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1
UNIVERSITY of SINDH
Faculty of Education, Hyderabad
University Of Sindh, Jamshoro
Subject:
Psychological Perspective & I...
2
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
What is educational psychology?
It could be said that the educational psychology is the study of ...
3
more concerned with interpretation and understanding than with the achievement of factual
knowledge or skilled performan...
4
That’s why psychologists working in the field of education are focused on identifying and
studying learning methods to b...
5
best ways to teach children, research also can make you a better teacher (McMillan
& Schumacher, 2010).
We all get a gre...
6
effective learning and efficient. Educational psychology can help teachers and prospective
teachers in understanding dif...
7
B. For the Application of the Principles of Teaching and Learning
1. Establish Learning Objectives
The purpose of learni...
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Educational psychology.docx assignment

Educational Psychology

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Educational psychology.docx assignment

  1. 1. 1 UNIVERSITY of SINDH Faculty of Education, Hyderabad University Of Sindh, Jamshoro Subject: Psychological Perspective & Issues In Education (Role of Research in Educational Psychology) Submitted by: Salma Begum Bhurgri Roll No. 37 M.Phil. (Education), 2016 Submitted to: Prof. Dr. Iftekhar Jafferi
  2. 2. 2 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY What is educational psychology? It could be said that the educational psychology is the study of learners (students), of the process of learning and of teaching. It is the study of what makes a good teacher, the role of research in education, effective program development, development, theories of learning, the diversity of students, motivation and learning environments. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: A DEFINITION AND KEY CONCEPTS It seems too simple to say that educational psychology is the psychology of learning and teaching, and yet a majority of educational psychologists spend their time studying ways to describe and improve learning and teaching. After reviewing the historical literature in educational psychology, Glover and Ronning (1987, p. 14) suggested that educational psychology includes topics that span human development, individual differences, measurement, learning, and motivation and is both a data-driven and a theory-driven discipline. Thus, our definition of educational psychology is the application of psychology and psychological methods to the study of development, learning, motivation, instruction, assessment, and related issues that influence the interaction of teaching and learning. This definition is broad because the potential applications of educational psychology to the learning process are immense! Today educational psychology is a vital discipline that is contributing to the education of teachers and learners. For example, Jerome Bruner, an enduring figure in educational psychology, recently noted the need to rethink our ideas of development, teaching, and learning and the interactions among them. Specifically, Bruner (1996) urged educators and psychologists to see children as thinkers, and stated: No less than the adult, the child is thought of as holding more or less coherent "theories" not only about the world but about her own mind and how it works. These naive theories are brought into congruence with those of parents and teachers not through imitation, not through didactic instruction, but by discourse, collaboration, and negotiation . . . . This model of education is
  3. 3. 3 more concerned with interpretation and understanding than with the achievement of factual knowledge or skilled performance. (1996, p. 57) These words reflect many of the goals : Think of educational psychology as a vital tool that can be of immeasurable help in planning, delivering, and evaluating teaching. To illustrate how the science of educational psychology can help teachers, we'd like to identify some key concepts and their relationship to instruction and learning. Much more will be said about each of these concepts as you work your way through this book. 1. Understanding the Meaning of Teaching The first key concept is the need to understand what it means to teach. 2. Knowledge of Students The second core concept is the belief that to teach skillfully, you must have as much knowledge about students as possible: their needs, characteristics, and differences. Section 1 of this book introduces you to the developmental lives of children. It is devoted to tracing the cognitive and language development of children, reflecting the diversity in our classrooms, it examines the impact of culture, class, and gender on teaching and learning. If you become a regular classroom teacher, you will come into contact with one or more students who are exceptional. There are many different types of exceptional students, including the gifted and talented, as well as students experiencing sensory handicaps, communication disorders, physical and health impairments, behavior disorders, learning disabilities, and mental retardation. It provides valuable information about the typical characteristics of students who are exceptional. 3. Understanding the Learning Process A priority in educational psychology is understanding the learning process, that is; the procedures and strategies that students use to acquire new information. Thus focuses on behavioral explanations of learning and provides numerous examples of how this theoretical explanation of learning can be translated into classroom practice. The cognitive analyses of learning, mirroring current concerns with "teaching for understanding." Understanding Educational Psychology Today’s educational system is highly complex. There is no single learning approach or style that works for everyone.
  4. 4. 4 That’s why psychologists working in the field of education are focused on identifying and studying learning methods to better understand how people absorb and retain new information. Educational psychologists apply theories of human development to understand individual learning styles and inform the instructional process. While interaction with teachers and students in school settings is an important part of their work, it isn’t the only facet of the job. Learning is a lifelong endeavor. People don’t only learn at school, they learn at work, in social situations and even doing simple tasks like household chores or running errands. Psychologists working in this subfield examine how people learn in a variety of settings to identify approaches and strategies to make learning more effective. RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: The role of research in educational psychology is to carefully examine certain questions about factors that may contribute to learning. For example, a research study may examine what type ofteaching method works best, and what decision a teacher may make about a problem or issue, to be most successful. Various teaching programs and theories of how to teach are also examined. Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan. WHY RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT It sometimes is said that experience is the best teacher. Your own experiences and experiences that other teachers, administrators, and experts share with you will make you a better teacher. However, by providing you with valid information about the
  5. 5. 5 best ways to teach children, research also can make you a better teacher (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010). We all get a great deal of knowledge from personal experience. We generalize from what we observe and frequently turn memorable encounters into lifetime “truths.” But how valid are these conclusions? Sometimes we err in making these personal observations, misinterpreting what we see and hear. Chances are, you can think of many situations in which you thought other people read you the wrong way, just as they might have felt that you misread them. When we base information only on personal experiences, we also aren’t always totally objective because we sometimes make judgments that protect our ego and self-esteem (McMillan & Wergin, 2010). We get information not only from personal experiences but also from authorities or experts. In your teaching career, you will hear many authorities and experts spell out a “best way” to educate students. The authorities and experts, however, don’t always agree, do they? You might hear one expert one week tell you about a reading method that is absolutely the best, yet the next week hear another expert tout a different method. One experienced teacher might tell you to do one thing with your students, while another experienced teacher tells you to do the opposite. Benefits of studying educational psychology for teachers and prospective teachers can be divided into two aspects, namely: A. For Studying the situation in the Learning Process Educational psychology contributes a lot to teachers and prospective teachers to improve the efficiency of the learning process at different conditions as below: 1. Understanding Individual Differences A teacher must deal with a group of students in the classroom with caution, because the characteristics of each student is different. It is therefore very important to understand the different characteristics of students at various levels of growth and development to create
  6. 6. 6 effective learning and efficient. Educational psychology can help teachers and prospective teachers in understanding differences in student characteristics. 2. Creation of a Conducive Learning Climate in the Classroom Good understanding of the classroom used in the learning process helps teachers to deliver material to students effectively. Climate conducive to learning must be created by the teacher so that the learning process can be run effectively. A teacher must know the correct principles in teaching and learning, a different approach in teaching to the learning process better. Educational psychology plays a role in helping teachers to create socio-emotional climate that is conducive in the classroom, so that the process of learning in the classroom can be effective. 3. Selection of Learning Strategies and Methods Teaching methods are based on the characteristics of students' progress. Educational psychology can assist teachers in determining the strategy or method of learning the proper and appropriate, and able to relate to the characteristics and uniqueness of the individual, the type of learning and learning styles and levels of development being experienced by the learner. 4. Provide guidance to students A teacher must play different roles in the school, not only in the implementation of learning, but also act as mentors for students. Guidance is the kind of assistance to students to solve problems they encounter. Knowledge of educational psychology allows teachers to provide educational and vocational guidance necessary for students at different ages. 5. Evaluate Learning Outcomes Teachers have to do two important activities in the classroom as teaching and evaluating. The evaluation helps in measuring student learning outcomes. Educational psychology can help teachers and prospective teachers in developing the evaluation of student learning that is more just, both in the technical evaluation, compliance with the principles of evaluation and determine the results of evaluations.
  7. 7. 7 B. For the Application of the Principles of Teaching and Learning 1. Establish Learning Objectives The purpose of learning refers to changes in student behavior that is experienced after the implementation of the learning process. Educational psychology helps the teacher in determining the shape of the desired behavior change as the learning objectives. 2. Use of Learning Media Knowledge of educational psychology teachers need to plan appropriate instructional media to be used. For example, the use of audio-visual media, so as to give a real picture to students. 3. Preparation of Lesson Schedule Timetable should be drafted based on the psychology of the learner. For example, which is considered difficult subjects such as mathematics students placed at the beginning of class, where the conditions and spirit of the students were still fresh in receiving course materials. Based on the description, it can be concluded that the overall educational psychology untu role in helping teachers to plan, organize and evaluate teaching and learning activities in schools.

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  • FathimaShakira

    Sep. 3, 2019

Educational Psychology

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