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T08 - 20 HISHIS 1Salah Mansour
Occupational Health andOccupational Health and
Safety in Modern OfficeSafety in Modern Office
Salah Mansour
Program ObjectivesProgram Objectives
 The program turns a great attention to the impact ofThe program turns a great attention to the impact of
new technology in the office work placenew technology in the office work place.. Explain theExplain the
procedures that should be adopted in offices involvedprocedures that should be adopted in offices involved
with information technologywith information technology.. Explaining theExplaining the
physiological and psychological background, and howphysiological and psychological background, and how
this relates to all aspects of work and how we shouldthis relates to all aspects of work and how we should
take these important factors into accounttake these important factors into account..
 At the end of this program, you should be able to:At the end of this program, you should be able to:
1.1. Identify the most common safety hazards in the officeIdentify the most common safety hazards in the office
2.2. Apply safety and health principles into your daily workApply safety and health principles into your daily work
activities.activities.
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Program ContentsProgram Contents
 Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) and musculoskeletal injuries of theCumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) and musculoskeletal injuries of the
upper limbs.upper limbs.
 The present metamorphosis of offices.The present metamorphosis of offices.
 Video Display Terminal (VDT) jobs seen through ergonomics-tintedVideo Display Terminal (VDT) jobs seen through ergonomics-tinted
spectacles.spectacles.
 Physical characteristics of VDT’sPhysical characteristics of VDT’s
 Vision (visual strain and photometric characteristics of VDT’s)Vision (visual strain and photometric characteristics of VDT’s)
 Recommendations for VDT workstations.Recommendations for VDT workstations.
 Noise.Noise.
 Ergonomics principles of lighting, indoor climate, day and night shifts, andErgonomics principles of lighting, indoor climate, day and night shifts, and
color.color.
 Checklist for the analysis of workplaces.Checklist for the analysis of workplaces.
 Occupational stress, work satisfaction and job design.Occupational stress, work satisfaction and job design.
 Radiation.Radiation.
 Housekeeping.Housekeeping.
 Manual handling.Manual handling.
 Fire fighting.Fire fighting.
 Emergency response plan.Emergency response plan.
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IntroductionIntroduction
 Despite common beliefs that the office providesDespite common beliefs that the office provides
a safe environment in which to work, manya safe environment in which to work, many
hazards exist which cause thousands of injurieshazards exist which cause thousands of injuries
and health problems each year among officeand health problems each year among office
workers. Since one-third of the work force is inworkers. Since one-third of the work force is in
offices, even low rates of work-related injuriesoffices, even low rates of work-related injuries
and illnesses can have an immense impact onand illnesses can have an immense impact on
employee safety and health.employee safety and health.
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IntroductionIntroduction
 Today’s modern offices are substantiallyToday’s modern offices are substantially
different from the office environment of 20 yearsdifferent from the office environment of 20 years
ago. Sweeping changes have occurred in theago. Sweeping changes have occurred in the
American workplace as a result of new officeAmerican workplace as a result of new office
technology and automation of office equipment.technology and automation of office equipment.
Consequently, office workers are faced withConsequently, office workers are faced with
many more hazards.many more hazards.
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IntroductionIntroduction
 In addition to obvious hazards such as a slipperyIn addition to obvious hazards such as a slippery
floor or an open file drawer, a modern office mayfloor or an open file drawer, a modern office may
also contain hazards such as poor lighting,also contain hazards such as poor lighting,
noise, poorly designed furniture and equipment,noise, poorly designed furniture and equipment,
and machines which emit noxious gases andand machines which emit noxious gases and
fumes. Even the nature of office work itself hasfumes. Even the nature of office work itself has
produced a whole host of stress-relatedproduced a whole host of stress-related
symptoms and musculoskeletal strains.symptoms and musculoskeletal strains.
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IntroductionIntroduction
 For example, long hours at the video displayFor example, long hours at the video display
terminal (VDT) can cause pains in the neck andterminal (VDT) can cause pains in the neck and
back, eyestrain, and a general feeling ofback, eyestrain, and a general feeling of
tension and irritability.tension and irritability.
 This module includes the following sections:This module includes the following sections:
1.1. Leading Types of Disabling AccidentsLeading Types of Disabling Accidents
2.2. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards.Common Office Safety and Health Hazards.
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Leading Types of Disabling AccidentsLeading Types of Disabling Accidents
 It is estimated that office workers sustain 76,000It is estimated that office workers sustain 76,000
fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and contusionsfractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and contusions
each year.each year.
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What Is Accident
An unplanned , unexpected event that interferes
with or interrupts normal activity & potentially
leads to personal injury or equipment damage.
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Office AccidentsOffice Accidents
 The leading types of disabling accidents thatThe leading types of disabling accidents that
occur within the office are:occur within the office are:
 FallsFalls
 Strains and over-exertionStrains and over-exertion
 Struck by or striking objectsStruck by or striking objects
 Caught in or between objectsCaught in or between objects
 foreign substances in the eye,foreign substances in the eye,
 spilled hot liquids, burns from fire, and electricspilled hot liquids, burns from fire, and electric
shock.shock.
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Office IllnessOffice Illness
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What is illnessWhat is illness
 illness that occur over an extended time frame:
Such as hearing loss or an illness resulting from
Such exposure to chemicals fumes or poor
lighting, stresses and strain, … Etc.
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Office IllnessOffice Illness
 In recent years, illness has increased among theIn recent years, illness has increased among the
office worker population. This may be attributed, inoffice worker population. This may be attributed, in
part, to the increased presence of environmentalpart, to the increased presence of environmental
toxins within the office and to stress-producingtoxins within the office and to stress-producing
factors associated with the automated office.factors associated with the automated office.
 Resulting illnesses may include:Resulting illnesses may include:
1.1. respiratory problems,respiratory problems,
2.2. skin diseases,skin diseases,
3.3. stress related conditionsstress related conditions
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
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VentilationVentilation
 An adequate office ventilation system whichAn adequate office ventilation system which
delivers quality indoor air and provides fordelivers quality indoor air and provides for
comfortable humidity and temperature is acomfortable humidity and temperature is a
necessity.necessity.
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VentilationVentilation
Sources of air pollution in the office that can causeSources of air pollution in the office that can cause
health problems include:health problems include:
 Natural agentsNatural agents
(e.g., carbon monoxide, microorganisms, radon)(e.g., carbon monoxide, microorganisms, radon)
 Synthetic chemicalsSynthetic chemicals
(e.g., formaldehyde, cleaning fluids, cigarette(e.g., formaldehyde, cleaning fluids, cigarette
smoke, asbestos).smoke, asbestos).
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VentilationVentilation
 Where printing or copying machines are present,Where printing or copying machines are present,
an exhaust ventilation system which drawsan exhaust ventilation system which draws
particulates and gases away from theparticulates and gases away from the
employees' breathing zone should be present.employees' breathing zone should be present.
 Office machines and ventilation systemOffice machines and ventilation system
components should be checked and maintainedcomponents should be checked and maintained
on a regular basis.on a regular basis.
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IlluminationIllumination
Lighting problems in the office cause:Lighting problems in the office cause:
 GlareGlare
 ShadowsShadows
Visual problemsVisual problems
(i.e., eyestrain, fatigue, double vision, etc.).(i.e., eyestrain, fatigue, double vision, etc.).
Poor lighting also can be a contributing factor inPoor lighting also can be a contributing factor in
accidents.accidents.
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Controls to prevent poor lightingControls to prevent poor lighting
Controls to prevent poor lighting conditionsControls to prevent poor lighting conditions
include:include:
 Regular maintenance of the lighting systemRegular maintenance of the lighting system
 Light-colored dull finish on walls, ceilings, andLight-colored dull finish on walls, ceilings, and
floors to reduce glarefloors to reduce glare
 Adjustable shades on windowsAdjustable shades on windows
 Indirect lighting.Indirect lighting.
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NoiseNoise
Noise can be defined very simply as unwantedNoise can be defined very simply as unwanted
sounds.sounds.
In an office, workers can be subjected to manyIn an office, workers can be subjected to many
noise sources, such as:noise sources, such as:
 Video display terminalsVideo display terminals
 High-speed printersHigh-speed printers
 Telephones, fax machines.Telephones, fax machines.
 Human voices.Human voices.
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Noise Effects
 Noise can produce tension and stress as well as
damage to hearing at high noise levels. For
noise levels in offices, the most common effects
are:
 Interference with speech communication,
annoyance, and distraction from mental
activities. can decrease performance or increase
errors in some task situations.
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Level Of NoiseLevel Of Noise
The level of noise one can safelyThe level of noise one can safely
be exposed to is dependent on thebe exposed to is dependent on the
intensity of theintensity of the
noise as well as the duration ofnoise as well as the duration of
exposure.exposure.
In an office setting OSHA noiseIn an office setting OSHA noise
standards are rarelystandards are rarely
approached or exceeded.approached or exceeded.
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Control Unwanted NoiseControl Unwanted Noise
Some of the numerous measures available toSome of the numerous measures available to
control unwanted noise include:control unwanted noise include:
1. Select the quietest equipment if possible. When1. Select the quietest equipment if possible. When
there is a choice between two or more products,there is a choice between two or more products,
sound levels should be included as asound levels should be included as a
consideration for purchase and use.consideration for purchase and use.
2. Provide for proper maintenance of equipment,2. Provide for proper maintenance of equipment,
such as lubrication and tightening of loose partssuch as lubrication and tightening of loose parts
that can cause noise.that can cause noise.
3. Locate loud equipment in areas where its effects3. Locate loud equipment in areas where its effects
are less detrimental. For example, place impactare less detrimental. For example, place impact
printers away from areas where people must useprinters away from areas where people must use
the phone.the phone.
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Control Unwanted NoiseControl Unwanted Noise
4. Use barrier walls or dividers to isolate noise4. Use barrier walls or dividers to isolate noise
sources. Use of buffers or acoustically-treatedsources. Use of buffers or acoustically-treated
materials can absorb noise that might otherwisematerials can absorb noise that might otherwise
travel further. Rubber pads to insulate vibratingtravel further. Rubber pads to insulate vibrating
equipment can also help to reduce noise.equipment can also help to reduce noise.
5. Enclose equipment, such as printers, with5. Enclose equipment, such as printers, with
acoustical covers or housings.acoustical covers or housings.
6. Schedule noisy tasks at times when it will have6. Schedule noisy tasks at times when it will have
less of an effect on the other tasks in the office.less of an effect on the other tasks in the office.
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Physical Layout / HousekeepingPhysical Layout / Housekeeping
Poor design and/or poor housekeeping can leadPoor design and/or poor housekeeping can lead
to:to:
 crowding,crowding,
 lack of privacy,lack of privacy,
 slips, trips,slips, trips,
 FallsFalls
 FireFire
 AccidentsAccidents
 Bad moodsBad moods
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Factors Related To PhysicalFactors Related To Physical
Layout/HousekeepingLayout/Housekeeping
The following are important factors related to office layoutThe following are important factors related to office layout
and orderliness:and orderliness:
 At least 3 feet distance between desks and at least 50At least 3 feet distance between desks and at least 50
square feet per employee.square feet per employee.
 Keep telephone and electrical cords out of aislesKeep telephone and electrical cords out of aisles
 Group employees who use the same machinesGroup employees who use the same machines
 Office machines should be kept away from edges ofOffice machines should be kept away from edges of
desks and tablesdesks and tables
 Regular inspection, repair, and replacement of faultyRegular inspection, repair, and replacement of faulty
carpetscarpets
 Place mats inside building entrancesPlace mats inside building entrances
 Proper placement of electrical, telephone, and computerProper placement of electrical, telephone, and computer
wires.wires.
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Exits/ EgressExits/ Egress
 Blocked or improperly planned means of egress can leadBlocked or improperly planned means of egress can lead
to injuries as a result of slips, trips, and falls.to injuries as a result of slips, trips, and falls.
 If, during an emergency, employees become trapped dueIf, during an emergency, employees become trapped due
to improper egress, more serious injuries or fatalities mayto improper egress, more serious injuries or fatalities may
result.result.
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Exits/ EgressExits/ Egress
 Controls to ensure proper means of egressControls to ensure proper means of egress
include:include:
 All exit access must be at least 28 inches wideAll exit access must be at least 28 inches wide
 Generally two exits should be providedGenerally two exits should be provided
 Exits and access to exits must be markedExits and access to exits must be marked
 Means of egress, including stairways used forMeans of egress, including stairways used for
emergency exit, should be free of obstructionsemergency exit, should be free of obstructions
and adequately litand adequately lit
 Employees must be aware of exits and trained inEmployees must be aware of exits and trained in
procedures for evacuation.procedures for evacuation.
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Workstation Ergonomics
 Ergonomics means fitting the workplace to the
workers by modifying or redesigning the job,
 workstation, tool or environment. Workstation
design can have a big impact on office workers
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There are a multitude of discomforts which canThere are a multitude of discomforts which can
result from ergonomically incorrect computerresult from ergonomically incorrect computer
workstation setups. The most commonworkstation setups. The most common
complaints relate to the neck, shoulders, andcomplaints relate to the neck, shoulders, and
back. Others concern the arms and hands andback. Others concern the arms and hands and
occasionally the eyes.occasionally the eyes.
 For example, poor chairs and/or bad posturesFor example, poor chairs and/or bad postures
can cause lower back strain; or a chair that iscan cause lower back strain; or a chair that is
too high can cause circulation loss in legs andtoo high can cause circulation loss in legs and
feet.feet.
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 The key to comfort is in maintaining the body in
a relaxed, neutral position. The ideal work
position is to have the arms hanging relaxed
from the shoulders. If a keyboard is used, arms
should be bent at right angles at the elbow, with
the hands held in a straight line with forearms
and elbows close to the body. The head should
be in lined with the body and slightly forward.
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))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
2.2.
3.3.
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))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
4.4.
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))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
5.5.
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Handling and Storage HazardsHandling and Storage Hazards
 Improper lifting can cause musculoskeletalImproper lifting can cause musculoskeletal
disorders such as sprains, strains, and inflameddisorders such as sprains, strains, and inflamed
joints.joints.
 Office materials that are improperly stored canOffice materials that are improperly stored can
lead to hazards such as objects falling onlead to hazards such as objects falling on
workers, poor visibility, and fires.workers, poor visibility, and fires.
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Controls Handling And Storage HazardsControls Handling And Storage Hazards
There are several controls which can reduceThere are several controls which can reduce
handling and storage hazards.handling and storage hazards.
 Materials should not be stored on top ofMaterials should not be stored on top of
cabinets.cabinets.
 Heavy objects should be stored on lowerHeavy objects should be stored on lower
shelves and materials stacked neatly.shelves and materials stacked neatly.
 Materials should be stored inside cabinets, files,Materials should be stored inside cabinets, files,
or lockers whenever possible.or lockers whenever possible.
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Controls Handling And Storage HazardsControls Handling And Storage Hazards
 Materials must not be stored in aisles, corners,Materials must not be stored in aisles, corners,
or passageways.or passageways.
 Fire equipment should remain unobstructed.Fire equipment should remain unobstructed.
 Flammable and combustible materials must beFlammable and combustible materials must be
identified and properly isolated and stored.identified and properly isolated and stored.
 Material Safety Data Sheets must be providedMaterial Safety Data Sheets must be provided
for each hazardous chemical identified.for each hazardous chemical identified.
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Back InjuriesBack Injuries
 An effective control program incorporatingAn effective control program incorporating
employee awareness and training andemployee awareness and training and
ergonomic design of work tasks canergonomic design of work tasks can
reduce back injuries.reduce back injuries.
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11
 Take a balanced stance, feet placed
shoulder-width apart.
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When lifting something from the floor,
squat close to the load.
Keep your back in its neutral or straight
position. Tuck in you chin
so your head and neck continue the straight
back line.
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 Grip the object with your whole hand, rather
than only with your
 fingers. Draw the object close to you, holding
your elbows close to
 your body to keep the load and your body
weight centered.
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 Lift by straightening your legs. Let your leg
muscles, not your back muscles, do the work.
Tighten your stomach muscles to help
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
10 lbs. 100 lbs. 10 lbs. 10 lbs.
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Office Electrical SafetyOffice Electrical Safety
 Electricity is essential toElectricity is essential to
the operations of athe operations of a
modern automated officemodern automated office
as a source of power.as a source of power.
 Electrical equipment usedElectrical equipment used
in an office is potentiallyin an office is potentially
hazardous and can causehazardous and can cause
serious shock and burnserious shock and burn
injuries if improperly usedinjuries if improperly used
or maintained.or maintained.
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Electrical EquipmentElectrical Equipment
 Electricity travels through electrical conductorsElectricity travels through electrical conductors
which may be in the form of wires or parts of thewhich may be in the form of wires or parts of the
human body.human body.
 Most metals and moist skin offer very littleMost metals and moist skin offer very little
resistance to the flow of electrical current andresistance to the flow of electrical current and
can easily conduct electricity.can easily conduct electricity.
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 Other substances such as dry wood, porcelain, orOther substances such as dry wood, porcelain, or
pottery offer a high resistance and can be used topottery offer a high resistance and can be used to
prevent the flow of electrical current.prevent the flow of electrical current.
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Types of electrical hazards found in anTypes of electrical hazards found in an
office environmentoffice environment
 Ungrounded EquipmentUngrounded Equipment
 Overloaded OutletsOverloaded Outlets
 UnsafeUnsafe//NonNon--Approved EquipmentApproved Equipment
 Defective, frayed or improperly installed cords forDefective, frayed or improperly installed cords for
electrically operated office equipmentelectrically operated office equipment
 Improper Placement of CordsImproper Placement of Cords
 Electrical Cords across Walkways and Work AreasElectrical Cords across Walkways and Work Areas
 Live Parts UnguardedLive Parts Unguarded
 Pulling of Plugs to Shut Off PowerPulling of Plugs to Shut Off Power
 Working onWorking on ""Live EquipmentLive Equipment““
 Blocking Electrical Panel DoorsBlocking Electrical Panel Doors
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Electric Hazards ControlElectric Hazards Control
The following guidelines should be adhered to when installing orThe following guidelines should be adhered to when installing or
using electrical equipment:using electrical equipment:
 Equipment must be properly groundedEquipment must be properly grounded
 A sufficient number of outlets will prevent circuit overloadingA sufficient number of outlets will prevent circuit overloading
 Avoid the use of poorly maintained or non-approvedAvoid the use of poorly maintained or non-approved
equipmentequipment
 Cords should not be dragged over nails, hooks, or other sharpCords should not be dragged over nails, hooks, or other sharp
objectsobjects
 Receptacles should be installed and electric equipmentReceptacles should be installed and electric equipment
maintained so that no live parts are exposedmaintained so that no live parts are exposed
 Machines should be disconnected before cleaning orMachines should be disconnected before cleaning or
adjusting. Generally, machines and equipment should beadjusting. Generally, machines and equipment should be
locked or tagged out during maintenance.locked or tagged out during maintenance.
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Fire HazardsFire Hazards
 A serious problem associated with office designA serious problem associated with office design
is the potential for creating fire hazards.is the potential for creating fire hazards.
 Another danger found in modern offices isAnother danger found in modern offices is
combustible materials (e.g., furniture, rugs,combustible materials (e.g., furniture, rugs,
fibers) which can easily ignite and often emitfibers) which can easily ignite and often emit
toxic fumes.toxic fumes.
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Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies
The best time to think about fire safety is before aThe best time to think about fire safety is before a
fire starts.fire starts.
 Learn the location of fire escape routes and howLearn the location of fire escape routes and how
to activate the fire alarm.to activate the fire alarm.
 Participate in practice fire drills on a regularParticipate in practice fire drills on a regular
basis.basis.
 Become familiar with stairway exits - elevatorsBecome familiar with stairway exits - elevators
may not function during a fire, or may exposemay not function during a fire, or may expose
passengers to heat, gas and smoke.passengers to heat, gas and smoke.
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Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies
1. Heat-producing equipment - copiers, work1. Heat-producing equipment - copiers, work
processors, coffee makers and hot plates - areprocessors, coffee makers and hot plates - are
often overlooked as a potential fire hazard. Keepoften overlooked as a potential fire hazard. Keep
them away from anything that might burn.them away from anything that might burn.
2. Electrical appliances can be fire hazards. Be2. Electrical appliances can be fire hazards. Be
sure to turn off all appliances at the end of thesure to turn off all appliances at the end of the
day. Use only grounded appliances plugged intoday. Use only grounded appliances plugged into
grounded outlets (three prong plug).grounded outlets (three prong plug).
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Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies
3. If electrical equipment malfunctions or gives off a3. If electrical equipment malfunctions or gives off a
strange odor, disconnect it and call the appropriatestrange odor, disconnect it and call the appropriate
maintenance personnel. Promptly disconnect andmaintenance personnel. Promptly disconnect and
replace cracked, frayed, or broken electrical cords.replace cracked, frayed, or broken electrical cords.
4. Keep extension cords clear of doorways and other4. Keep extension cords clear of doorways and other
areas where they can be stepped on or chafed andareas where they can be stepped on or chafed and
never plug one extension cord into another.never plug one extension cord into another.
5. Do not allow combustible material (boxes, paper, etc.)5. Do not allow combustible material (boxes, paper, etc.)
to build up in inappropriate storage locations (nearto build up in inappropriate storage locations (near
sources of ignition).sources of ignition).
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Fire Hazards Controlling ProgramFire Hazards Controlling Program
Through a program of scheduled inspections,Through a program of scheduled inspections,
unsafe conditions can be recognized andunsafe conditions can be recognized and
corrected before they lead to serious injuries.corrected before they lead to serious injuries.
Take a few moments each day to walk throughTake a few moments each day to walk through
your work area.your work area.
Look for items previously pointed out, such asLook for items previously pointed out, such as
objects protruding into walkways, file cabinetsobjects protruding into walkways, file cabinets
that are weighted toward the top or frayedthat are weighted toward the top or frayed
electrical cords.electrical cords.
Advise personnel in the area of the hazards andAdvise personnel in the area of the hazards and
set about correcting them.set about correcting them.
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Emergency PreparednessEmergency Preparedness
 Open office designs allows smoke to spreadOpen office designs allows smoke to spread
quickly and the incorporation of many syntheticquickly and the incorporation of many synthetic
and other combustible material in office fixturesand other combustible material in office fixtures
(such as furniture, rugs, drapes, plastic(such as furniture, rugs, drapes, plastic
wastebaskets, and vinyl covered walls) oftenwastebaskets, and vinyl covered walls) often
makes "smoky" fires.makes "smoky" fires.
 many synthetic materials can emit toxicmany synthetic materials can emit toxic
materials during a fire. For example, cyanide canmaterials during a fire. For example, cyanide can
be emitted from urethane which is commonlybe emitted from urethane which is commonly
used in upholstery stuffing. Most burningused in upholstery stuffing. Most burning
materials can emit carbon monoxide.materials can emit carbon monoxide.
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Inhalation of these toxic materials can severelyInhalation of these toxic materials can severely
hamper an office worker’s chances of getting outhamper an office worker’s chances of getting out
of a fire in time.of a fire in time.
This makes it imperative for officeThis makes it imperative for office
workers to recognize the signal toworkers to recognize the signal to
evacuate their work area and know howevacuate their work area and know how
to exit in an expedient manner.to exit in an expedient manner.
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Action PlanAction Plan
 The local emergency action plan should addressThe local emergency action plan should address
potential emergencies that can be expected inpotential emergencies that can be expected in
the work area.the work area.
 Floor plans or workplace maps that clearly showFloor plans or workplace maps that clearly show
the emergency escape routes and safe or refugethe emergency escape routes and safe or refuge
areas.areas.
 Identifying the individuals responsibleIdentifying the individuals responsible
 Identifying the method of communicationIdentifying the method of communication
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General Guidance
General guidance for fires and related emergencies If you discover a
fire or see/smell smoke, immediately follow these procedures:
a. Notify the local Fire Department
b. Notify CDC Physical Security or Building Security Force
c. Activate the building alarm (fire pull station). If not available or
operational, verbally notify people in the building.
d. Isolate the area by closing windows and doors and evacuate the
building, if you can do so safely.
e. Shut down equipment in the immediate area, if possible.
f. If possible and if you have received appropriate training, use a
portable fire extinguisher to:
-assist oneself to evacuate;
-assist another to evacuate; and
-control a small fire.
g. Do not collect personal or official items; leave the area of the fire
immediately and walk, do not run.
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Office FurnitureOffice Furniture
Defective furniture or misuse of chairs or file cabinets byDefective furniture or misuse of chairs or file cabinets by
office workers can lead to serious injuries. Listed here areoffice workers can lead to serious injuries. Listed here are
controls related to chairs and abinets:controls related to chairs and abinets:
 Chairs should be properly designed and regularlyChairs should be properly designed and regularly
inspected for missing casters, shaky legs, and looseinspected for missing casters, shaky legs, and loose
partsparts
 Do not lean back in a chair with your feet on a deskDo not lean back in a chair with your feet on a desk
 Do not scoot across the floor while sitting on a chairDo not scoot across the floor while sitting on a chair
 Never stand on a chair to reach an overhead objectNever stand on a chair to reach an overhead object
 Open only one file drawer at a timeOpen only one file drawer at a time
 Do not locate file cabinets close to doorways or in aislesDo not locate file cabinets close to doorways or in aisles
 Use drawer handles to close file drawers.Use drawer handles to close file drawers.
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Office MachineryOffice Machinery
 Machines with ingoing nip points or rotatingMachines with ingoing nip points or rotating
parts can cause lacerations, abrasions,parts can cause lacerations, abrasions,
fractures, and amputations if not adequatelyfractures, and amputations if not adequately
guarded.guarded.
 Machines such as conveyors, electric holeMachines such as conveyors, electric hole
punches, and paper shredders with hazardouspunches, and paper shredders with hazardous
moving parts must be guarded so that officemoving parts must be guarded so that office
workers cannot contact the moving parts.workers cannot contact the moving parts.
Salah Mansour
LightingLighting
 Lighting is one of the most important factors affectingLighting is one of the most important factors affecting
personal comfort on the job. The best lighting system ispersonal comfort on the job. The best lighting system is
one in which the light level is geared to the task, whereone in which the light level is geared to the task, where
brightness ratios are controlled (no intensely bright orbrightness ratios are controlled (no intensely bright or
dark areas in one field of vision)dark areas in one field of vision)
 and where ceilings, walls, and floors are carefully chosenand where ceilings, walls, and floors are carefully chosen
to minimize glare.to minimize glare.
 Glare is defined as a harsh, uncomfortable bright lightGlare is defined as a harsh, uncomfortable bright light
that shines directly in the eyes. Glare may be eitherthat shines directly in the eyes. Glare may be either
direct, coming from lights or sunshine, or indirect,direct, coming from lights or sunshine, or indirect,
coming from a reflected surface.coming from a reflected surface.
Salah Mansour
The EyeThe Eye
 We depend on our vision more than any otherWe depend on our vision more than any other
sense. The eye allows us to see the shapes,sense. The eye allows us to see the shapes,
colors, and dimensions of objects in the world bycolors, and dimensions of objects in the world by
processing the light these objects either reflectprocessing the light these objects either reflect
or give off. The eye is able to see in light that isor give off. The eye is able to see in light that is
dim or bright, but it cannot see an object whendim or bright, but it cannot see an object when
light is absent. The eye changes light rays intolight is absent. The eye changes light rays into
electrical signals and these signals are sent toelectrical signals and these signals are sent to
the brain, which interprets them as visualthe brain, which interprets them as visual
images.images.
Salah Mansour
The Parts Of The EyeThe Parts Of The Eye
 parts of the human eye are the cornea, the pupil, theparts of the human eye are the cornea, the pupil, the
iris, the sclera, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerve.iris, the sclera, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerve.
Salah Mansour
 CorneaCornea
 The cornea is the "window of the eye." ItThe cornea is the "window of the eye." It
provides most of the focusing power when lightprovides most of the focusing power when light
enters your eye. The cornea is composed of fiveenters your eye. The cornea is composed of five
layers of tissue. The outer layer, called thelayers of tissue. The outer layer, called the
epithelium, is the eye's protective layer. Thisepithelium, is the eye's protective layer. This
layer is made up of cells that have the ability tolayer is made up of cells that have the ability to
grow back within 3 days, which allows for fastgrow back within 3 days, which allows for fast
healing of superficial injuries. Most of the innerhealing of superficial injuries. Most of the inner
layers provide strength to the eye.layers provide strength to the eye.
Salah Mansour
 PupilPupil
 The pupil is the "black circle" in the eye. TheThe pupil is the "black circle" in the eye. The
pupil controls the amount of light entering thepupil controls the amount of light entering the
eye. When it is dark, the pupil expands to alloweye. When it is dark, the pupil expands to allow
more light to reach the back of the eye. Whenmore light to reach the back of the eye. When
you are in a bright environment, the pupilyou are in a bright environment, the pupil
becomes smaller to allow less light through.becomes smaller to allow less light through.
Salah Mansour
 IrisIris
 This is the colored part of the eye, surroundingThis is the colored part of the eye, surrounding
the pupil. The muscles of the iris control the sizethe pupil. The muscles of the iris control the size
of the pupil by contracting or expanding.of the pupil by contracting or expanding.
Salah Mansour
 ScleraSclera
 This is the "white part" of the eye. The sclera'sThis is the "white part" of the eye. The sclera's
purpose is to provide structure, strength andpurpose is to provide structure, strength and
protection to the eye.protection to the eye.
Salah Mansour
 LensLens
 The lens is the clear structure located behind theThe lens is the clear structure located behind the
pupil. It alters its shape to become thinner orpupil. It alters its shape to become thinner or
thicker, which provides fine-tuning for focusingthicker, which provides fine-tuning for focusing
and reading. Between the ages of 40 and 60, theand reading. Between the ages of 40 and 60, the
lens becomes less flexible and presbyopialens becomes less flexible and presbyopia
(difficulty in reading small print) occurs. Between(difficulty in reading small print) occurs. Between
the ages of 60 and 80, the lens sometimesthe ages of 60 and 80, the lens sometimes
becomes cloudy and hard, preventing light frombecomes cloudy and hard, preventing light from
entering the eye. This is called the formation of aentering the eye. This is called the formation of a
cataract.cataract.
Salah Mansour
 RetinaRetina
 The retina consists of fine nerve tissue, whichThe retina consists of fine nerve tissue, which
lines the inside wall of the eye and acts like thelines the inside wall of the eye and acts like the
film in a camera. It transmits images to the brain.film in a camera. It transmits images to the brain.
When your vision is good, the light rays comingWhen your vision is good, the light rays coming
into your eye focus precisely on the retina.into your eye focus precisely on the retina.
Salah Mansour
 Optic NerveOptic Nerve
 The optic nerve is located in the rear of the eye,The optic nerve is located in the rear of the eye,
and carries images from the retina to the brain.and carries images from the retina to the brain.
Damage to the optic nerve can occur fromDamage to the optic nerve can occur from
glaucoma, which affects your peripheral vision.glaucoma, which affects your peripheral vision.
Salah Mansour


•
Salah Mansour

•
•
Salah Mansour
•)Stack(
•
Salah Mansour
1.1.
2.2.
3.3.
Salah Mansour
4.4.
5.5.
6.6.
Salah Mansour
))Scrape YardScrape Yard((
Salah Mansour
::
1.1.
2.2.
3.3.
4.4.
Salah Mansour
5.5.Back StrainBack Strain((.(.(
6.6.
7.7.
Salah Mansour
5.5.
6.6.
7.7.
Salah Mansour

1.)Stapler(
2.)Razor Blades(
3.Pointed & Sharp Objects((
4.Drawing Pins & Paper Clips((
5.Paper Cutter((
6.Broken Glass((
Salah Mansour





Salah Mansour
11--))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
Salah Mansour
))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
1.1.
Salah Mansour
2-2-
Salah Mansour
::




Salah Mansour
::


Salah Mansour



•Fuel (Combustible Substances(
•Air (Oxygen(
•Heat (Sources of Ignition(
Salah Mansour
1-1-))
..
..
..
Salah Mansour
2-2- ))
)Flammability Limits(,)LEL()UEL(
Salah Mansour
3-3-))









Salah Mansour
11--


Salah Mansour




Salah Mansour
22--
::

Salah Mansour
.

Salah Mansour



Salah Mansour
11--



Salah Mansour



Salah Mansour
22--



Salah Mansour



Salah Mansour


..
Salah Mansour
33--


Salah Mansour


Salah Mansour



Salah Mansour
11--






Salah Mansour
22--




..
Salah Mansour



Salah Mansour




Salah Mansour

1.1.-:-:
Salah Mansour
2.2.-:-:

Salah Mansour

.

T08 - 20 HISHIS 120Salah Mansour
T H E E N DT H E E N D
‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خخخ‬ ‫خخ‬ ‫خ‬‫خ‬‫خخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خخخ‬ ‫خخ‬ ‫خ‬‫خ‬‫خخ‬
‫خخخخ‬‫خخخخ‬
‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬
‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬
‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬
‫خخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخخ‬
P E T R O S A F E
Petroleum Safety & Environmental Services Co.

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السلامة في المكاتب و المباني الإداريةE

  • 1. T08 - 20 HISHIS 1Salah Mansour Occupational Health andOccupational Health and Safety in Modern OfficeSafety in Modern Office
  • 2. Salah Mansour Program ObjectivesProgram Objectives  The program turns a great attention to the impact ofThe program turns a great attention to the impact of new technology in the office work placenew technology in the office work place.. Explain theExplain the procedures that should be adopted in offices involvedprocedures that should be adopted in offices involved with information technologywith information technology.. Explaining theExplaining the physiological and psychological background, and howphysiological and psychological background, and how this relates to all aspects of work and how we shouldthis relates to all aspects of work and how we should take these important factors into accounttake these important factors into account..  At the end of this program, you should be able to:At the end of this program, you should be able to: 1.1. Identify the most common safety hazards in the officeIdentify the most common safety hazards in the office 2.2. Apply safety and health principles into your daily workApply safety and health principles into your daily work activities.activities.
  • 3. Salah Mansour Program ContentsProgram Contents  Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) and musculoskeletal injuries of theCumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) and musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limbs.upper limbs.  The present metamorphosis of offices.The present metamorphosis of offices.  Video Display Terminal (VDT) jobs seen through ergonomics-tintedVideo Display Terminal (VDT) jobs seen through ergonomics-tinted spectacles.spectacles.  Physical characteristics of VDT’sPhysical characteristics of VDT’s  Vision (visual strain and photometric characteristics of VDT’s)Vision (visual strain and photometric characteristics of VDT’s)  Recommendations for VDT workstations.Recommendations for VDT workstations.  Noise.Noise.  Ergonomics principles of lighting, indoor climate, day and night shifts, andErgonomics principles of lighting, indoor climate, day and night shifts, and color.color.  Checklist for the analysis of workplaces.Checklist for the analysis of workplaces.  Occupational stress, work satisfaction and job design.Occupational stress, work satisfaction and job design.  Radiation.Radiation.  Housekeeping.Housekeeping.  Manual handling.Manual handling.  Fire fighting.Fire fighting.  Emergency response plan.Emergency response plan.
  • 4. Salah Mansour IntroductionIntroduction  Despite common beliefs that the office providesDespite common beliefs that the office provides a safe environment in which to work, manya safe environment in which to work, many hazards exist which cause thousands of injurieshazards exist which cause thousands of injuries and health problems each year among officeand health problems each year among office workers. Since one-third of the work force is inworkers. Since one-third of the work force is in offices, even low rates of work-related injuriesoffices, even low rates of work-related injuries and illnesses can have an immense impact onand illnesses can have an immense impact on employee safety and health.employee safety and health.
  • 5. Salah Mansour IntroductionIntroduction  Today’s modern offices are substantiallyToday’s modern offices are substantially different from the office environment of 20 yearsdifferent from the office environment of 20 years ago. Sweeping changes have occurred in theago. Sweeping changes have occurred in the American workplace as a result of new officeAmerican workplace as a result of new office technology and automation of office equipment.technology and automation of office equipment. Consequently, office workers are faced withConsequently, office workers are faced with many more hazards.many more hazards.
  • 6. Salah Mansour IntroductionIntroduction  In addition to obvious hazards such as a slipperyIn addition to obvious hazards such as a slippery floor or an open file drawer, a modern office mayfloor or an open file drawer, a modern office may also contain hazards such as poor lighting,also contain hazards such as poor lighting, noise, poorly designed furniture and equipment,noise, poorly designed furniture and equipment, and machines which emit noxious gases andand machines which emit noxious gases and fumes. Even the nature of office work itself hasfumes. Even the nature of office work itself has produced a whole host of stress-relatedproduced a whole host of stress-related symptoms and musculoskeletal strains.symptoms and musculoskeletal strains.
  • 7. Salah Mansour IntroductionIntroduction  For example, long hours at the video displayFor example, long hours at the video display terminal (VDT) can cause pains in the neck andterminal (VDT) can cause pains in the neck and back, eyestrain, and a general feeling ofback, eyestrain, and a general feeling of tension and irritability.tension and irritability.  This module includes the following sections:This module includes the following sections: 1.1. Leading Types of Disabling AccidentsLeading Types of Disabling Accidents 2.2. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards.Common Office Safety and Health Hazards.
  • 8. Salah Mansour Leading Types of Disabling AccidentsLeading Types of Disabling Accidents  It is estimated that office workers sustain 76,000It is estimated that office workers sustain 76,000 fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and contusionsfractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and contusions each year.each year.
  • 9. Salah Mansour What Is Accident An unplanned , unexpected event that interferes with or interrupts normal activity & potentially leads to personal injury or equipment damage.
  • 10. Salah Mansour Office AccidentsOffice Accidents  The leading types of disabling accidents thatThe leading types of disabling accidents that occur within the office are:occur within the office are:  FallsFalls  Strains and over-exertionStrains and over-exertion  Struck by or striking objectsStruck by or striking objects  Caught in or between objectsCaught in or between objects  foreign substances in the eye,foreign substances in the eye,  spilled hot liquids, burns from fire, and electricspilled hot liquids, burns from fire, and electric shock.shock.
  • 12. Salah Mansour What is illnessWhat is illness  illness that occur over an extended time frame: Such as hearing loss or an illness resulting from Such exposure to chemicals fumes or poor lighting, stresses and strain, … Etc.
  • 13. Salah Mansour Office IllnessOffice Illness  In recent years, illness has increased among theIn recent years, illness has increased among the office worker population. This may be attributed, inoffice worker population. This may be attributed, in part, to the increased presence of environmentalpart, to the increased presence of environmental toxins within the office and to stress-producingtoxins within the office and to stress-producing factors associated with the automated office.factors associated with the automated office.  Resulting illnesses may include:Resulting illnesses may include: 1.1. respiratory problems,respiratory problems, 2.2. skin diseases,skin diseases, 3.3. stress related conditionsstress related conditions
  • 15. Salah Mansour VentilationVentilation  An adequate office ventilation system whichAn adequate office ventilation system which delivers quality indoor air and provides fordelivers quality indoor air and provides for comfortable humidity and temperature is acomfortable humidity and temperature is a necessity.necessity.
  • 16. Salah Mansour VentilationVentilation Sources of air pollution in the office that can causeSources of air pollution in the office that can cause health problems include:health problems include:  Natural agentsNatural agents (e.g., carbon monoxide, microorganisms, radon)(e.g., carbon monoxide, microorganisms, radon)  Synthetic chemicalsSynthetic chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, cleaning fluids, cigarette(e.g., formaldehyde, cleaning fluids, cigarette smoke, asbestos).smoke, asbestos).
  • 17. Salah Mansour VentilationVentilation  Where printing or copying machines are present,Where printing or copying machines are present, an exhaust ventilation system which drawsan exhaust ventilation system which draws particulates and gases away from theparticulates and gases away from the employees' breathing zone should be present.employees' breathing zone should be present.  Office machines and ventilation systemOffice machines and ventilation system components should be checked and maintainedcomponents should be checked and maintained on a regular basis.on a regular basis.
  • 18. Salah Mansour IlluminationIllumination Lighting problems in the office cause:Lighting problems in the office cause:  GlareGlare  ShadowsShadows Visual problemsVisual problems (i.e., eyestrain, fatigue, double vision, etc.).(i.e., eyestrain, fatigue, double vision, etc.). Poor lighting also can be a contributing factor inPoor lighting also can be a contributing factor in accidents.accidents.
  • 19. Salah Mansour Controls to prevent poor lightingControls to prevent poor lighting Controls to prevent poor lighting conditionsControls to prevent poor lighting conditions include:include:  Regular maintenance of the lighting systemRegular maintenance of the lighting system  Light-colored dull finish on walls, ceilings, andLight-colored dull finish on walls, ceilings, and floors to reduce glarefloors to reduce glare  Adjustable shades on windowsAdjustable shades on windows  Indirect lighting.Indirect lighting.
  • 20. Salah Mansour NoiseNoise Noise can be defined very simply as unwantedNoise can be defined very simply as unwanted sounds.sounds. In an office, workers can be subjected to manyIn an office, workers can be subjected to many noise sources, such as:noise sources, such as:  Video display terminalsVideo display terminals  High-speed printersHigh-speed printers  Telephones, fax machines.Telephones, fax machines.  Human voices.Human voices.
  • 21. Salah Mansour Noise Effects  Noise can produce tension and stress as well as damage to hearing at high noise levels. For noise levels in offices, the most common effects are:  Interference with speech communication, annoyance, and distraction from mental activities. can decrease performance or increase errors in some task situations.
  • 22. Salah Mansour Level Of NoiseLevel Of Noise The level of noise one can safelyThe level of noise one can safely be exposed to is dependent on thebe exposed to is dependent on the intensity of theintensity of the noise as well as the duration ofnoise as well as the duration of exposure.exposure. In an office setting OSHA noiseIn an office setting OSHA noise standards are rarelystandards are rarely approached or exceeded.approached or exceeded.
  • 23. Salah Mansour Control Unwanted NoiseControl Unwanted Noise Some of the numerous measures available toSome of the numerous measures available to control unwanted noise include:control unwanted noise include: 1. Select the quietest equipment if possible. When1. Select the quietest equipment if possible. When there is a choice between two or more products,there is a choice between two or more products, sound levels should be included as asound levels should be included as a consideration for purchase and use.consideration for purchase and use. 2. Provide for proper maintenance of equipment,2. Provide for proper maintenance of equipment, such as lubrication and tightening of loose partssuch as lubrication and tightening of loose parts that can cause noise.that can cause noise. 3. Locate loud equipment in areas where its effects3. Locate loud equipment in areas where its effects are less detrimental. For example, place impactare less detrimental. For example, place impact printers away from areas where people must useprinters away from areas where people must use the phone.the phone.
  • 24. Salah Mansour Control Unwanted NoiseControl Unwanted Noise 4. Use barrier walls or dividers to isolate noise4. Use barrier walls or dividers to isolate noise sources. Use of buffers or acoustically-treatedsources. Use of buffers or acoustically-treated materials can absorb noise that might otherwisematerials can absorb noise that might otherwise travel further. Rubber pads to insulate vibratingtravel further. Rubber pads to insulate vibrating equipment can also help to reduce noise.equipment can also help to reduce noise. 5. Enclose equipment, such as printers, with5. Enclose equipment, such as printers, with acoustical covers or housings.acoustical covers or housings. 6. Schedule noisy tasks at times when it will have6. Schedule noisy tasks at times when it will have less of an effect on the other tasks in the office.less of an effect on the other tasks in the office.
  • 25. Salah Mansour Physical Layout / HousekeepingPhysical Layout / Housekeeping Poor design and/or poor housekeeping can leadPoor design and/or poor housekeeping can lead to:to:  crowding,crowding,  lack of privacy,lack of privacy,  slips, trips,slips, trips,  FallsFalls  FireFire  AccidentsAccidents  Bad moodsBad moods
  • 26. Salah Mansour Factors Related To PhysicalFactors Related To Physical Layout/HousekeepingLayout/Housekeeping The following are important factors related to office layoutThe following are important factors related to office layout and orderliness:and orderliness:  At least 3 feet distance between desks and at least 50At least 3 feet distance between desks and at least 50 square feet per employee.square feet per employee.  Keep telephone and electrical cords out of aislesKeep telephone and electrical cords out of aisles  Group employees who use the same machinesGroup employees who use the same machines  Office machines should be kept away from edges ofOffice machines should be kept away from edges of desks and tablesdesks and tables  Regular inspection, repair, and replacement of faultyRegular inspection, repair, and replacement of faulty carpetscarpets  Place mats inside building entrancesPlace mats inside building entrances  Proper placement of electrical, telephone, and computerProper placement of electrical, telephone, and computer wires.wires.
  • 27. Salah Mansour Exits/ EgressExits/ Egress  Blocked or improperly planned means of egress can leadBlocked or improperly planned means of egress can lead to injuries as a result of slips, trips, and falls.to injuries as a result of slips, trips, and falls.  If, during an emergency, employees become trapped dueIf, during an emergency, employees become trapped due to improper egress, more serious injuries or fatalities mayto improper egress, more serious injuries or fatalities may result.result.
  • 28. Salah Mansour Exits/ EgressExits/ Egress  Controls to ensure proper means of egressControls to ensure proper means of egress include:include:  All exit access must be at least 28 inches wideAll exit access must be at least 28 inches wide  Generally two exits should be providedGenerally two exits should be provided  Exits and access to exits must be markedExits and access to exits must be marked  Means of egress, including stairways used forMeans of egress, including stairways used for emergency exit, should be free of obstructionsemergency exit, should be free of obstructions and adequately litand adequately lit  Employees must be aware of exits and trained inEmployees must be aware of exits and trained in procedures for evacuation.procedures for evacuation.
  • 29. Salah Mansour Workstation Ergonomics  Ergonomics means fitting the workplace to the workers by modifying or redesigning the job,  workstation, tool or environment. Workstation design can have a big impact on office workers
  • 30. Salah Mansour There are a multitude of discomforts which canThere are a multitude of discomforts which can result from ergonomically incorrect computerresult from ergonomically incorrect computer workstation setups. The most commonworkstation setups. The most common complaints relate to the neck, shoulders, andcomplaints relate to the neck, shoulders, and back. Others concern the arms and hands andback. Others concern the arms and hands and occasionally the eyes.occasionally the eyes.  For example, poor chairs and/or bad posturesFor example, poor chairs and/or bad postures can cause lower back strain; or a chair that iscan cause lower back strain; or a chair that is too high can cause circulation loss in legs andtoo high can cause circulation loss in legs and feet.feet.
  • 32. Salah Mansour  The key to comfort is in maintaining the body in a relaxed, neutral position. The ideal work position is to have the arms hanging relaxed from the shoulders. If a keyboard is used, arms should be bent at right angles at the elbow, with the hands held in a straight line with forearms and elbows close to the body. The head should be in lined with the body and slightly forward.
  • 33. Salah Mansour ))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely(( 2.2. 3.3.
  • 34. Salah Mansour ))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely(( 4.4.
  • 35. Salah Mansour ))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely(( 5.5.
  • 40. Salah Mansour Handling and Storage HazardsHandling and Storage Hazards  Improper lifting can cause musculoskeletalImproper lifting can cause musculoskeletal disorders such as sprains, strains, and inflameddisorders such as sprains, strains, and inflamed joints.joints.  Office materials that are improperly stored canOffice materials that are improperly stored can lead to hazards such as objects falling onlead to hazards such as objects falling on workers, poor visibility, and fires.workers, poor visibility, and fires.
  • 41. Salah Mansour Controls Handling And Storage HazardsControls Handling And Storage Hazards There are several controls which can reduceThere are several controls which can reduce handling and storage hazards.handling and storage hazards.  Materials should not be stored on top ofMaterials should not be stored on top of cabinets.cabinets.  Heavy objects should be stored on lowerHeavy objects should be stored on lower shelves and materials stacked neatly.shelves and materials stacked neatly.  Materials should be stored inside cabinets, files,Materials should be stored inside cabinets, files, or lockers whenever possible.or lockers whenever possible.
  • 42. Salah Mansour Controls Handling And Storage HazardsControls Handling And Storage Hazards  Materials must not be stored in aisles, corners,Materials must not be stored in aisles, corners, or passageways.or passageways.  Fire equipment should remain unobstructed.Fire equipment should remain unobstructed.  Flammable and combustible materials must beFlammable and combustible materials must be identified and properly isolated and stored.identified and properly isolated and stored.  Material Safety Data Sheets must be providedMaterial Safety Data Sheets must be provided for each hazardous chemical identified.for each hazardous chemical identified.
  • 43. Salah Mansour Back InjuriesBack Injuries  An effective control program incorporatingAn effective control program incorporating employee awareness and training andemployee awareness and training and ergonomic design of work tasks canergonomic design of work tasks can reduce back injuries.reduce back injuries.
  • 44. Salah Mansour 11  Take a balanced stance, feet placed shoulder-width apart.
  • 45. Salah Mansour 22 When lifting something from the floor, squat close to the load. Keep your back in its neutral or straight position. Tuck in you chin so your head and neck continue the straight back line.
  • 46. Salah Mansour 33  Grip the object with your whole hand, rather than only with your  fingers. Draw the object close to you, holding your elbows close to  your body to keep the load and your body weight centered.
  • 47. Salah Mansour 44  Lift by straightening your legs. Let your leg muscles, not your back muscles, do the work. Tighten your stomach muscles to help
  • 49. Salah Mansour  10 lbs. 100 lbs. 10 lbs. 10 lbs.
  • 54. Salah Mansour Office Electrical SafetyOffice Electrical Safety  Electricity is essential toElectricity is essential to the operations of athe operations of a modern automated officemodern automated office as a source of power.as a source of power.  Electrical equipment usedElectrical equipment used in an office is potentiallyin an office is potentially hazardous and can causehazardous and can cause serious shock and burnserious shock and burn injuries if improperly usedinjuries if improperly used or maintained.or maintained.
  • 55. Salah Mansour Electrical EquipmentElectrical Equipment  Electricity travels through electrical conductorsElectricity travels through electrical conductors which may be in the form of wires or parts of thewhich may be in the form of wires or parts of the human body.human body.  Most metals and moist skin offer very littleMost metals and moist skin offer very little resistance to the flow of electrical current andresistance to the flow of electrical current and can easily conduct electricity.can easily conduct electricity.
  • 56. Salah Mansour  Other substances such as dry wood, porcelain, orOther substances such as dry wood, porcelain, or pottery offer a high resistance and can be used topottery offer a high resistance and can be used to prevent the flow of electrical current.prevent the flow of electrical current.
  • 57. Salah Mansour Types of electrical hazards found in anTypes of electrical hazards found in an office environmentoffice environment  Ungrounded EquipmentUngrounded Equipment  Overloaded OutletsOverloaded Outlets  UnsafeUnsafe//NonNon--Approved EquipmentApproved Equipment  Defective, frayed or improperly installed cords forDefective, frayed or improperly installed cords for electrically operated office equipmentelectrically operated office equipment  Improper Placement of CordsImproper Placement of Cords  Electrical Cords across Walkways and Work AreasElectrical Cords across Walkways and Work Areas  Live Parts UnguardedLive Parts Unguarded  Pulling of Plugs to Shut Off PowerPulling of Plugs to Shut Off Power  Working onWorking on ""Live EquipmentLive Equipment““  Blocking Electrical Panel DoorsBlocking Electrical Panel Doors
  • 58. Salah Mansour Electric Hazards ControlElectric Hazards Control The following guidelines should be adhered to when installing orThe following guidelines should be adhered to when installing or using electrical equipment:using electrical equipment:  Equipment must be properly groundedEquipment must be properly grounded  A sufficient number of outlets will prevent circuit overloadingA sufficient number of outlets will prevent circuit overloading  Avoid the use of poorly maintained or non-approvedAvoid the use of poorly maintained or non-approved equipmentequipment  Cords should not be dragged over nails, hooks, or other sharpCords should not be dragged over nails, hooks, or other sharp objectsobjects  Receptacles should be installed and electric equipmentReceptacles should be installed and electric equipment maintained so that no live parts are exposedmaintained so that no live parts are exposed  Machines should be disconnected before cleaning orMachines should be disconnected before cleaning or adjusting. Generally, machines and equipment should beadjusting. Generally, machines and equipment should be locked or tagged out during maintenance.locked or tagged out during maintenance.
  • 59. Salah Mansour Fire HazardsFire Hazards  A serious problem associated with office designA serious problem associated with office design is the potential for creating fire hazards.is the potential for creating fire hazards.  Another danger found in modern offices isAnother danger found in modern offices is combustible materials (e.g., furniture, rugs,combustible materials (e.g., furniture, rugs, fibers) which can easily ignite and often emitfibers) which can easily ignite and often emit toxic fumes.toxic fumes.
  • 60. Salah Mansour Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies The best time to think about fire safety is before aThe best time to think about fire safety is before a fire starts.fire starts.  Learn the location of fire escape routes and howLearn the location of fire escape routes and how to activate the fire alarm.to activate the fire alarm.  Participate in practice fire drills on a regularParticipate in practice fire drills on a regular basis.basis.  Become familiar with stairway exits - elevatorsBecome familiar with stairway exits - elevators may not function during a fire, or may exposemay not function during a fire, or may expose passengers to heat, gas and smoke.passengers to heat, gas and smoke.
  • 61. Salah Mansour Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies 1. Heat-producing equipment - copiers, work1. Heat-producing equipment - copiers, work processors, coffee makers and hot plates - areprocessors, coffee makers and hot plates - are often overlooked as a potential fire hazard. Keepoften overlooked as a potential fire hazard. Keep them away from anything that might burn.them away from anything that might burn. 2. Electrical appliances can be fire hazards. Be2. Electrical appliances can be fire hazards. Be sure to turn off all appliances at the end of thesure to turn off all appliances at the end of the day. Use only grounded appliances plugged intoday. Use only grounded appliances plugged into grounded outlets (three prong plug).grounded outlets (three prong plug).
  • 62. Salah Mansour Office Fire Prevention StrategiesOffice Fire Prevention Strategies 3. If electrical equipment malfunctions or gives off a3. If electrical equipment malfunctions or gives off a strange odor, disconnect it and call the appropriatestrange odor, disconnect it and call the appropriate maintenance personnel. Promptly disconnect andmaintenance personnel. Promptly disconnect and replace cracked, frayed, or broken electrical cords.replace cracked, frayed, or broken electrical cords. 4. Keep extension cords clear of doorways and other4. Keep extension cords clear of doorways and other areas where they can be stepped on or chafed andareas where they can be stepped on or chafed and never plug one extension cord into another.never plug one extension cord into another. 5. Do not allow combustible material (boxes, paper, etc.)5. Do not allow combustible material (boxes, paper, etc.) to build up in inappropriate storage locations (nearto build up in inappropriate storage locations (near sources of ignition).sources of ignition).
  • 63. Salah Mansour Fire Hazards Controlling ProgramFire Hazards Controlling Program Through a program of scheduled inspections,Through a program of scheduled inspections, unsafe conditions can be recognized andunsafe conditions can be recognized and corrected before they lead to serious injuries.corrected before they lead to serious injuries. Take a few moments each day to walk throughTake a few moments each day to walk through your work area.your work area. Look for items previously pointed out, such asLook for items previously pointed out, such as objects protruding into walkways, file cabinetsobjects protruding into walkways, file cabinets that are weighted toward the top or frayedthat are weighted toward the top or frayed electrical cords.electrical cords. Advise personnel in the area of the hazards andAdvise personnel in the area of the hazards and set about correcting them.set about correcting them.
  • 64. Salah Mansour Emergency PreparednessEmergency Preparedness  Open office designs allows smoke to spreadOpen office designs allows smoke to spread quickly and the incorporation of many syntheticquickly and the incorporation of many synthetic and other combustible material in office fixturesand other combustible material in office fixtures (such as furniture, rugs, drapes, plastic(such as furniture, rugs, drapes, plastic wastebaskets, and vinyl covered walls) oftenwastebaskets, and vinyl covered walls) often makes "smoky" fires.makes "smoky" fires.  many synthetic materials can emit toxicmany synthetic materials can emit toxic materials during a fire. For example, cyanide canmaterials during a fire. For example, cyanide can be emitted from urethane which is commonlybe emitted from urethane which is commonly used in upholstery stuffing. Most burningused in upholstery stuffing. Most burning materials can emit carbon monoxide.materials can emit carbon monoxide.
  • 65. Salah Mansour Inhalation of these toxic materials can severelyInhalation of these toxic materials can severely hamper an office worker’s chances of getting outhamper an office worker’s chances of getting out of a fire in time.of a fire in time. This makes it imperative for officeThis makes it imperative for office workers to recognize the signal toworkers to recognize the signal to evacuate their work area and know howevacuate their work area and know how to exit in an expedient manner.to exit in an expedient manner.
  • 66. Salah Mansour Action PlanAction Plan  The local emergency action plan should addressThe local emergency action plan should address potential emergencies that can be expected inpotential emergencies that can be expected in the work area.the work area.  Floor plans or workplace maps that clearly showFloor plans or workplace maps that clearly show the emergency escape routes and safe or refugethe emergency escape routes and safe or refuge areas.areas.  Identifying the individuals responsibleIdentifying the individuals responsible  Identifying the method of communicationIdentifying the method of communication
  • 67. Salah Mansour General Guidance General guidance for fires and related emergencies If you discover a fire or see/smell smoke, immediately follow these procedures: a. Notify the local Fire Department b. Notify CDC Physical Security or Building Security Force c. Activate the building alarm (fire pull station). If not available or operational, verbally notify people in the building. d. Isolate the area by closing windows and doors and evacuate the building, if you can do so safely. e. Shut down equipment in the immediate area, if possible. f. If possible and if you have received appropriate training, use a portable fire extinguisher to: -assist oneself to evacuate; -assist another to evacuate; and -control a small fire. g. Do not collect personal or official items; leave the area of the fire immediately and walk, do not run.
  • 68. Salah Mansour Office FurnitureOffice Furniture Defective furniture or misuse of chairs or file cabinets byDefective furniture or misuse of chairs or file cabinets by office workers can lead to serious injuries. Listed here areoffice workers can lead to serious injuries. Listed here are controls related to chairs and abinets:controls related to chairs and abinets:  Chairs should be properly designed and regularlyChairs should be properly designed and regularly inspected for missing casters, shaky legs, and looseinspected for missing casters, shaky legs, and loose partsparts  Do not lean back in a chair with your feet on a deskDo not lean back in a chair with your feet on a desk  Do not scoot across the floor while sitting on a chairDo not scoot across the floor while sitting on a chair  Never stand on a chair to reach an overhead objectNever stand on a chair to reach an overhead object  Open only one file drawer at a timeOpen only one file drawer at a time  Do not locate file cabinets close to doorways or in aislesDo not locate file cabinets close to doorways or in aisles  Use drawer handles to close file drawers.Use drawer handles to close file drawers.
  • 69. Salah Mansour Office MachineryOffice Machinery  Machines with ingoing nip points or rotatingMachines with ingoing nip points or rotating parts can cause lacerations, abrasions,parts can cause lacerations, abrasions, fractures, and amputations if not adequatelyfractures, and amputations if not adequately guarded.guarded.  Machines such as conveyors, electric holeMachines such as conveyors, electric hole punches, and paper shredders with hazardouspunches, and paper shredders with hazardous moving parts must be guarded so that officemoving parts must be guarded so that office workers cannot contact the moving parts.workers cannot contact the moving parts.
  • 70. Salah Mansour LightingLighting  Lighting is one of the most important factors affectingLighting is one of the most important factors affecting personal comfort on the job. The best lighting system ispersonal comfort on the job. The best lighting system is one in which the light level is geared to the task, whereone in which the light level is geared to the task, where brightness ratios are controlled (no intensely bright orbrightness ratios are controlled (no intensely bright or dark areas in one field of vision)dark areas in one field of vision)  and where ceilings, walls, and floors are carefully chosenand where ceilings, walls, and floors are carefully chosen to minimize glare.to minimize glare.  Glare is defined as a harsh, uncomfortable bright lightGlare is defined as a harsh, uncomfortable bright light that shines directly in the eyes. Glare may be eitherthat shines directly in the eyes. Glare may be either direct, coming from lights or sunshine, or indirect,direct, coming from lights or sunshine, or indirect, coming from a reflected surface.coming from a reflected surface.
  • 71. Salah Mansour The EyeThe Eye  We depend on our vision more than any otherWe depend on our vision more than any other sense. The eye allows us to see the shapes,sense. The eye allows us to see the shapes, colors, and dimensions of objects in the world bycolors, and dimensions of objects in the world by processing the light these objects either reflectprocessing the light these objects either reflect or give off. The eye is able to see in light that isor give off. The eye is able to see in light that is dim or bright, but it cannot see an object whendim or bright, but it cannot see an object when light is absent. The eye changes light rays intolight is absent. The eye changes light rays into electrical signals and these signals are sent toelectrical signals and these signals are sent to the brain, which interprets them as visualthe brain, which interprets them as visual images.images.
  • 72. Salah Mansour The Parts Of The EyeThe Parts Of The Eye  parts of the human eye are the cornea, the pupil, theparts of the human eye are the cornea, the pupil, the iris, the sclera, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerve.iris, the sclera, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerve.
  • 73. Salah Mansour  CorneaCornea  The cornea is the "window of the eye." ItThe cornea is the "window of the eye." It provides most of the focusing power when lightprovides most of the focusing power when light enters your eye. The cornea is composed of fiveenters your eye. The cornea is composed of five layers of tissue. The outer layer, called thelayers of tissue. The outer layer, called the epithelium, is the eye's protective layer. Thisepithelium, is the eye's protective layer. This layer is made up of cells that have the ability tolayer is made up of cells that have the ability to grow back within 3 days, which allows for fastgrow back within 3 days, which allows for fast healing of superficial injuries. Most of the innerhealing of superficial injuries. Most of the inner layers provide strength to the eye.layers provide strength to the eye.
  • 74. Salah Mansour  PupilPupil  The pupil is the "black circle" in the eye. TheThe pupil is the "black circle" in the eye. The pupil controls the amount of light entering thepupil controls the amount of light entering the eye. When it is dark, the pupil expands to alloweye. When it is dark, the pupil expands to allow more light to reach the back of the eye. Whenmore light to reach the back of the eye. When you are in a bright environment, the pupilyou are in a bright environment, the pupil becomes smaller to allow less light through.becomes smaller to allow less light through.
  • 75. Salah Mansour  IrisIris  This is the colored part of the eye, surroundingThis is the colored part of the eye, surrounding the pupil. The muscles of the iris control the sizethe pupil. The muscles of the iris control the size of the pupil by contracting or expanding.of the pupil by contracting or expanding.
  • 76. Salah Mansour  ScleraSclera  This is the "white part" of the eye. The sclera'sThis is the "white part" of the eye. The sclera's purpose is to provide structure, strength andpurpose is to provide structure, strength and protection to the eye.protection to the eye.
  • 77. Salah Mansour  LensLens  The lens is the clear structure located behind theThe lens is the clear structure located behind the pupil. It alters its shape to become thinner orpupil. It alters its shape to become thinner or thicker, which provides fine-tuning for focusingthicker, which provides fine-tuning for focusing and reading. Between the ages of 40 and 60, theand reading. Between the ages of 40 and 60, the lens becomes less flexible and presbyopialens becomes less flexible and presbyopia (difficulty in reading small print) occurs. Between(difficulty in reading small print) occurs. Between the ages of 60 and 80, the lens sometimesthe ages of 60 and 80, the lens sometimes becomes cloudy and hard, preventing light frombecomes cloudy and hard, preventing light from entering the eye. This is called the formation of aentering the eye. This is called the formation of a cataract.cataract.
  • 78. Salah Mansour  RetinaRetina  The retina consists of fine nerve tissue, whichThe retina consists of fine nerve tissue, which lines the inside wall of the eye and acts like thelines the inside wall of the eye and acts like the film in a camera. It transmits images to the brain.film in a camera. It transmits images to the brain. When your vision is good, the light rays comingWhen your vision is good, the light rays coming into your eye focus precisely on the retina.into your eye focus precisely on the retina.
  • 79. Salah Mansour  Optic NerveOptic Nerve  The optic nerve is located in the rear of the eye,The optic nerve is located in the rear of the eye, and carries images from the retina to the brain.and carries images from the retina to the brain. Damage to the optic nerve can occur fromDamage to the optic nerve can occur from glaucoma, which affects your peripheral vision.glaucoma, which affects your peripheral vision.
  • 87. Salah Mansour 5.5.Back StrainBack Strain((.(.( 6.6. 7.7.
  • 89. Salah Mansour  1.)Stapler( 2.)Razor Blades( 3.Pointed & Sharp Objects(( 4.Drawing Pins & Paper Clips(( 5.Paper Cutter(( 6.Broken Glass((
  • 91. Salah Mansour 11--))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely((
  • 92. Salah Mansour ))To Sit More SafelyTo Sit More Safely(( 1.1.
  • 96. Salah Mansour    •Fuel (Combustible Substances( •Air (Oxygen( •Heat (Sources of Ignition(
  • 120. T08 - 20 HISHIS 120Salah Mansour T H E E N DT H E E N D ‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خخخ‬ ‫خخ‬ ‫خ‬‫خ‬‫خخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خخخ‬ ‫خخ‬ ‫خ‬‫خ‬‫خخ‬ ‫خخخخ‬‫خخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخخ‬ ‫خخخخخخ‬‫خخخخخخ‬ P E T R O S A F E Petroleum Safety & Environmental Services Co.