategic solution development for edge computing. Before joining the company in 2014, he worked for Portugal Telecom (now Altice Portugal), during the introduction of cloud technologies within the operator’s network. He holds both an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in electronics and telecommunications engineering from the University of Aveiro, Portugal. theauthOrs 26 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 27
  14. 14. ✱ FEATURE ARTICLE FEATURE ARTICLE ✱ six key trends manifesting the platform for innovation TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2019 Affordable and efficient connectivity is a fundamental component of digitalization and has become as important as clean water and electricity in creating a sustainable society of the future. Recognition of this fact is of critical importance as we enter a new era that is defined by the combinatorial effects of a multitude of transformative technologies in areas such as mobility, the Internet of Things (IoT), distributed computing and artificial intelligence (AI). Theuniversalconnectivitynetworkthat weusetodayisbuiltonvoiceandmobile broadbandservicesthatcurrentlyserve 9billionconnecteddevicesglobally. Thistechnologyisrecognizedand acknowledgedforitsavailability,reliability, integrityandaffordability,anditistrusted tohandlesensitiveandimportant information.Today’snetworkprovides pervasiveglobalcoverageonascalewith whichnoothertechnologycancompete. Ithasquicklybecomeamultipurpose network,readyandabletoonboardall typesofusers,aswellassupportingalarge numberofnewusecasesandaplethoraof newtechnologiestomeetanyconsumer orenterpriseneed.Assuch,itisideally suitedtoserveasthefoundationforfuture innovationinanyapplication. APPROPRIATEANDUNIVERSAL CONNECTIVITY Themultipurposenetworkissignificantly morecost-efficientthanspecializedor dedicatednetworksolutions,makingit themostaffordablesolutiontoaddress society’sneedsacrossthespectrum fromhuman-to-humantohuman-to-thing andthing-to-thingcommunication. Itsupportseverythingfromtraditional voicecallstoimmersivehuman-to-human communicationexperiences.Intermsof human-to-thingcommunication, itenableseverythingfromdigital paymentstovoice-controlleddigital assistants,aswellasreal-timesensitive dronecontrolandhigh-qualitymedia streaming. WithregardtoIoTcommunication,the ubiquitousconnectivityprovidedbythe multipurposenetworkenablesthe creationofaphysicalworldthatisfully automatedandprogrammable.Examples ofthisincludemassivesensormonitoring, fullyautonomousphysicalprocessessuch asself-drivingcarsandmanufacturing robots,aswellasdigitally-embedded processessuchasautonomousdecision- makingintaxreturns. KEYTECHNOLOGYTRENDS Inmyview,theongoingevolutiontoward thefuturenetworkcontinuestorely heavilyonthefivekeytechnologytrends thatIoutlinedinlastyear’strendsarticle. Therefore,inthisyear’stechnologytrends article,Ihavechosentobuildonlastyear’s conclusionsandsharemyviewofthe futurenetworkplatforminrelationtothose fivetrends,withoneaddition:distributed computeandstorage. BY: ERIK EKUDDEN, CTO 28 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 2928 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 29
  15. 15. ✱ FEATURE ARTICLE FEATURE ARTICLE ✱ TREND#1: INTERNETOFSKILLS TheInternetofSkillshasthepotentialto bridgethegeographicaldistancebetween humansaswellasbetweenhumansand things.Ahighqualityofexperience(QoE) isessentialtocreateimmersive interactionsthatallowhumanstoattend meetingsremotelywiththesameabilityto participateasiftheywerephysically present.Humanshavetotrustthe networktoenablecriticalremote operationsandinteractionwiththings. Self-drivingvehicleswillrequirea remotepersontotakeoverthedriving orsupportinthedecision-makingifthe autonomoussystemfails.Hence,tele- operationofrobotsandvehiclesisneeded atsea,onlandandunderground,aswellas intheair.Remotehumanassistanceisalso requiredfortaskssuchasmaintenance, troubleshootingandrepairingacross industrial,enterprise,healthcareand consumerdomains.TheInternetofSkills alsoappliestotheabilitytoexperience physicalitemsremotelyinapplications suchasonlineshoppingandgaming. High-qualityandefficientcapturing, transmissionandrenderingofvisual,audio andhapticinformationisessentialtothe InternetofSkills.Thisinformationwillbe capturedbymultipledevicesanditmust befusedtogethertobereproducedremotely. Adistributedenvironmentforaccess, computeandstorageofthisinformation isthereforehighlyadvantageous. Hapticcommunicationsrequirelatencies below10msinthemostdemanding scenarios.Largevolumesof3Dvisualdata andhigh-frequencyhapticdataimpose highnetworkbandwidthandlatency demands,bothintheuplinkanddownlink. Anetworkplatformwithlow-latency characteristicsallowsforlargeamountsof datatobequicklytransmittedbetween devices.Thismeansthatmoretimecanbe spentonprocessingandperforming analyticsontheavailableinformationto enhancetheexperience. Securityandprivacyareveryimportant sincethedevicesmaycapturesensitive visual,audioandhapticinformation.This informationcanrelatetotheuserofthe deviceorotherusersthatsharethesame environment,includingdetailed characteristicsoftheuser’sphysical environmentsuchastheirhomeoroffice, aswellasinsightsintotheuser’sdaily activities. Thenetworkplatformwillalsobevery beneficialforenablingthepositioningof devices,bothoutdoorsandindoors.The networkradiopositioninginformationcan befusedwithinformationfromthedevice’s onboardsensorssuchasthecameraand inertialsensors. Demanding use cases exemplified by trends 1 and 2 Today’s networks are transforming into a platform where applications, processes and other technologies are developed, deployed and enhanced. For me, it is fundamental that the platform ensures affordable, reliable and trusted operation. Two use cases that I expect the network platform will need to support are trends 1 and 2: the Internet of Skills and cyber-physical systems (CPSs). PORTSOFTHEFUTURE Terminalportoperationswill increasinglyconsistofamixtureof physicalmachinery,roboticssystems, automatedvehicles,human-operated digitalplatformsandAI-based softwaresystems.Theseelements willtransformfutureportsintoCPSs, creatingadigitalecosystem comprisedofvariousintelligent agentshighlyspecializedinspecific aspectsofcargoloading/unloading andofthelogisticchains. AUTOMOTIVE Allnewfeaturesinmoderncars, suchasadvanceddriverassistance systemsandconnectedvehicle services,arebasedonelectronics andsoftwareratherthanon mechanicalengineeringinnovations. Safety-criticalfunctions,driver- assistancesoftwareandinfotainment applicationswillruninspecificand highlycompartmentalizedonboard modulesthatinteractwithaplethora ofsensorsandactuators.Inthis context,thefuturevehiclewill increasinglytaketheformofaCPS forwhichthepreventionofaccidents isthemaingoal. SMARTMANUFACTURING Thefactoryofthefuturewillbeaset ofinteractingCPSs,wherehighly skilledworkerswillhavedirectinsight intotheoperationsofcoordinated intelligentmachinesfromacentral controlentity.Everyfunctionalaspect ofaproductionchainwillbeaffected –fromdesign,tomanufacturing, throughtosupplychains,andlater extendingtocustomerserviceand support.Thesmartfactorywillbe hyper-connected,data-intensive andhighlysecure. EXAMPLES OF CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS TREND#2: CYBER-PHYSICALSYSTEMS CPSresultsfromtheintegrationof differentsystemstocontrolaphysical processandusesfeedbacktoadapttonew conditionsinrealtime.Thisisachievedby integratingphysicalprocesses,networking andcomputation.ACPSgeneratesand acquiresdata,sothattherelevant elementsinvolvedhaveaccesstothe appropriateinformationattherighttime. Therefore,theCPScanautonomously determineitscurrentoperatingstatus, andcorrectiveactionsarerealizedby theactuators.Informationcomesfrom sensorsandfromotherrelatedCPSs. Theroleofhumansistosupervisethe operationoftheautomatedand self-organizingprocesses. CommunicationisvitalinCPSstoallow differentandheterogeneousobjectsto exchangeinformationwitheachotherand withhumans,atanytimeandinany conditions.Deterministiccommunication (intermsoflatency,bandwidthandreliability) largelyimpactsthedynamicinteractions betweensubsystemsinCPSs.Minimizing thetimeittakestoperformcontroltasks iscriticaltoensuringthatasystem functionscorrectly. Thefuturenetworkplatformshould providethespecificconnectivity performancetoguaranteeCPS-critical requirements.Asanexample,latency criticalityisanissueforallcaseswhere acontrollerorcomplexAImusttake decisionsandactionsinrealtime. EachCPShasaspecificarchitecture thatrequiresanadaptivenetworkplatform. Hence,aspecificad-hocdesignofindoor and/oroutdoorcoverageisrequired. Inaddition,networkslicingwillenable satisfyingheterogeneousconnectivity requirementsonthesamenetwork, foranyindoororoutdoorscenarios. 30 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 3130 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 31
  16. 16. FEATURE ARTICLE ✱✱ FEATURE ARTICLE MAINCHARACTERISTICS Theinterconnectbetweendifferentkinds ofnetworks,fromlocaltowide-area coverage,buildsaglobalnetworkthat providesaplatformforpervasiveglobal services.Theinherentmobilitywithinand betweenthenetworkscreates unprecedentedcoveragebothindoors andoutdoors.Utilizingallthesenetwork assetsenablesadistributedenvironment foraccess,computeandstorage.These assetsarevirtualized,distributedacross thenetwork,andaremadeavailablewhere theyareneededandaremostefficient. Applicationsandprocessesare dynamicallydeployedthroughout thenetwork.Networkslicingenables streamlinedconnectionsfordifferent applications,enhancingtheefficiency ofthetotalusageofthenetwork. Autonomousdeployment,operation andorchestrationisanessentialcapability ofthenetworkplatformtoenable cost-efficiency.Justasimportantare thereliabilityandresiliencetofulfill expectationsfromindustryandsociety. Built-in,automatedsecurityfunctions protectthenetworkandtheintegrity ofitsusersfromexternalthreats. THENETWORKPLATFORMOFFERING Thenetworkplatformoffersawiderange ofcapabilitiestoallitsusers. Itprovidesaseamlessuniversal connectivityfabricwithalmostunlimited, scalableandaffordabledistributed computeandstorage.Sensorsand actuatorscanbeattachedanywhere throughoutthenetwork.Latencycanbe optimizedbyinteractingwiththecontrol ofaccess,computeandstorage. Embeddedintotheplatformisa distributedintelligencethatsupports userswithinsightsandreasoning. Theaddressabilityandreachability capabilitiesmakeitpossibletoconnect anyoneoranythingregardlessoflocation andtime.Togetherwiththeinherent securityandavailability,thenetwork platformcanalsomeetcommunication needsrelatingtosecureidentificationof usersandnetworks.Italsoprovidesthe scalabilitytoautomaticallyadapttothe exactneedsofindividualusersand applications.Asanexample,adaptive powerconsumptionisenabledbyaflexible airinterface.Anotherexampleisautomated life-cyclemanagementofdevices,users andapplications.Thisguaranteesthemost cost-efficientsolutionforusers,inboththe longandshortterm. Thenetworkplatformofferingis consumedthroughanautomateddigital marketplace.Networkservicesanddata areavailablethroughconsistentandopen businessinterfacesfortheapplications (APIs).Data,suchaslocation,connectivity conditionsanduserbehavior,canbemade availablefromthenetworkplatform. Withallthesecapabilities,thenetwork platformoffersthemostaccessibleand valuablefoundationforfutureinnovation. My vision of the future network platform As I see it, the future network platform is characterized by its capability to instantaneously meet any application needs. It can handle huge amounts of data, scarce amounts of data, and everything in between. It will meet requirements for both open data and sensitive data, as well as all manner of needs related to uplink and downlink transmission. From real-time critical to non-critical, predefined to flexible air interface, preset to adaptive routing – the future network platform has it covered. Anyone and anything that can benefit from a connection should be able to access and use the network. 32 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 3332 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 33
  17. 17. FEATURE ARTICLE ✱✱ FEATURE ARTICLE TREND#3: DISTRIBUTEDCOMPUTE ANDSTORAGE Futureapplicationswillrequirenewpro- cessingcapabilitiesfromthenetworkin ordertoreducetheamountofdatathat needstobecommunicated,providelow latency,andincreaserobustnessandsecurity. Today’sprocessorsandacceleratorswill eventuallyexperiencetheendofMoore’s Law,andnewheterogeneouscomputing solutionswillemerge.Commodity hardwarehasbeenjoinedbyahighly heterogeneoussetofspecializedchipsets –oftenreferredtoasaccelerators–thatare optimizedforacertainclassofapplications. Forexample,data-intensiveapplications suchasmachinelearning(ML)/AIor augmentedreality/virtualrealitycantake advantageofthemassiveparallelization offeredbyGraphicalProcessingUnits orTensorProcessingUnits.Latency- sensitiveapplicationscan utilize computationpatternreuseofferedby eithercustom-designedintegratedcircuits orfield-programmableintegratedcircuits. Thenextstepofheterogeneous computingwillinvolvenewcomputing paradigmssuchasneuromorphic processorsthatyieldlowpower consumption,fastinferenceandevent- driveninformationprocessing.Another emergingtechnologyisphotonic computing.Photonsareusedinsteadof electrons,thusavoidingthelatency oftheelectron-switchingtimes. Quantumprocessor-basedacceleration ofcompute-intensiveandlatency-sensitive algorithmswilleventuallybecomeareality. Byexploitingthequantummechanics principlessuchassuperpositionand entanglement,quantumprocessors promiseexponentialgrowthofcomputing powerforacertainclassofproblems. Theemergenceofuniversalmemories willofferthecapacityandpersistency featuresofstorage,combinedwith byte-addressabilityandincreasedaccess speedofmemory.Programswritten forpersistentmemoriescanremove thedistinctionbetweenruntimedata structuresandofflinedatastorage structures,resultinginfasterstart-up timesandrecoveryincaseoffailover. Advancementsinnon-volatilememory technologieswillbecrucialtomeet strictlatencyrequirements. Theincreasingdisparityofcentral processingunitspeedsversusmemory accessspeedswillleadtomemory-centric computearchitectures.Computeunits willbeembeddedinsidethememoryorthe storagefabrics.Thiswillnotonlyincrease performance,butalsoleadtosignificant energy-efficiencygainsbyreducingthe datamovementoftraditionalcompute- centricarchitectures. Efficientlydevelopingapplications foradistributedcomputeenvironment willrequirenewprogrammingmodels. Programswillbenefitfromseparating theintentoftheapplicationfromthehow Four technologies evolving the network platform: Trends 3-6 In my view, four technology areas are crucial to the evolution of the future network platform, represented by trends 3 to 6: distributed compute and storage, ubiquitous radio access, security assurance and zero-touch networks. 34 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 3534 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 35
  18. 18. ✱ FEATURE ARTICLE FEATURE ARTICLE ✱ technologiesandvirtualization,whichare introducingrequirementsforcontinuous complianceverificationinadynamic environment.Atthesametime,security assuranceneedstoberootedinthe evidencecollectedinthenetworkslices supportingdifferentindustries.AIandML technologieswillbringautomationof assuranceandcomplianceverificationto thenetworkplatform. Intheworldofcloudcomputing,enclave andconfidentialcomputinghardware solutionsthatprovidearootoftrustare currentlybeingpackagedinpre-commercial cloudsolutions.Thesetechnologieshave thepotentialtobecomeprevalentwhen addressingsecurityconcernsfor processinginthecloud.Conceptually similartrustedcomputingtechnologies arealsomovingintoIoTdevices. Thetrendtowardencryption everywherecontinueswithreports ofupto90percentusageofHTTPS. Asubstantiallydifferentprotocolstackon theinternetisexpectedinafewyears,with QUICandDoHasthedominantprotocols, protectedbynewlystandardizedpost- quantumalgorithms.Sincecurrent securityprotocolsarenotsuitedfor constrainedIoTnodesanddevices,the industryisworkingtostandardizenew lightweightapplicationlayerprotocols. Atthesametime,remotelymanaged eUICC(embeddedUniversalIntegrated CircuitCard)basedSIMidentitiesinIoT devicesareincreasinglybeingdeployed fornetworkaccess.ModernSIMsbased ontheeUICC,andlatertheevenmore cost-effectiveiUICC(integratedUniversal IntegratedCircuitCard),willformthetrust anchorsforsecureidentitiesandnetwork accessinfivetosevenyears. Mission-criticalusecasesandregulatory demands,aswellascloudandedge computing,arethedrivingforcesbehind thetrustandassurancetechnologiesthat arebeingdevelopedandbecoming integralpartsofthenetworkplatform. TREND#6: ZERO-TOUCHNETWORKS Azero-touchnetworkiscapableofself- managementandiscontrolledbybusiness intents.Data-drivencontrollogicmakesit possibletodesignthesystemwithoutthe needforhumanconfiguration,aswellas toprovideahigherdegreeofinformation granularity.ApplyingAItechnologieswill enablezero-touchautomationofnetwork life-cyclemanagement,includingoptimizing systemperformance,predictingupcoming faultsandenablingpreventiveactions. Theperformanceofadata-driven zero-touchfunctioncanincreaseby utilizingthewidernetworkdatafrommany localclients,butthisneedstobebalanced againstthecostandtimeassociatedwith transferringlargevolumesofdata. OneapproachistodesigndistributedML solutions,suchasfederatedlearning,which makesitpossibletogenerateanetwork- wideglobalMLmodel.Trainingisdoneon localclients,andtheneedtotransferdatais limitedtomodelupdates,insteadofrawdata. Withreinforcementlearning,itis possibletodesignasolutionthatresponds tounforeseenenvironments,whichcanbe usedtoautomateoroptimizeaspecific process.Areinforcementlearningagent learnshowtoactoptimallygiventhe systemstateinformationandreward function,focusingonfindingabalance betweenexplorationofunchartedterritory andexploitationofcurrentknowledge. Therequirementsonreliabilityandsafety will,however,setlimitsontheapplicability. Robotsareusedtointerfacewiththe networkinfrastructure,collaboratewith humansandutilizeAItoperformphysical inspections,determinefaultcauses, predictfuturefaultsandplanmaintenance work.Computer-visiontechniquesenable, forexample,automatedcelltower inspection,whilemachinereasoningis usedtoplanandexecutedroneflight. Techniquestogeneralizeandtransfer lessonslearnedcanbeusedtoincrease performancefromonetowerinspectionto another.TheseAI-basedrobotsystems willcollaboratewithhumans,thereby increasingtheirsafetyandefficiency. Anintent-basedapproachsimilartothe onereferencedintrend3(distributed computeandstorage)allowshumanusers tointeractwiththeAIsystemthatispartof zero-touchapplications.Domainmodeling, knowledgerepresentationandreasoning (togetherwithML)areusedtocreatea cognitivelayerforhumanstointeractwith thesystemusinghigh-levelintents. Thesystemiscapableofevaluatingand executingstrategiesinlinewithanintent, basedonlower-levelkeyperformance indicator(KPI)predictions.Bycomplementing MLwithmachinereasoning,thesystem canbedesignedtoexpresswhycertain decisionsweretakenandisawayto implementexplainableAI. TrustworthyMLmodelsthatfulfillzero- touchaspectsneedtobebuiltinlinewith theneedforprivacyandlegislativerules forhowdatacanbeexposedormoved. Newspecializedhardwareforaccelerating MLtrainingandinferencewillimprove performanceandreduceenergy consumptioninawell-designedzero-touch networkplatform.RecentprogressinAI hasshownnewpromisingpossibilitiesto designforzerotouch.Manychallengesneed tobeovercome,however,andthevalue andefficiencyoftraditionallydesigned controllogicshouldnotbeunderestimated. andwhereofthephysicalnetwork. Today,intent-basednetworkinguses ServiceLevelAgreementsandpolicies todefinetheintentofnetworkoperations. Thenetworkconfigures,monitorsand troubleshootsissuesinthenetworkto fulfilltheseintents.Inthefuture,therewill bemorecloudservicesmanagedbyintent- basedoperationstoevolvetowardmore advancedautomation. Thenetworkplatformwillbenefitfrom theseamlessintegrationofspecialized computeandstoragehardwaretoboost performanceforawiderrangeof emerging,complexapplications. Theadvancedcomputeandstorage capabilitieswillbemovedtotheedgeof thenetwork,closertowherethedatais generated.Further,thenetworkwillbe abletosupportdeveloperswithefficient andtransparentprogrammingmodels. Edge-nativeapplicationswillbedesigned fromthegrounduptofullycapitalizeon computeandstorageresourcesanywhere. TREND#4: UBIQUITOUSRADIOACCESS Improvedindoorcoverage,maximal energyefficiency,fiber-likeperformance andsupportforbothsmallcellsandawide rangeofnewusecasesarekeyfeaturesof the5Gnetworksthatarecurrentlybeing rolledout.Thesenetworkswillbethe baselineforfutureradionetworksand thenetworkplatformitself. Futurewirelessaccessnetworkswill consistofawiderangeofdifferenttypesof nodesjointlyprovidingwirelessaccess coverage.Deviceswillinmanycaseshave simultaneousconnectivitytomultiple networknodes,includingdifferentaccess technologies,forenhancedperformance andreliability.Wirelesstechnologywill alsobeusedfortheconnectivitybetween thenetworknodes,asacomplementto fiber-basedconnectivity. Networkcoveragewillbefurther extendedbymakinguseofintermediate devicestoforwarddatatodevicesoutside thecoverageofthebasicnetwork.Device cooperationcanbeusedtocreatevirtual largeantennaarraybycombiningthe antennasofmultipledevices,which requirestightsynchronization.Asthe networkisbecomingincreasinglydense withagreateramountofsmalllow-power networknodes,andwithdevices contributingtotheoverallconnectivity,the borderbetweendevicesandnetwork nodesmaybemorediffuse. Keytothemanagementofthiskindof massiveheterogenousnetwork,withamuch moremesh-likeconnectivity,willbethe developmentandutilizationofadvanced AIfunctionality.Thiswillenablethenetwork toevolveandadaptovertimetonewrequire- mentsandchangesintheenvironment. Operationabove100GHzwillenable terabit-per-seconddatarates,although onlyfortrulyshort-rangeconnectivity. Therearecurrentlyimplementation challengesforthisfrequencyrange,such ashowtogeneratesubstantialpowerand theheatdissipation,consideringthe inherentlysmalldimensionsofthe components,includingantennas.The extensiontohigher-frequencyoperation anduseofbeam-formedtransmissionswill enableenhancementsinspectrumsharing. InthehigherlayersofRANsandcore networks,theevolutiontowardcloud- nativeimplementationandautomation continues.Networkinterfacesaremoving awayfromtraditionalpoint-to-point interfacestowardmoreservices-based applicationinterfacesdecoupledfrom underlyingtransportconnections. Cloud-nativeimplementationofstateless networkfunctionsuseexternalcontext storageforredundancyandcontext managementfordifferentevents, suchascontextrelocationwhenmobile. Beyondtheprimarytaskofproviding wirelessconnectivity,theradio-access infrastructurewillalsobecapableof deliveringotherservices.Thisisalready happeningtoday,inpart,withtheintroduction oflocation-basedservicesasacomplement toGPS.Thecombinationofhigh-frequency bandnetworksanddensedeploymentswill makeitpossibletodramaticallyenhance theaccuracydowntosub-meterlevel. Otherserviceexamplesincludetime synchronization,time-sensitivenetworking, thecollectionofcomplementary informationaboutlocalweather conditionsandthecreationofradar-like scansoftheenvironment. TREND#5: SECURITYASSURANCE Theneedforprotectionandassurance (orevencompliance)isgrowingrapidly asbusinessandsocietyincreasinglyrely onuniversalconnectivityandcompute. Today,thereisintenseactivitytoexplore thepotentialofAIandMLtoprotectsystems andnetworks.Thereislarge-scale adoptionofthesetechnologiesinareas suchasnetworkthreatdetectionand threatintelligenceextraction,whileother areassuchascontinuousauthentication appearlessmature.WhileAItechnologies canprovideawiderangeofbenefits,itis importanttonotethattheycanalsobe usedbyadversariestofindavenuesof attackthatspecificallytargetMLsystems. Intheseautonomousnetworks,security assuranceproceduresplaytheimportant roleofverifyingsecuritypropertiesofthe networkplatform.Onechallengeliesinthe networkarchitectures,basedoncloud 36 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 3736 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 37
  19. 19. ✱ FEATURE ARTICLE FEATURE ARTICLE ✱ Muchmorecost-efficientthanspecialized ordedicatednetworksolutions,thenetwork platformisclearlythemostaffordable solutiontoaddresssociety’sneedsacross thespectrumfromhuman-to-humanto human-to-thingandthing-to-thing communication.Oneofitsmajor advantagesisthatitisavailablethrough anopenmarketplacethatisaccessibleto anyone,anywhere,atanytime. Themultipurposenetworkisrapidly emergingasasecure,robustandreliable platformwhereapplications,processes andothertechnologiescanbedeveloped, deployedandmanaged.TheInternetof Skillsandcyber-physicalsystems– trends1and2–areimportantexamples ofusecasesthatitneedstosupport. Akeycharacteristicofthefuture networkplatformwillbeitsabilityto instantaneouslymeetanyapplication need,anytime.Fourtechnologyareas– trends3-6–areplayingcriticalrolesinits ongoingevolution:distributedcompute andstorage,ubiquitousradioaccess, securityassuranceandzero-touch networks. Self-drivingvehicles,intelligent manufacturingrobotsandreal-timedrone controlarejustafewexamplesofthe myriadofwaysinwhichthemultipurpose networkisenablingtheautomationofthe physicalworldand,ultimately,thecreation ofasustainablesocietyofthefuture. CONCLUSION ◆ As Group CTO, Erik Ekudden is responsible for setting the direction of technology leadership for the Ericsson Group. His experience of working with technology leadership globally influences thestrategicdecisionsandinvestmentsin,forexample,mobility,distributedcloud,artificialintelligence andtheInternetofThings.Thisbuildsonhisdecades-longcareerintechnologystrategiesandindustry activities.EkuddenjoinedEricssonin1993andhasheldvariousmanagementpositionsinthecompany, including Head of Technology Strategy, Chief Technology Officer Americas in Santa Clara (USA), and Head of Standardization and Industry. He is also a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the publisher of Ericsson Technology Review. ERIK EKUDDEN SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AND HEAD OF GROUP FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY No other technology in the world today can provide pervasive global coverage on a scale comparable to that of the network platform, and it is my firm belief that it is ideally suited to serve as the innovation platform for both current and future applications. The technology evolution characterized by this year’s trends points toward the future definition of 6G. 38 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 201938 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 39
  20. 20. 40 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 41 ✱ CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN ✱ 2 JUNE 5, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 5, 2019 3 Cloud-native application design is set to become common practice in the telecom industry in the next few years due to the major efficiency gains that it can provide, particularly in terms of speeding up software upgrades and releases. HENRIK SAAVEDRA PERSSON, HOSSEIN KASSAEI The cloud-native paradigm is driving the transformation of virtual network functions into cloud-native applications (CNAs) that can be commercialized and offered according to either as-a-service (aaS) or as-a-product (aaP) models. In either case, the goal is to provide a seamless and secure deployment, monitoring and operations experience by applying a very high degree of automation. ■ Toeasethetransitiontothecloud-nativeapproach, Ericssonhascreatedanapplicationdevelopment frameworkthatprovidesasetofarchitecture principles,designrulesandbestpracticesthatguide thefundamentaldesigndecisionsforallofourCNAs. Ourframeworkleveragesweb-scaletechnology fromtheCloudNativeComputingFoundation (CNCF)andotheropen-sourceprojectswhile takingintoconsiderationtheparticularchallenges ofproduction-gradetelecomapplications. TheCNCFisanopen-sourcesoftwarefoundation whosestatedpurposeistomakecloud-native computing‘universalandsustainable.’Itfosters collaborationbetweentheindustry’stopdevelopers, endusers,andvendors,servingasthevendor-neutral homeformanyofthefastest-growingprojectson GitHub,includingKubernetes,Prometheusand Envoy.CNCFtechnologyhasplayedanimportant roleinoureffortstodevelopandrefineourapproach toCNAdesign. Figure1illustratesthefourpillarsofthe cloud-nativeparadigm.Ourframeworkaddresses threeofthem:automation,architectureandculture. Automationisanintegralpartoftheframework, whichtakesaCI/CD(ContinuousIntegration, ContinuousDelivery)approachtoapplication developmentanddelivery.Architecturally, theframeworkprovidesthesoftwareassets/ componentsthatenableapplicationstofulfillkey designprinciples[1].Culturally,itpromotes collaborationwiththeopen-sourcecommunity, asusingandcontributingtotherelevantopen- sourcesoftwareprojects(typicallywithinCNCF) isattheheartofourimplementationstrategy. Ourapplicationdevelopmentframework Ourframeworkestablishesasetofprinciplesfor telecomapplicationsbasedonmicroservices, containersandstate-optimizeddesign.Itprovidesa setofbestpractices,designrulesandguidelineson Terms and abbreviations AAP – As-a-Product | AAS – As-a-Service | ACID – Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability | CAP – Consistency, Availability and Partition Tolerance | CAT – Configuration Assessment Tool | CI/CD&D – Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery and Deployment | CIS – The Center for Internet Security | CNA – Cloud-native Application | CNCF – Cloud Native Computing Foundation | DR – Design Rule | ETSI – European Telecommunications Standards Institute | MSA – Microservice Architecture | NIST – National Institute of Standards and Technology | UI – User Interface Figure 1 The four pillars of the cloud-native paradigm Cloud native Culture OrganizationArchitecture Automation IN THE TELECOM DOMAIN Cloud-native application design 40 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 41
  21. 21. 42 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 43 ✱ CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN CLOUD-NATIVE APPLICATION DESIGN ✱ 4 JUNE 5, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ JUNE 5, 2019 5 storeandvisualizelogs,metrics,tracesandother datapoints,suchasPrometheus,Fluentd,Elastic Stack,JaegerandGrafana. Securityisavitalcomponentofcloud-native development.Ontopofadheringtothebest practicesandguidelinesprovidedbyprominent organizationssuchasCIS(TheCenterforInternet Security)andNIST(theNationalInstituteof StandardsandTechnology),open-sourcesoftware projectssuchasKeycloakandHashiCorpVaultcan helpCNAsdealwithstorageandprovisioning,as wellasthehandlingofidentities,certificatesandkeys. Tobreakdownandimplementbusinesslogic usingstatelessmicroservices,CNAstypicallyneed torelyonstatefulbackingservicestostoretheirdata. Thetypeofstatefulbackingservicethatisrequired dependsonvariousfactors,suchasthetypeand formatofthedata(suchasstructuredor unstructured),theamountofdata,theintensity ofreadandwriteoperations,CAPandACID properties,andsoon.Amultitudeofopen-source projectsaimstoaddresstheseneeds,including databasetechnologiessuchasPostgreSQL,MariaDB, Couchbase,Redis,MongoDB,Cassandra,MySQL andHadoop. ThedesignphilosophybehindEricssonCNAsis tousepolyglotpersistence[4]whiletakinginto accountthetotalfootprintandavoidingtechnology sprawl.Achievingthelatterrequirestheidentification ofthemostimportantpropertiesthatenable classificationofdatabaseenginetypesintodistinct groupsandadoptingaslightlyopinionatedapproach inselectingoneorafewchoicesineachgroup. ContinuousIntegration,ContinuousDelivery andDeployment Ourframeworkprovidestools,interfacesanddesign rulesthatenablemicroservicestobenefitfromafully automatedContinuousIntegration,Continuous DeliveryandDeployment(CI/CD&D)pipeline,as illustratedinFigure3.Thepipelineistriggeredfrom themomentcodeiscommittedandtakesthenew “candidaterelease”throughthefullcycleofbuild, verification,packagingandrelease.Thedeployment howtobuildCNAsbasedonmicroservicearchitecture (MSA),aswellasguidanceonhowtodeploy,monitor andoperatethembasedonDevOpsprinciples. Withthesupportofourframework,itispossible tobuildtelecomapplicationsthatuseCNCF technologythroughahighlymodulararchitecture andclearseparationofconcerns.Theframework helpsusdrivealignmentacrossallEricssonCNAs, ensuringthatweaddresskeyconcernsinacommon, genericway.Theconsistentlife-cyclemanagement, operationandmaintenancethatresultfromthis approachenhancethecustomerexperience. Figure2providesahigh-levelpictureofwhatthe frameworkoffers. Designingcloud-nativeapplications EricssonCNAsarebuiltasasetoflooselycoupled (micro)serviceswithwell-defined,boundedcontexts andindividuallifecycles.Eachmicroserviceis packagedanddeliveredasoneormorecontainers, independentfromothermicroservices,andprovides well-definedandversion-controlledapplication programminginterfacesexposedoverthenetwork. Toachievefullportabilityacrossvarious infrastructures,CNAsrelyonKubernetesasthe choiceofcontainerorchestrationplatformandcan bedeployedonanycertifiedKubernetes distribution[2]withaminimumversionadheringto thecompany’ssecurityandstabilityrequirements. AllEricssonCNAsarefullyverifiedonEricsson Kubernetesdistribution.OurCNAsrelyon Kubernetesfortheautomaticplacement,auto- scaling,upgradeandauto-healingofindividual services.OntopofmakinguseofKubernetes,we alsocontributefeaturesbacktoKubernetesthat makeitabetterfitfortelco-gradedeployments.IPv6 isjustoneexampleofanimportantareawithinthe telecomdomainthathasnotyetreceivedenough attentionwithinthecommunity. Observability,securityandpersistence ObservabilityisaprerequisiteforseamlessCNA monitoringandoperations.TheCNCFlandscape[3] includesseveralverygoodcandidatestohelpcollect, Figure 2 Key components of Ericsson’s application development framework Application-specific services 1 3 4 2 Application development & onboarding environment Any hardware Data services Security services Network services Management services Monitoring services Application & service management Kubernetes- based reference container platform Management stack Generic services Cloud platform Management & orchestration functionality for services and applications Common (platform type/generic) services for reuse across applications Application & service development and onboarding environment, tools, DRs and interface to CI/CD 4 3 1 2 Any Kubernetes cloud platform Figure 3 Fully automated CI/CD&D Ericsson Customer 2 1 3 4 56 Software distribution Continuous releases Continuous integration Software upgrades Acceptance tests Data collection Feedback 0 Automated software distribution Automated acceptance test Automated software deployment Automated data collection and analysis Network CI for ”systems of systems” Automated release machinery 42 #02 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2019 43

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