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National Policies for PwDs and Role of National Institutes in india
IntroductionConstitution mandates for an inclusive society 2.13 percent persons with visual, hearing, speech, locomotor and mental disabilities. (Census 2001)79% of persons with disabilities live in rural areas. 49% of disabled population is literate .34% are only employed. Emphasis more on social rehabilitation.
Legal FrameworkPwD (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights And Full Participation)  Act’ 1995provides for education, employment, creation of barrier free environment, social security, etc. National trust for welfare of person with autism, CP, MR & multiple disabilities act,1999. legal guardianship of the four categories creation of enabling environment for as much independent living as possible. RCI Act’ 1992development of manpower for providing rehabilitation services.
Infrastructure7 National Institutes under MoSJ&E, GOI
5 Composite Rehabilitation Centers under MoSJ&E, GOI
120 District Disability Rehabilitation Centers under MoSJ&E, GOI
National Institution under MoH&FW, GOI
National Handicapped and Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC).
Other state & private institutions.National Policy StatementPwDare valuable human resource
Seeks to create an facilitating environment.
The focus of the policy:
Prevention of disabilities
Rehabilitation measures-
physical rehabilitation & development of rehabilitation professionals.
educational rehabilitation including vocational education
economic rehabilitation
The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment  is the nodal Ministry to coordinate all matters relating to the implementation of the Policy.
The Chief Commissioner for Disabilities at Central level and State Commissioners at the State level play key role in implementation of National Policy.Physical Rehabilitation StrategiesEarly Detection and InterventionUse drug or non-drug therapiesto disseminate information regarding availability of such facilities to the people especially in rural areas.Counseling & Medical RehabilitationAssistive Devices  to promote physical, social and psychological independence by reducing the effect of disabilities.Development of Rehabilitation Professionals
Education for Persons with DisabilitiesArticle 21A of the Constitution guaranteeing education as a fundamental rightSection 26 of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, free and compulsory education has to be provided to all children with disabilities up to the minimum age of 18 years.SSA and IEDC program
Economic Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilitieswage employment in organized sector and self-employment
Supporting structure of services by way of vocational rehabilitation centres and vocational training centres
Strategies-
Employment in Government Establishments
The PWD Act, 1995 provides for 3% reservation in employment
Wage employment in Private sector
Vocational rehabilitation and training Centres engaged in developing appropriate skills amongst persons with disabilities
providing loans at softer terms from the NHFDC
encourage self-employment by providing incentives, tax concessions, exemptions from duties
Priority in financial support is given to Self Help Groups. Women with disabilities42.46 percent of total disabled population.Require protection against exploitation and abuse.Special programmes developed for education, employment and for other rehabilitation services to women with disabilities keeping in view their special needs. Financial support to women with disabilities.
Children with DisabilitiesMost vulnerable group and need special attention.Creating an enabling environment where children can exercise their rights, enjoy equal opportunities and full participation in accordance with various statutes.Ensure inclusion and effective access to education, health, vocational training along with specialized rehabilitation services
Barrier-free environmentTo move about safely and freely.To use the facilities within the built environmentmaximum extent possible, buildings / places / transportation systems for public use to be made barrier free
Issue of Disability CertificatesMost important aspect of availing the facilities under PwD Act’1995.
Guidelines are available.

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Dr Pankaj Bajpai

  • 1. National Policies for PwDs and Role of National Institutes in india
  • 2. IntroductionConstitution mandates for an inclusive society 2.13 percent persons with visual, hearing, speech, locomotor and mental disabilities. (Census 2001)79% of persons with disabilities live in rural areas. 49% of disabled population is literate .34% are only employed. Emphasis more on social rehabilitation.
  • 3. Legal FrameworkPwD (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights And Full Participation) Act’ 1995provides for education, employment, creation of barrier free environment, social security, etc. National trust for welfare of person with autism, CP, MR & multiple disabilities act,1999. legal guardianship of the four categories creation of enabling environment for as much independent living as possible. RCI Act’ 1992development of manpower for providing rehabilitation services.
  • 5. 5 Composite Rehabilitation Centers under MoSJ&E, GOI
  • 6. 120 District Disability Rehabilitation Centers under MoSJ&E, GOI
  • 8. National Handicapped and Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC).
  • 9. Other state & private institutions.National Policy StatementPwDare valuable human resource
  • 10. Seeks to create an facilitating environment.
  • 11. The focus of the policy:
  • 14. physical rehabilitation & development of rehabilitation professionals.
  • 15. educational rehabilitation including vocational education
  • 17. The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment is the nodal Ministry to coordinate all matters relating to the implementation of the Policy.
  • 18. The Chief Commissioner for Disabilities at Central level and State Commissioners at the State level play key role in implementation of National Policy.Physical Rehabilitation StrategiesEarly Detection and InterventionUse drug or non-drug therapiesto disseminate information regarding availability of such facilities to the people especially in rural areas.Counseling & Medical RehabilitationAssistive Devices to promote physical, social and psychological independence by reducing the effect of disabilities.Development of Rehabilitation Professionals
  • 19. Education for Persons with DisabilitiesArticle 21A of the Constitution guaranteeing education as a fundamental rightSection 26 of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, free and compulsory education has to be provided to all children with disabilities up to the minimum age of 18 years.SSA and IEDC program
  • 20. Economic Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilitieswage employment in organized sector and self-employment
  • 21. Supporting structure of services by way of vocational rehabilitation centres and vocational training centres
  • 23. Employment in Government Establishments
  • 24. The PWD Act, 1995 provides for 3% reservation in employment
  • 25. Wage employment in Private sector
  • 26. Vocational rehabilitation and training Centres engaged in developing appropriate skills amongst persons with disabilities
  • 27. providing loans at softer terms from the NHFDC
  • 28. encourage self-employment by providing incentives, tax concessions, exemptions from duties
  • 29. Priority in financial support is given to Self Help Groups. Women with disabilities42.46 percent of total disabled population.Require protection against exploitation and abuse.Special programmes developed for education, employment and for other rehabilitation services to women with disabilities keeping in view their special needs. Financial support to women with disabilities.
  • 30. Children with DisabilitiesMost vulnerable group and need special attention.Creating an enabling environment where children can exercise their rights, enjoy equal opportunities and full participation in accordance with various statutes.Ensure inclusion and effective access to education, health, vocational training along with specialized rehabilitation services
  • 31. Barrier-free environmentTo move about safely and freely.To use the facilities within the built environmentmaximum extent possible, buildings / places / transportation systems for public use to be made barrier free
  • 32. Issue of Disability CertificatesMost important aspect of availing the facilities under PwD Act’1995.
  • 34. The Rules lay down that a Medical Board, duly constituted by the Central and the State Government, shall issue a Disability Certificate.
  • 35. Need for better transparency and accuracy & client friendly procedures.
  • 36. Training program on Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale are conducted.Social SecurityProviding tax relief to persons with disabilities and their guardians.Unemployment allowance or disability pension by state Govt. and UT. Providing legal guardians through Local Level Committee.Supported Guardianship Scheme to provide financial security.
  • 37. Promotion of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)Networking, exchange of information and sharing of good practices amongst NGOs is encouraged and facilitated.NGOs supported by the Central / State Governments financially and by manpower.NGOs are provided opportunities for orientation and training of their human resource. Improvement in the NGO-Government partnership.
  • 38. Collection of regular information on Persons with DisabilitiesCollection of information on persons with disabilities from the Census-2001.Reconciliation of the differences in the definitions adopted by Census and NSSO.Creation of websites.
  • 39. ResearchResearch is supported on their socio-economic and cultural context, cause of disabilities, early childhood education methodologies, development of user-friendly aids and appliances and all matters connected with disabilities which will significantly alter the quality of their life and civil society's ability to respond to their concerns.
  • 40. Ministry of Science & Technology set up Rehabilitation Technology Centre for coordinating and undertaking research and development, testing and certifying technologies, training etc.Sports, Recreation and Cultural lifeMake places for recreation, cultural activities and sports.Identification of talent amongst persons with disabilities in different sports. A national award for excellence in sports for persons with disabilities.
  • 41. Departments-EstablishedMedical Rehabilitation (PMR) - 1978-79Information and Documentation - 1978-79Physiotherapy - 1980-81Prosthetics & Orthotics - 1980-81Occupational Therapy - 1984-85Socio-economic Rehabilitation - 1987-88Geriatric Dis. Rehab. - 2002-03Rehabilitation Nursing - 2007-08Rehabilitation Engineering - 2007-08
  • 45. ADL training-Training through Motor learningOccupationalTherapy Subunits-EMG Biofeedback Therapeutic Exercise
  • 47. Prosthetic & Orthotic servicesFabricationResearch
  • 49. Economic Rehabilitation Through Self EmploymentOUR ACHIEVEMENT INRamp in SchoolSanitationCBR
  • 50. R&D InitiativesMoU between NIOH & CSIO (Myoelectric Hand) MoU between JRHU-NIOHMoU between C-Dac &NIOH (motorized wheel chair) Collaborate with CMERI-project on Rapid Prototyping MoU between NIOH-ALIMCOMoU between NIOH-IIT,KharagpurJRF/SRF program to strengthen researchWorking with Jadavpur UniversityExpansion of activitiesNIOH-IOA jointly on training of orthopaedic surgeons.Collaborated with CSR of NTPC (established a Foundation)Surgical camp with Impact India- Life Line Express.
  • 52. R & D
  • 53. Outreach service camp at Imphal , Manipur
  • 56. THANK YOUPresenter:PankajBajpaiAsst Professor & HeadDept. of Occupational Therapy, NIOH, Kolkata