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What do we mean by innovation?
REPORMA SA PROBLEMA
Innovation is the introduction of new
ideas, goods, services, and practices
which are intended to be useful
wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation
Something new or improved, including
research for (1) development of new
technologies, (2) refinement of existing
technologies, or (3) development of new
applications for existing technologies.
grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/in
structions2/p3_definitions.htm
a newly introduced practice or method
intended to improve the current
practice
www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/conte
nt/66/4620.html
Innovation is creating something that
others want.
www.saskJW:gov.sk.ca/curr_content/e
ntre30/helppages/glossary/glossary.ht
ml
Structure - ways classrooms and
schools organized
Content - introduce new subjects or
revise old subjects in new ways
Process - those that have to do with
human interaction
“The State shall protect and promote the
right of all citizens to quality education
at all levels and shall take appropriate
steps to make education accessible to
all.”
Section 5. Principles of Shared
Governance. - (a) … that every unit in
the education bureaucracy has a
particular role, task and responsibility
inherent in the office and for which it is
principally accountable for outcomes;
Basic Learning Needs shall be met for
all by various
Means.
(The Philippines, along with 191 member
states of the United Nations, signed the
Millennium Declaration in September
2000)
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary
education
 Part IV: Basic education should be anchored
on Education for All global movement and
Millennium Development Goals.
 To achieve this, the government must
deliver quality basic education, provide
more resources to schools to widen
coverage and improve the management of
operations of the public school system.
WHAT IS THE DEPARTMENT
DOING TO ADDRESS THE
PROBLEMS OF BASIC
EDUCATION?
 THE Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP) is
the government's flagship project for elementary
education.
 A nine-year project aimed at improving the quality
of primary education by means of decentralizing
governance at the elementary school level
(DepEd, 2006b)
The beneficiaries of the Project are the
23 of the country's poorest provinces.
It is participatory in character, built
around the 'stakeholder principle.'
The passage of Republic Act 9155 in
2001 provided the DepEd the legal
mandate to reorganize governance in
basic education.
 Objective(s) : The project aimed to improve
elementary education in the 23 provinces in the
Philippines.
 Description : Part A - Institutional Strengthening the
capacity of DepEd Implementation Support Unit
(PISU) to coordinate support and monitor the
implementation of the project.
 Part B - Includes strengthening the capacity of DepEd
- Division Offices and the LGUs in the project
provinces; and the development and implementation
of Divisional Education Development Plans
 Implementing Agency: Department of Education
 Sector/Sub-sector : Education
 Region(s) : II, III, IV-B, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, CAR &
CARAGA
 Province(s) : 23 SRA Provinces
 Beneficiaries : Education Managers, Supervisors and
Teachers and Elementary Pupils
1. Civil Works
2. Goods (other than TX)
 School & Classroom Kits
 School Furniture
 Other Goods
3. Textbooks and IMs
4. Special Program & Grants
5. SBM Funds
6. In-Service Training Program
7. Consultancy Services
8. Unallocated
 Special Education (SPED)
 Multigrade Programs (MG)
 Curriculum for the Culture of Indigenous
People (CCIP)
 The Secondary Education Development and
Improvement (SEDIP) is a seven-year loan assisted
project jointly funded by the Asian Development
Bank (ADB) and the Japan Bank for International
Cooperation (JBIC).
 A loan assistance package aimed to improve
equitable access to quality secondary education in
26 SRA provinces.
 To improve the quality and relevance of secondary
education in the target provinces;
 To increase the rates of participation and
completion of secondary education in the
underserved areas;
 To support decentralization processes to establish
the conditions for school-based management.
 Implementing Agency: Department of Education
 Sector/Sub-sector : Education
 Region(s) : II, III, IV-B, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XII, CAR and
CARAGA
 Province(s) : SRA Provinces
 Beneficiaries : Secondary Students, School Heads
and Classroom Teachers
 Improving Teaching Learning Process
 Improving for Decentralized Management
 Project Management
School-based
Management
K to 12 CURRICULUM REFORM
National
Learning
Strategies
and
Quality
Assurance &
Accountability
Universal
Kindergarten &
Alternative
Learning
System
Institutional
Culture Change
Resource
Mobilization &
Management
Teacher
Education &
Development
Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA)
ACCESS TO BASIC EDUCATION
IMPROVED QUALITY OF BASIC EDUCATION
 Decentralization through site management or
school-based management (SBM) is a major
global education reform thrust which started in
the 1980s.
 In the Philippines, the impetus for its
implementation came with the legislation of
Republic Act (RA) 9155 or the 2001 Governance
of Basic Education Act
 Within the law’s legal framework, DepEd
instituted SBM to make those closest to the
delivery of services more accountable for the
results of their operations.
 Concerned with the decentralization of
decision making authority from the
central, regional, and division offices to
the individual schools.
 The idea is to unite the school heads,
teachers, students, and local government
units, and the community to improve the
quality of early formal education.
 In SBM, it is the school principal who is
given the responsibility to lead the process
of shared governance.
 The DepEd has decentralized decision-making
powers to local officials as its response to RA 7160
(the Philippine Local Government Code in 1999).
 DECs Order 230, defined decentralization as:
a. Promotion of school-based management,
b. Transfer of authority and decision-making power
from the central office to the divisions and
schools,
c.Sharing of responsibility of educational
management of local schools with the local
governments, parents, the community,
d.Devolution of education functions (DepEd 2006b)
.
The main goal is to
improve school
performance and
student achievement.
1. Empower the school heads to lead
their teachers and students
through reforms which lead to
higher learning outcomes;
2. Bring resources, including
funds, down to the control of schools
to spur change, in line with
decentralization;
3. Strengthen partnership with
communities as well as local
government units to invest
time, money and effort in making
the school a better place to learn;
and
4. Integrate school management
and instructional reform to make the
school effective.
 Empowered school leadership
-School heads take on the new role of school
managers aside from being instructional
leaders.
 Stakeholder participation
-Formulation of School Improvement Plan (SIP)
and Annual Improvement Plan (AIP)
 School Management and Instructional Reform
-The greatest accountability of school heads is
to improve learning outcomes in their schools.
(Rule VI, Section 6.2, RA 9155)
 Resource Management and Accountability
- A skill that the school heads have to learn to
do.
Defining responsibilities
Widening participation
Developing professionalism
Setting goals
Evaluating effectiveness
Developing characteristics
Improved Learning Outcomes
Management of
SCHOOL
• resources
• classroom instruction
• student achievement
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
securing and managing inputs
Establishing and developing structures
and mechanisms
Assessment Framework of SBM
Practices
Introducing and sustaining continuous
improvement process
Ensuring the production
of intended outputs
LEVEL OF SCHOOL SBM PRACTICES
100%
Standard
Stage
Level 1
1-60%
Starting
Stage
61-99%
Moving
Toward
Stage
100%
Progressive
Stage
1-60%
Gearing
Up Stage
61-99%
Advancing
Stage
100%
Mature
Stage
1-60%
Practicing
Stage
61-99%
Accelerating
Stage
Level 2 Level 3
Unrealistic targets and inappropriate
strategies in the SIPs of many of the
schools visited;
There is a possibility that the SBM
process may be reduced to “bean
counting” that over emphasizes the
collection of prescribed documents.
There are more schools with School
Report Cards (SRCs) than SIPs.
While DepEd reports that 100% of
school heads had been oriented on
SBM, their practical understanding
of the concept is palpable.
To effectively carry out reforms in
curriculum (K to 12);
To assimilate the school to the system
and way of life of the local community;
To re-direct all efforts to support
improvement of learning outcomes.
To better highlight the children/ learner as
the center of SBM practice;
To encompass the diverse realities of
learning contexts defined and uniquely
occurring within specific
geographic, social, cultural, economic, politi
cal and environmental make-up of the
contemporary society;
To enhance commitment of education
stakeholders at all levels to their
responsibilities and accountabilities in
realizing the education outcomes for
children;
To integrate accreditation into SBM for a
seamless assessment of a school system;
To improve the school
system’s capacity to be
on track in achieving
the EFA/MDG and
sustain good
performance.
The ACCES framework is reflective of this
requirement because it provided equal
emphasis of the supply and the demand
side of education to reinforce the
development of a community-based
accountability system as well as engender
the sharing of responsibility in education
service delivery.
The Revised School-Based Management
(SBM) Assessment tool is guided by the
four principles of ACCESs (A Child- and
Community- Centered Education
System).
The indicators of SBM practice were
contextualized from the ideals of an
ACCESs school system. The unit of
analysis is the school system, which
may be classified as
beginning, developing or advanced
(accredited level).
The SBM practice is ascertained by the
existence of structured mechanisms,
processes and practices in all
indicators. A team of practitioners and
experts from the district, division,
region and central office validates the
self-study/assessment before a level of
SBM practice is established.
The highest level- “advanced” is a
candidacy for accreditation after a
team of external validators
confirmed the evidence of
practices and procedures that
satisfies quality standards.
REVISED
SCHOOL-BASED
MANAGEMENT
ASSESSMENT
TOOL
A network of leadership and
governance guides the education
system to achieve its shared
vision, mission and goals making them
responsive and relevant to the
context of diverse environment.
The curriculum learning systems
anchored on the community and
learners’ contexts and aspirations
are collaboratively developed and
continuously improved.
A clear, transparent, inclusive, and
responsive accountability system is in
lace, collaboratively developed by the
school community, which monitors
performance and acts appropriate gaps
and gains.
Resources are collectively and
judiciously mobilized and
managed with transparency,
effectiveness and efficiency.
SCORING
SYSTEM
The four (4) principles were assigned percentage
weights on the basis of their relative importance to
the aim of school (improved learning outcomes and
school operations);
1.Leadership and Governance - 30%
2.Curriculum and Learning – 30%
3. Accountability and Continuous Improvement – 25%
4.Management of Resources – 15%
0 - No evidence
1-Evidence indicates early or preliminary stages of
implementation
2-Evidence indicates planned practices and
procedures are fully implemented
3-Evidence indicates planned practices and
procedures are fully implemented
LEVEL OF SBM
PRACTICES
60% based on improvement of the
learning outcomes
40% according to the validated
practices using DOD
Level III: 150-200 points
Level II : 149-100 points
Level I : 99 and below
THE RESULTING SCORE WILL
BE INTERPRETED AS:
LEVEL I: BEGINNING– developing structures and
mechanisms with acceptable level and extent of
community participation and impact on learning
outcomes.
LEVEL II: DEVELOPING – introducing and sustaining
continuous improvement process that integrates
wider community participation and significantly
improve performance and learning outcomes.
LEVEL III: ADVANCED (ACCREDITED) – ensuring the
production of intended outputs/outcomes and
meeting all standards of a system fully integrated
in the local community and self-renewing and self-
sustaining.
A Quality Assurance System of DepEd to
ensure delivery of quality basic education.
A system of processes and tools to be
applied so the desired knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values of the students can be
attained at some expected level.
The installation was brought about by the
introduction of policy reforms embodied in
the Basic Education Sector Reform
Agenda(BESRA).
Part of the BESRA mandate is to harmonize
the two accreditation systems: Accreditation
Program for Public Elementary School
(APPES) and Sterling Silver for High School.
Three key components are presented:
(1) guiding principles of the assessment
system;
(2) indicators of SBM practices; and
(3) school accreditation.
Challeng
e
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Educational Innovations

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. What do we mean by innovation?
  • 6. Innovation is the introduction of new ideas, goods, services, and practices which are intended to be useful wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation Something new or improved, including research for (1) development of new technologies, (2) refinement of existing technologies, or (3) development of new applications for existing technologies. grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/in structions2/p3_definitions.htm
  • 7. a newly introduced practice or method intended to improve the current practice www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/conte nt/66/4620.html Innovation is creating something that others want. www.saskJW:gov.sk.ca/curr_content/e ntre30/helppages/glossary/glossary.ht ml
  • 8. Structure - ways classrooms and schools organized Content - introduce new subjects or revise old subjects in new ways Process - those that have to do with human interaction
  • 9. “The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make education accessible to all.”
  • 10. Section 5. Principles of Shared Governance. - (a) … that every unit in the education bureaucracy has a particular role, task and responsibility inherent in the office and for which it is principally accountable for outcomes;
  • 11. Basic Learning Needs shall be met for all by various Means.
  • 12. (The Philippines, along with 191 member states of the United Nations, signed the Millennium Declaration in September 2000) Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
  • 13.  Part IV: Basic education should be anchored on Education for All global movement and Millennium Development Goals.  To achieve this, the government must deliver quality basic education, provide more resources to schools to widen coverage and improve the management of operations of the public school system.
  • 14. WHAT IS THE DEPARTMENT DOING TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS OF BASIC EDUCATION?
  • 15.  THE Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP) is the government's flagship project for elementary education.  A nine-year project aimed at improving the quality of primary education by means of decentralizing governance at the elementary school level (DepEd, 2006b)
  • 16. The beneficiaries of the Project are the 23 of the country's poorest provinces. It is participatory in character, built around the 'stakeholder principle.' The passage of Republic Act 9155 in 2001 provided the DepEd the legal mandate to reorganize governance in basic education.
  • 17.  Objective(s) : The project aimed to improve elementary education in the 23 provinces in the Philippines.  Description : Part A - Institutional Strengthening the capacity of DepEd Implementation Support Unit (PISU) to coordinate support and monitor the implementation of the project.  Part B - Includes strengthening the capacity of DepEd - Division Offices and the LGUs in the project provinces; and the development and implementation of Divisional Education Development Plans
  • 18.  Implementing Agency: Department of Education  Sector/Sub-sector : Education  Region(s) : II, III, IV-B, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, CAR & CARAGA  Province(s) : 23 SRA Provinces  Beneficiaries : Education Managers, Supervisors and Teachers and Elementary Pupils
  • 19. 1. Civil Works 2. Goods (other than TX)  School & Classroom Kits  School Furniture  Other Goods 3. Textbooks and IMs 4. Special Program & Grants 5. SBM Funds 6. In-Service Training Program 7. Consultancy Services 8. Unallocated
  • 20.  Special Education (SPED)  Multigrade Programs (MG)  Curriculum for the Culture of Indigenous People (CCIP)
  • 21.  The Secondary Education Development and Improvement (SEDIP) is a seven-year loan assisted project jointly funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC).  A loan assistance package aimed to improve equitable access to quality secondary education in 26 SRA provinces.
  • 22.  To improve the quality and relevance of secondary education in the target provinces;  To increase the rates of participation and completion of secondary education in the underserved areas;  To support decentralization processes to establish the conditions for school-based management.
  • 23.  Implementing Agency: Department of Education  Sector/Sub-sector : Education  Region(s) : II, III, IV-B, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XII, CAR and CARAGA  Province(s) : SRA Provinces  Beneficiaries : Secondary Students, School Heads and Classroom Teachers
  • 24.  Improving Teaching Learning Process  Improving for Decentralized Management  Project Management
  • 25. School-based Management K to 12 CURRICULUM REFORM National Learning Strategies and Quality Assurance & Accountability Universal Kindergarten & Alternative Learning System Institutional Culture Change Resource Mobilization & Management Teacher Education & Development Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) ACCESS TO BASIC EDUCATION IMPROVED QUALITY OF BASIC EDUCATION
  • 26.
  • 27.  Decentralization through site management or school-based management (SBM) is a major global education reform thrust which started in the 1980s.  In the Philippines, the impetus for its implementation came with the legislation of Republic Act (RA) 9155 or the 2001 Governance of Basic Education Act  Within the law’s legal framework, DepEd instituted SBM to make those closest to the delivery of services more accountable for the results of their operations.
  • 28.  Concerned with the decentralization of decision making authority from the central, regional, and division offices to the individual schools.  The idea is to unite the school heads, teachers, students, and local government units, and the community to improve the quality of early formal education.  In SBM, it is the school principal who is given the responsibility to lead the process of shared governance.
  • 29.  The DepEd has decentralized decision-making powers to local officials as its response to RA 7160 (the Philippine Local Government Code in 1999).  DECs Order 230, defined decentralization as: a. Promotion of school-based management, b. Transfer of authority and decision-making power from the central office to the divisions and schools, c.Sharing of responsibility of educational management of local schools with the local governments, parents, the community, d.Devolution of education functions (DepEd 2006b) .
  • 30. The main goal is to improve school performance and student achievement.
  • 31. 1. Empower the school heads to lead their teachers and students through reforms which lead to higher learning outcomes; 2. Bring resources, including funds, down to the control of schools to spur change, in line with decentralization;
  • 32. 3. Strengthen partnership with communities as well as local government units to invest time, money and effort in making the school a better place to learn; and 4. Integrate school management and instructional reform to make the school effective.
  • 33.  Empowered school leadership -School heads take on the new role of school managers aside from being instructional leaders.  Stakeholder participation -Formulation of School Improvement Plan (SIP) and Annual Improvement Plan (AIP)  School Management and Instructional Reform -The greatest accountability of school heads is to improve learning outcomes in their schools. (Rule VI, Section 6.2, RA 9155)  Resource Management and Accountability - A skill that the school heads have to learn to do.
  • 34. Defining responsibilities Widening participation Developing professionalism Setting goals Evaluating effectiveness Developing characteristics
  • 35.
  • 36. Improved Learning Outcomes Management of SCHOOL • resources • classroom instruction • student achievement Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 securing and managing inputs Establishing and developing structures and mechanisms Assessment Framework of SBM Practices Introducing and sustaining continuous improvement process Ensuring the production of intended outputs
  • 37.
  • 38. LEVEL OF SCHOOL SBM PRACTICES 100% Standard Stage Level 1 1-60% Starting Stage 61-99% Moving Toward Stage 100% Progressive Stage 1-60% Gearing Up Stage 61-99% Advancing Stage 100% Mature Stage 1-60% Practicing Stage 61-99% Accelerating Stage Level 2 Level 3
  • 39. Unrealistic targets and inappropriate strategies in the SIPs of many of the schools visited; There is a possibility that the SBM process may be reduced to “bean counting” that over emphasizes the collection of prescribed documents. There are more schools with School Report Cards (SRCs) than SIPs. While DepEd reports that 100% of school heads had been oriented on SBM, their practical understanding of the concept is palpable.
  • 40.
  • 41. To effectively carry out reforms in curriculum (K to 12); To assimilate the school to the system and way of life of the local community; To re-direct all efforts to support improvement of learning outcomes.
  • 42.
  • 43. To better highlight the children/ learner as the center of SBM practice; To encompass the diverse realities of learning contexts defined and uniquely occurring within specific geographic, social, cultural, economic, politi cal and environmental make-up of the contemporary society;
  • 44. To enhance commitment of education stakeholders at all levels to their responsibilities and accountabilities in realizing the education outcomes for children;
  • 45. To integrate accreditation into SBM for a seamless assessment of a school system; To improve the school system’s capacity to be on track in achieving the EFA/MDG and sustain good performance.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. The ACCES framework is reflective of this requirement because it provided equal emphasis of the supply and the demand side of education to reinforce the development of a community-based accountability system as well as engender the sharing of responsibility in education service delivery.
  • 50.
  • 51. The Revised School-Based Management (SBM) Assessment tool is guided by the four principles of ACCESs (A Child- and Community- Centered Education System).
  • 52. The indicators of SBM practice were contextualized from the ideals of an ACCESs school system. The unit of analysis is the school system, which may be classified as beginning, developing or advanced (accredited level).
  • 53. The SBM practice is ascertained by the existence of structured mechanisms, processes and practices in all indicators. A team of practitioners and experts from the district, division, region and central office validates the self-study/assessment before a level of SBM practice is established.
  • 54. The highest level- “advanced” is a candidacy for accreditation after a team of external validators confirmed the evidence of practices and procedures that satisfies quality standards.
  • 56. A network of leadership and governance guides the education system to achieve its shared vision, mission and goals making them responsive and relevant to the context of diverse environment.
  • 57. The curriculum learning systems anchored on the community and learners’ contexts and aspirations are collaboratively developed and continuously improved.
  • 58. A clear, transparent, inclusive, and responsive accountability system is in lace, collaboratively developed by the school community, which monitors performance and acts appropriate gaps and gains.
  • 59. Resources are collectively and judiciously mobilized and managed with transparency, effectiveness and efficiency.
  • 61. The four (4) principles were assigned percentage weights on the basis of their relative importance to the aim of school (improved learning outcomes and school operations); 1.Leadership and Governance - 30% 2.Curriculum and Learning – 30% 3. Accountability and Continuous Improvement – 25% 4.Management of Resources – 15%
  • 62. 0 - No evidence 1-Evidence indicates early or preliminary stages of implementation 2-Evidence indicates planned practices and procedures are fully implemented 3-Evidence indicates planned practices and procedures are fully implemented
  • 63. LEVEL OF SBM PRACTICES 60% based on improvement of the learning outcomes 40% according to the validated practices using DOD
  • 64. Level III: 150-200 points Level II : 149-100 points Level I : 99 and below THE RESULTING SCORE WILL BE INTERPRETED AS:
  • 65. LEVEL I: BEGINNING– developing structures and mechanisms with acceptable level and extent of community participation and impact on learning outcomes. LEVEL II: DEVELOPING – introducing and sustaining continuous improvement process that integrates wider community participation and significantly improve performance and learning outcomes. LEVEL III: ADVANCED (ACCREDITED) – ensuring the production of intended outputs/outcomes and meeting all standards of a system fully integrated in the local community and self-renewing and self- sustaining.
  • 66.
  • 67. A Quality Assurance System of DepEd to ensure delivery of quality basic education. A system of processes and tools to be applied so the desired knowledge, skills, attitudes and values of the students can be attained at some expected level. The installation was brought about by the introduction of policy reforms embodied in the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda(BESRA). Part of the BESRA mandate is to harmonize the two accreditation systems: Accreditation Program for Public Elementary School (APPES) and Sterling Silver for High School.
  • 68. Three key components are presented: (1) guiding principles of the assessment system; (2) indicators of SBM practices; and (3) school accreditation.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.

Editor's Notes

  1. Inovatons
  2. It is a complete answer to the question: How does the government change the face of elementary education in the poorest of the provinces in a big dramatic way?
  3. These are the provinces that are in urgent need of educational investments.These are the areas struggling economically and playing catch up (with highest drop out and non-completion rates)
  4. Access to quality secondary education in poverty affected areas
  5. PROJECT GOALImprove equitable access to quality education in the province of BiliranPROJECT PURPOSESC.1 Increase Student Achievement Rate> Enhance school heads capability to provide instructional support to teachers> Improve teachers' subject knowledge and skills> Improve availability of learning resources> Improve physical environment for learning> Implement HSIF projectsC.2 Increase Participation Rate> Establish new schools in underserved areas> Establish program for student retentionC.3 Develop capacity of Division and School Heads in managing basic education services> Develop leadership and management capacity at school and division> Develop division and school-based In-Service Training (INSET) program
  6. With that scenario, the challenge for all of us DepED family is how we will accelerate the reforms to improve access to and the quality of basic education, that will redound to attainment of EFA/MDG targets.
  7. PROJECT GOALImprove equitable access to quality education in the province of BiliranPROJECT PURPOSESC.1 Increase Student Achievement Rate> Enhance school heads capability to provide instructional support to teachers> Improve teachers' subject knowledge and skills> Improve availability of learning resources> Improve physical environment for learning> Implement HSIF projectsC.2 Increase Participation Rate> Establish new schools in underserved areas> Establish program for student retentionC.3 Develop capacity of Division and School Heads in managing basic education services> Develop leadership and management capacity at school and division> Develop division and school-based In-Service Training (INSET) program
  8. Republic Act 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act in 2001 – encourage local initiatives for the improvement of quality education /promotes the principles of shared governance/the most important legal bases of SBM in the country Assumption-the school head ect know the root and the solution to the problemRA 7160 – Local Government Code of the Phils. 1991 /establishment of the Local School Board 1% from the real property tax - SEF
  9. School-based management does not mean that schools are independent and do not subject to any control. As a matter of fact, schools are required to operate within a prescribed framework of governance and comply with the rules and regulations under the Education Ordinance and Regulations, other related ordinances, the relevant code of aid, instructions as the Education Bureau may from time to time issue , and the guidelines from the school sponsoring bodies. They also have to be accountable to the public for their performance.
  10. 1. Preparation of a constitution for the management committee of the school, setting out the composition of the management committee, the term of office of the managers, their roles and responsibilities, their nomination and election, the selection of school supervisor and office bearers, as well as the development of standing orders and procedures for participation of stakeholders in policy-making. 2. Giving stakeholders the chance to participate in school management, planning and development and in the evaluation of school effectiveness.3. Development of formal procedures and resources for staff appraisal and staff development according to teachers’ needs. 4. Setting school goals and preparing school profiles, and producing school development plans, school reports, school budgets and financial reports annually. 5. Annual evaluation of the progress of school programmes and preparation of evaluation reports at the end of the school year for follow-up actions. 6. Displaying fully the spirit of SBM by adopting flexibly a school-based model designed specifically according to the actual circumstances of the 7. school, and developing a culture and characteristics unique to the school.
  11. Too much focus on the SIP templates; usually interpreted as a one-size-fits-all form overlooking: the unique condition of their schools,the learners they are providing learning environments for; and the peculiar issues they are confronting;
  12. S