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Environmental Problems
and Ecological Balance in
         Asia
                By:
       MISS BLESS BERNARDO
             JULY 2012
Biodiversity
 Refers to the diversity of life in all its forms that
           comprise the natural world.

        range of organisms in environment:
   the range of organisms present in a particular
          ecological community or system.
It can be measured by the numbers and types of
    different species, or the genetic variations
            within and between species.
• sum of all the different
         species of
animals, plants, fungi, and
microbial organisms living
on Earth and the variety of
habitats in which they live.
Problems due to High Population
             Density
• Unprecedented population growth and
  high population density are the two
  crucial problems of the Asian region to
  date.
• As population continues to grow, more
  arable land is needed, leads to other
  problems such as desertification,
  salinization, and alkalinization.
• Leads to lack of space for human
  occupancy.
• Leads to the destruction of the
  natural habitat of different species
  of flora and fauna.
• Rapid population growth also
  results to problems of waste
  disposal and different pollutions.
WHAT IS POLLUTION???
• It is when the harmful substances
  contaminate the environment
• Refers to the bad condition of
  environment in terms of quantity
  and quality
• The only a image in one's mind of
  contaminants into a natural
  environment that causes
  instability, disorder, harm or
  discomfort to the ecosystem
Types of Pollution
Air Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Light Pollution
Noise Pollution
Land Pollution
Water Pollution
RadioActive Pollution
Land Degradation
• As humans continue to exploit
  and intensify land use, minerals
  are lost.
• It also erodes the fertility of the
  soil.
• Improper irrigation may lead to
  SALINIZATION and
  ALKALINIZATION.
• Salinization – salts come to the
  surface of the land or salt is
  carried in by water.
  When water wells are overused,
     the water table lowers and
     saltwater or blackish water
      usually starts to permeate.
• Desertification – transformation of
  fertile land into a desert through
  soil erosion or overcultivation.
 The destruction of land in arid, semi-
  arid and sub-humid areas that leads
        to the loss of productivity.
       (70% of West Asia are arid)
Urbanization
• 40% of the population in the Asia-
  Pacific region lives in urban areas.
• Urbanization brings about a series of
  environmental problems.
• Improper disposal of solid waste
  endangers human health and it also
  contaminates air, soil, and water.
Deforestation
• Is indiscriminate cutting or over-
  harvesting of trees for lumber or
     pulp, or to clear the land for
 agriculture, ranching, constructio
     n, or other human activities.
• Deforestation is a crucial problem
  because it diminishes natural resources
  that are valuable to the people of a
  particular region.
• Brings major problems such as soil
  erosion, flooding, siltation, and
  sedimentation.
• Major causes are commercial
  logging, slash and burn
  agriculture, cutting down of trees for fuel
Air Pollution
    Contamination of the
atmosphere by gaseous, liquid,
or solid wastes or by-products
   that can endanger human
  health and the health and
welfare of plants and animals,
    or can attack materials,
 reduce visibility, or produce
       undesirable odors
Causes                        V.S.          effects
• This is starting to have             • Industrialized countries
  adverse effects on the                 have worked to reduce
  environment such as                    levels of sulfur dioxide,
  causing acid rain, smog and            smog, and smoke in
  a wide variety of health
                                         order to improve people's
  problems
                                         health.
• Cars, trucks, jet airplanes
  and other combustion                 • The health effects
  engine vehicles cause air              caused by air pollution
  pollution.                             may include difficulty in
• Causes respiratory health              breathing, wheezing,
  problems and holes in the              coughing and aggravation
  ozone layer, which                     of existing respiratory
  increases the exposure to              and cardiac conditions
  the sun's harmful rays
How Can We Prevent Air
        Pollution?
• Public Transport:
 Whenever possible, try to travel by public
     transports. This helps in two ways;
    prevents air pollution and increases
    public income. If you are going to a
    nearby place, go by walking or use a
 bicycle, instead of using your vehicle. The
  objective is to minimize the use of fuels
              as far as possible
Saving Energy:
 Saving energy will, of course, help to
  prevent air pollution. Switch off the
      lights, fans, air conditioners,
televisions, and other appliances, when
 not in use. You can also share a room
with others when the air conditioner or
fan is on, instead of switching them on
               in every room.
Recyclable Materials:
   Recycling is a simple approach to
   reduce pollution in two ways; save
energy which is required for disposing
 and minimize the pollutants released
    during manufacturing. The list of
  recyclable materials include plastic
      bottles, aluminum cans and
          utensils, paper, craft
     papers, cardboard, corrugated
        boxes, and glass bottles
irritating noise from
         environment:
   irritating, distracting, or
physically dangerous noise to
which people are exposed in
 their environment and over
 which they usually have no
             control.
Noise Pollution or Sound Pollution
 exposure of people or animals to
      levels of sound that are
annoying, stressful, or damaging to
   the ears. Although loud and
  frightening sounds are part of
nature, only in recent centuries has
    much of the world become
 urban, industrial, and chronically
                noisy.
•Most noise pollution comes from machines,
especially automobiles, trucks, and aircraft.
Construction equipment, farm machines, and
the din of machinery inside factories can be
dangerously loud.
•Some home appliances, shop tools,
lawnmowers, and leaf blowers can also be noisy,
as are guns, firecrackers, and some toys.
•Even music, when played at very high volume,
particularly through personal headphones, is as
damaging to the ears as a roaring chain saw.
Water Pollution
Is contamination of streams, l
      akes, underground
   water, bays, or oceans by
  substances harmful to living
            things.
MARINE WATER CONTAMINATION-
Is prevalent in almost all of the coastal regions of
                        Asia.
   Solid waste and untreated wastewater from
   industries and factories are two of the most
         common marine water pollutants.
 Pollutants from industrial sources may pour out
  from the outfall pipes of factories or may leak
 from pipelines and underground storage tanks.
     Cities and other residential communities
     contribute mostly sewage, with traces of
           household chemicals mixed in.
Red Tide
• This is a result of microscopic organisms called
  “dinoflagellates” that float in water.
• poisonous reddish seawater: a brownish red
  discoloration in seawater, caused by an increased
  presence of plant-based plankton that sometimes
  leads to the poisoning of fish and, consequently,
  of those who eat fish.
• There arises a scarcity of oxygen that causes the
  death water resources. Shellfishes are poisoned.
Causes Of Water Pollution
These pollutants include fertilizers and
 pesticides from agricultural runoff; sewage and
 food processing waste; lead, mercury, and other
 heavy metals; chemical wastes from industrial
 discharges; and chemical contamination from
 hazardous waste sites
Water pollution can come from a number of
 different sources. If the pollution comes from a
 single source, such as an oil spill, it is called
 point-source pollution.
Effects Of Water Pollution
If severe, water pollution can kill large numbers
 of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases
 killing all members of a species in an affected
 area.
Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal
 waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to
 swim in. Fish and shellfish harvested from
 polluted waters may be unsafe to eat.
 People who ingest polluted water can become
 ill, and, with prolonged exposure, may develop
 cancers or bear children with birth defects.
How Can We Prevent Water
        Pollution?
• Installation of filtration system is a good
   step. It is the most effective and working
         prevention of water pollution.
 • At homes clearing up drains also acts as
            water pollution control.
• Water conservation is also a step for water
         pollution prevention in India.
• Hence, it can be noticed that, a small effort
  from cleaning the waste before throwing in
 to garbage or drains can also contribute a lot
         in water pollution prevention
Solid Waste Disposal
Disposal of normally solid or
           semisolid
  materials, resulting from
     human and animal
      activities, that are
    useless, unwanted, or
          hazardous.
Solid wastes typically may be classified as
                       follows:
• Garbage: decomposable wastes from food
• Rubbish: nondecomposable wastes, either combustible (such as
  paper, wood, and cloth) or noncombustible (such as
  metal, glass, and ceramics)
• Ashes: residues of the combustion of solid fuels
• Large wastes: demolition and construction debris and trees
• Dead animals
• Sewage-treatment solids: material retained on sewage-treatment
  screens, settled solids, and biomass sludge
• Industrial wastes: such materials as chemicals, paints, and sand
• Mining wastes: slag heaps and coal refuse piles
• Agricultural wastes: farm animal manure and crop residues.
Loss of Biodiversity
• The underlying cause of biodiversity loss
   is the explosion in human population,
  now at 6 billion, but expected to double
     again by the year 2050. The human
  population already consumes nearly half
    of all the food, crops, medicines, and
     other useful items produced by the
 Earth’s organisms, and more than 1 billion
 people on Earth lack adequate supplies of
                  fresh water.
• The conversion of
 forests, grasslands, and wetlands for
agricultural purposes, coupled with the
  multiplication and growth of urban
 centers and the building of dams and
  canals, highways, and railways, has
  physically altered ecosystems to the
  point that extinction of species has
   reached its current alarming pace.
Ecological Balance
It is of utmost importance that
  the ecological balance of Asia
    is maintained because the
    ecological condition of Asia
   affects the overall quality of
      the global environment.
Environmental problems
Environmental problems

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Environmental problems

  • 1. Environmental Problems and Ecological Balance in Asia By: MISS BLESS BERNARDO JULY 2012
  • 2. Biodiversity Refers to the diversity of life in all its forms that comprise the natural world. range of organisms in environment: the range of organisms present in a particular ecological community or system. It can be measured by the numbers and types of different species, or the genetic variations within and between species.
  • 3. • sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live.
  • 4. Problems due to High Population Density • Unprecedented population growth and high population density are the two crucial problems of the Asian region to date. • As population continues to grow, more arable land is needed, leads to other problems such as desertification, salinization, and alkalinization.
  • 5. • Leads to lack of space for human occupancy. • Leads to the destruction of the natural habitat of different species of flora and fauna. • Rapid population growth also results to problems of waste disposal and different pollutions.
  • 6.
  • 7. WHAT IS POLLUTION??? • It is when the harmful substances contaminate the environment • Refers to the bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality • The only a image in one's mind of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem
  • 8. Types of Pollution Air Pollution Thermal Pollution Light Pollution Noise Pollution Land Pollution Water Pollution RadioActive Pollution
  • 9. Land Degradation • As humans continue to exploit and intensify land use, minerals are lost. • It also erodes the fertility of the soil. • Improper irrigation may lead to SALINIZATION and ALKALINIZATION.
  • 10. • Salinization – salts come to the surface of the land or salt is carried in by water. When water wells are overused, the water table lowers and saltwater or blackish water usually starts to permeate.
  • 11. • Desertification – transformation of fertile land into a desert through soil erosion or overcultivation. The destruction of land in arid, semi- arid and sub-humid areas that leads to the loss of productivity. (70% of West Asia are arid)
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Urbanization • 40% of the population in the Asia- Pacific region lives in urban areas. • Urbanization brings about a series of environmental problems. • Improper disposal of solid waste endangers human health and it also contaminates air, soil, and water.
  • 19. Deforestation • Is indiscriminate cutting or over- harvesting of trees for lumber or pulp, or to clear the land for agriculture, ranching, constructio n, or other human activities.
  • 20.
  • 21. • Deforestation is a crucial problem because it diminishes natural resources that are valuable to the people of a particular region. • Brings major problems such as soil erosion, flooding, siltation, and sedimentation. • Major causes are commercial logging, slash and burn agriculture, cutting down of trees for fuel
  • 22. Air Pollution  Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors
  • 23.
  • 24. Causes V.S. effects • This is starting to have • Industrialized countries adverse effects on the have worked to reduce environment such as levels of sulfur dioxide, causing acid rain, smog and smog, and smoke in a wide variety of health order to improve people's problems health. • Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion • The health effects engine vehicles cause air caused by air pollution pollution. may include difficulty in • Causes respiratory health breathing, wheezing, problems and holes in the coughing and aggravation ozone layer, which of existing respiratory increases the exposure to and cardiac conditions the sun's harmful rays
  • 25. How Can We Prevent Air Pollution? • Public Transport: Whenever possible, try to travel by public transports. This helps in two ways; prevents air pollution and increases public income. If you are going to a nearby place, go by walking or use a bicycle, instead of using your vehicle. The objective is to minimize the use of fuels as far as possible
  • 26. Saving Energy: Saving energy will, of course, help to prevent air pollution. Switch off the lights, fans, air conditioners, televisions, and other appliances, when not in use. You can also share a room with others when the air conditioner or fan is on, instead of switching them on in every room.
  • 27. Recyclable Materials: Recycling is a simple approach to reduce pollution in two ways; save energy which is required for disposing and minimize the pollutants released during manufacturing. The list of recyclable materials include plastic bottles, aluminum cans and utensils, paper, craft papers, cardboard, corrugated boxes, and glass bottles
  • 28.
  • 29. irritating noise from environment: irritating, distracting, or physically dangerous noise to which people are exposed in their environment and over which they usually have no control.
  • 30. Noise Pollution or Sound Pollution exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears. Although loud and frightening sounds are part of nature, only in recent centuries has much of the world become urban, industrial, and chronically noisy.
  • 31. •Most noise pollution comes from machines, especially automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Construction equipment, farm machines, and the din of machinery inside factories can be dangerously loud. •Some home appliances, shop tools, lawnmowers, and leaf blowers can also be noisy, as are guns, firecrackers, and some toys. •Even music, when played at very high volume, particularly through personal headphones, is as damaging to the ears as a roaring chain saw.
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35. Is contamination of streams, l akes, underground water, bays, or oceans by substances harmful to living things.
  • 36. MARINE WATER CONTAMINATION- Is prevalent in almost all of the coastal regions of Asia. Solid waste and untreated wastewater from industries and factories are two of the most common marine water pollutants. Pollutants from industrial sources may pour out from the outfall pipes of factories or may leak from pipelines and underground storage tanks. Cities and other residential communities contribute mostly sewage, with traces of household chemicals mixed in.
  • 37. Red Tide • This is a result of microscopic organisms called “dinoflagellates” that float in water. • poisonous reddish seawater: a brownish red discoloration in seawater, caused by an increased presence of plant-based plankton that sometimes leads to the poisoning of fish and, consequently, of those who eat fish. • There arises a scarcity of oxygen that causes the death water resources. Shellfishes are poisoned.
  • 38. Causes Of Water Pollution These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural runoff; sewage and food processing waste; lead, mercury, and other heavy metals; chemical wastes from industrial discharges; and chemical contamination from hazardous waste sites Water pollution can come from a number of different sources. If the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it is called point-source pollution.
  • 39. Effects Of Water Pollution If severe, water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing all members of a species in an affected area. Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to swim in. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat.  People who ingest polluted water can become ill, and, with prolonged exposure, may develop cancers or bear children with birth defects.
  • 40.
  • 41. How Can We Prevent Water Pollution? • Installation of filtration system is a good step. It is the most effective and working prevention of water pollution. • At homes clearing up drains also acts as water pollution control. • Water conservation is also a step for water pollution prevention in India. • Hence, it can be noticed that, a small effort from cleaning the waste before throwing in to garbage or drains can also contribute a lot in water pollution prevention
  • 42.
  • 43. Solid Waste Disposal Disposal of normally solid or semisolid materials, resulting from human and animal activities, that are useless, unwanted, or hazardous.
  • 44. Solid wastes typically may be classified as follows: • Garbage: decomposable wastes from food • Rubbish: nondecomposable wastes, either combustible (such as paper, wood, and cloth) or noncombustible (such as metal, glass, and ceramics) • Ashes: residues of the combustion of solid fuels • Large wastes: demolition and construction debris and trees • Dead animals • Sewage-treatment solids: material retained on sewage-treatment screens, settled solids, and biomass sludge • Industrial wastes: such materials as chemicals, paints, and sand • Mining wastes: slag heaps and coal refuse piles • Agricultural wastes: farm animal manure and crop residues.
  • 45. Loss of Biodiversity • The underlying cause of biodiversity loss is the explosion in human population, now at 6 billion, but expected to double again by the year 2050. The human population already consumes nearly half of all the food, crops, medicines, and other useful items produced by the Earth’s organisms, and more than 1 billion people on Earth lack adequate supplies of fresh water.
  • 46. • The conversion of forests, grasslands, and wetlands for agricultural purposes, coupled with the multiplication and growth of urban centers and the building of dams and canals, highways, and railways, has physically altered ecosystems to the point that extinction of species has reached its current alarming pace.
  • 47. Ecological Balance It is of utmost importance that the ecological balance of Asia is maintained because the ecological condition of Asia affects the overall quality of the global environment.