Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Vocational
Rehabilitation,
Independent
Living, and
Consumerism
Steffi Andrat
Vocational rehabilitation programs
• Primary purpose = help PwD -
• Prepare for employement
• Obtain gainful employment
• ...
Government has set up 20 vocational
Rehabilitation Centres
The main objectives of VRC -
• Vocational evaluation and adjust...
VR process
This process generally involves
• Evaluation
• Job-seeking skills training – Readiness and placement strategies...
Vocational evaluation and Vocational
assessment
• Often used interchangeably
• Vocational assessment is a general term tha...
Employment Readiness
• Medical stability - important concern
• Stamina and endurance (i.e., to determine part-time vs. ful...
Job Placement Strategies
• Once the individual is ready to seek employment - must develop or
refine the employment skills
...
Job Analysis
• Job analysis critical to the ultimate success of job placement efforts
• By analyzing a particular job in a...
Job Accommodations
• Requesting a job accommodation is another skill
• Although the individual is expected to know what ac...
Job Follow-up Services
• Follow-up services for both consumer and employer
• Ensure a successful outcome
• Accommodations ...
THE CONSUMER MOVEMENT IN
REHABILITATION
• Gradually emergence of the consumer is occurring in contrast to
patients or clie...
Consumer-Related Services and Centers for
Independent Living
• The specific features of individual IL programs are determi...
Independent living
IL program can be defined as a community-based program with
substantial consumer involvement that provi...
IL SERVICES
• The IL process of assisting individuals to adapt themselves and their
environment to the reality of disabili...
IL SERVICES
• Examples-
• For an individual with a developmental disability who may have lived all his
life in an institut...
Services typically provided include
• Housing
• Attendant care
• Reading or interpreting
• Information about other necessa...
Independent living centres (ILCs) are -
• Consumer-controlled
• Community-based
• Cross-disability
• Nonresidential, priva...
Future India Foundation
• non governmental, non-profit,
organization
• national level.
Traineeships or volunteer positions...
Differences between VR and IL
VR IL
Type Public agency Private, non profit
Criterion Thorough assessment of
functional imp...
Livelihood Opportunities for PwDs
Census 2001
• General population participating in the work force
• Males 51.7%
• Females 25.6%
• Work participation rates ...
Infrastructure of government policies and schemes - provide a platform for livelihood
opportunities for the disabled in In...
Legislative Frameworks in India around Disability
Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) Act, 1992
Regulates and monitors t...
National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral
Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1...
Policy Framework
The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities, 2006
Recognizes PwDs as a valuable human resource
Seek...
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
(SGSY)
Aim = bring the assisted families above the
poverty line within 3 years by provi...
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana
(SGRY)
• Objectives - wage employment and
increase nutritional levels in rural areas
throu...
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act
(MGNREGA)
Guarantees 100 days of employment in a
financial year to ...
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana
(SJSRY)
Provide gainful employment to the urban
unemployed and underemployed poor by
...
Prime Minister’s Employment
Generation Programme (PMEGP)
Merging two schemes = Prime Minister’s
Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) + Rur...
Appropriate Governments shall Identify posts, in the
establishments, which can be reserved for the persons
with disability...
The Apprenticeship Training Scheme
Governed by the Apprentices Act, 1961
SALIENT FEATURES
Apprenticeship Training is on th...
Scheme for Upgrading existing Polytechnics to
Integrate PwD
• Aim = integrate physically disabled persons into the
mainstr...
National Handicapped Finance Development
Corporation (NHFDC)
• Set up by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Gov...
Functioning of Social Security
• Social assistance and social protection defined as non-contributory,
regular and predicta...
Functioning of Social Security
• A closer analysis at available social security schemes for the PwDs
questions the rudimen...
Functioning of Social Security
• Similarly, the unemployment allowance (UA) being given by various
State governments does ...
In conclusion
• Although most people with disabilities are able to maintain the
capacity to make decisions concerning thei...
Thank you
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Vocational rehabilitation

PMR PG teaching

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

Vocational rehabilitation

  1. 1. Vocational Rehabilitation, Independent Living, and Consumerism Steffi Andrat
  2. 2. Vocational rehabilitation programs • Primary purpose = help PwD - • Prepare for employement • Obtain gainful employment • Wide range of disability are catered to by rehab counsellors • SCI • Stroke • Arthritis • MS • TBI • Amputations • Chronic pain • Developmental and learning disabilities • Psychiatric disorders
  3. 3. Government has set up 20 vocational Rehabilitation Centres The main objectives of VRC - • Vocational evaluation and adjustment of PwDs • Assessment of the medical, psychological, rehabilitation needs • Assist in developing rehabilitation plans • Sponsor physically handicapped registrants against notified/identified vacancies • Distribution centers for various schemes(Scholarship/aids/appliances) • Make referrals to financial institution for funding self-employment ventures.
  4. 4. VR process This process generally involves • Evaluation • Job-seeking skills training – Readiness and placement strategies • Job analysis • Job placement and accomodation • Job follow-up Consumer movement in rehabilitation
  5. 5. Vocational evaluation and Vocational assessment • Often used interchangeably • Vocational assessment is a general term that includes many different forms of evaluation • Vocational evaluation is defined as a comprehensive assessment that utilizes a variety of tools, including paper-and-pencil tests, structured interviews, and real or simulated work • With its focus on work-related abilities, a vocational evaluation may use work samples, situational assessments, and on-the-job evaluations
  6. 6. Employment Readiness • Medical stability - important concern • Stamina and endurance (i.e., to determine part-time vs. full-time) • Psychosocial factors such as the individual's support systems • Availability of adequate attendant care • Transportation is another critical element in job success, as public transportation can be inaccessible and is often unreliable • Psychological readiness to go to work - This includes motivation, self-confidence, interpersonal flexibility, coping resources, and realistic expectations about work • People have needs beyond the financial, such as satisfying interpersonal contact, achieving a sense of belonging, being productive, and enjoying creative expression, all of which can greatly contribute to motivation for work
  7. 7. Job Placement Strategies • Once the individual is ready to seek employment - must develop or refine the employment skills • Individual with virtually no work history will require far more extensive job-seeking-skills training, (following up on job leads, resume writing, application completion, and interviewing skills) • Primary role of the VR counselor - assist in developing these skills using tools as coaching, role playing, or video taping • In addition he or she must also know how to respond to questions about disability on an application or in an interview • Knowledge of legal protections is critical
  8. 8. Job Analysis • Job analysis critical to the ultimate success of job placement efforts • By analyzing a particular job in a certain environment, suitable accommodation recommendations can be made • Must be analyzed for factors in the • Work environment - parking at the worksite, restrooms, canteens, and building accessibility • Job tasks - lifting, grasping, standing, walking, sitting, talking, hearing, writing, and reading • Productivity - For people with cognitive or affective limitations, other critical factors might include the work atmosphere (e.g., busy or relaxed) and cognitive demands (e.g., memory, reasoning, problem solving)
  9. 9. Job Accommodations • Requesting a job accommodation is another skill • Although the individual is expected to know what accommodations are required, the VR counselor can often act as a consultant to the employer and can help to negotiate these • Some accommodations like rearrangement of equipment. For example, for individuals using wheelchairs, a height-adjustable desk, a voice-activated speakerphone, or moving office supplies to accessible drawers • Other examples - job restructuring, flexible schedules, large print, allowing use of personal care attendants or service animals, and large-button phones
  10. 10. Job Follow-up Services • Follow-up services for both consumer and employer • Ensure a successful outcome • Accommodations may require further adjustments after the individual actually begins the job • It is important that an employee who cannot function successfully be removed from the job, as the primary goal of VR is a successful outcome for both the individual and the employer
  11. 11. THE CONSUMER MOVEMENT IN REHABILITATION • Gradually emergence of the consumer is occurring in contrast to patients or clients • Emphasis on self-help and self-direction • Pioneered by Ed Roberts and other individuals with severe disabilities during the early 1970s, the philosophy of IL asserted that individuals with severe disabilities were capable of managing and directing their own lives • Services and supports that PwD need are best delivered by individuals who themselves have disabilities and whose knowledge about both disability and services is derived from firsthand experience
  12. 12. Consumer-Related Services and Centers for Independent Living • The specific features of individual IL programs are determined by • Individual needs of the consumers served • Availability of existing community resources • Physical and social make-up of the community • Goals of the program itself
  13. 13. Independent living IL program can be defined as a community-based program with substantial consumer involvement that provides direct or indirect services (through referral) for people with severe disabilities. These services are intended to • increase self-determination • promote independence
  14. 14. IL SERVICES • The IL process of assisting individuals to adapt themselves and their environment to the reality of disability is often more fluid and multifocused than is the VR process (which focuses its attention on employment) • The IL process begins when an individual with a disability realizes that an obstacle exists because of a limitation, preventing realization of a desired goal
  15. 15. IL SERVICES • Examples- • For an individual with a developmental disability who may have lived all his life in an institution and now wants to live independently • IL assessment includes personal hygiene, medication management, problem-solving and decision-making skills, social skills, housekeeping, shopping, meal preparation, money management, telephone skills, and emergency procedures • In contrast, for a middle-aged individual returning home after a SCI • Initial assessment focuses on the ability to perform ADLs, the need for social services, emotional concerns, the impact of disability on personal relationships, and the needs for home modification and personal assistance • In either case, the goal of the IL assessment is to identify the individual's goal and provide the IL counselor with the information necessary to assist that individual in developing a plan to achieve his or her goal
  16. 16. Services typically provided include • Housing • Attendant care • Reading or interpreting • Information about other necessary goods and services • Transportation • Peer counselling • Advocacy or political action • Training in IL skills • Equipment maintenance and repair • Social and recreational services VR programs may provide these services, but on a limited basis as a secondary or supplementary means of achieving the primary vocational objective.
  17. 17. Independent living centres (ILCs) are - • Consumer-controlled • Community-based • Cross-disability • Nonresidential, private nonprofit agencies
  18. 18. Future India Foundation • non governmental, non-profit, organization • national level. Traineeships or volunteer positions that PwD are welcome to apply for
  19. 19. Differences between VR and IL VR IL Type Public agency Private, non profit Criterion Thorough assessment of functional impact of disablity Not required Counsellor and consumer Work in partnership Services are directed by consumers Goal Gainful empoyement Independent living as defined by each consumer Services provided by Rehab counsellors Usualy individuals with disability Success criteria Employability Maximized self sufficiency
  20. 20. Livelihood Opportunities for PwDs
  21. 21. Census 2001 • General population participating in the work force • Males 51.7% • Females 25.6% • Work participation rates for PwDs • Males 25.8 % (almost half that of general population) • Females 8.7 % • Work participation rate is low among females as compared to males and in urban areas as compared to rural areas. • A high work participation rate in rural areas is due to the fact that agriculture, which is the main occupation in rural areas, has a capacity to absorb large chunk of PwD • Lowest work participation rate is observed among urban disabled females. One reason - employment opportunities in urban area are male dominated and favour educated people
  22. 22. Infrastructure of government policies and schemes - provide a platform for livelihood opportunities for the disabled in India Rural livelihoods  Farm-based  Pisci-culture  Animal husbandry  Non-farm based (cottage industry, trading) Urban area options  Formal sector - government sector, private sector, small- scale industries  Informal sector - with contractors, shops, establishments, in households Sheltered employment  For multiple and severely disabled persons  Objective – provide fulfilment, job satisfaction and training on an ongoing basis for personal development in order that he realises his full potential Self-employment  By offering credit linkages (through microfinance in rural areas) and direct lending there are various ways of promoting self employment
  23. 23. Legislative Frameworks in India around Disability Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) Act, 1992 Regulates and monitors training of rehabilitation professionals and personnel Promotes research in rehabilitation & special education Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) (PwD) Act, 1995 Main Act concerning Disability Provides for education, rehabilitation, employment, non-discrimination and social security for PwDs 3% reservation for PwDs in poverty alleviation programmes as well as in certain job categories
  24. 24. National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999 • Enabling and empowering PwDs to live independently and close to their community • Evolve procedures for appointments of guardians and trustees • Extend support to registered organizations to provide need based servicesd. Mental Health Act 1987 Mental Illness is mentioned in the PwD Act 1995 Treatment and care of mentally ill persons is governed by this act Administered by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Looks into - • Regulation of admission to mental hospitals • Appointment of guardianship or custody of mentally ill persons • Legal aid to mentally ill persons on state expense • Management of psychiatric hospitals across the country Legislative Frameworks in India around Disability
  25. 25. Policy Framework The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities, 2006 Recognizes PwDs as a valuable human resource Seeks to create an environment that provides them with equal opportunities, protection of their rights and full participation in society Salient features Physical Rehabilitation – Early detection and intervention, counselling and medical interventions and provision of aids and appliances, Development of rehabilitation professionals Educational Rehabilitation includes vocational training Economic Rehabilitation for a dignified life in society
  26. 26. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) Aim = bring the assisted families above the poverty line within 3 years by providing them income-generating assets through a mix of bank credit and Government subsidy • Disabled 3% Assisted families = Swarozgaris (from BPL families by a three-member team - Block Development Officer, a banker and the sarpanch) Government Schemes - Poverty Reduction schemes / Livelihood schemes Products at SGSY mela range from food to décor to jewellery
  27. 27. Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) • Objectives - wage employment and increase nutritional levels in rural areas through food-for-work programmes • Target group - all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and wish to do manual and unskilled work in and around their village/habitat • Preference - parents of handicapped children or adult children of handicapped parents Government Schemes - Poverty Reduction schemes / Livelihood schemes Farmers crushing stones as part of the food-for-work programme in a Karnataka village
  28. 28. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) Guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to any rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work If a rural disabled person applies for work, work suitable to his/her ability and qualifications will have to be given. Government Schemes - Poverty Reduction schemes / Livelihood schemes
  29. 29. Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana (SJSRY) Provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed and underemployed poor by encouraging self-employment ventures, or by providing wage employment. Target group - The urban public living below the poverty line. Special provision of 3% for disabled Government Schemes - Poverty Reduction schemes / Livelihood schemes Women at a skill development training programme offered by Apollo Institute of Technical Training, Ambattur, sponsored by Chennai Corporation, under Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana
  30. 30. Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) Merging two schemes = Prime Minister’s Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) + Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) Through the establishment of micro enterprises in rural as well as urban areas Guidelines mention inclusion of PwDs Government Schemes - Poverty Reduction schemes / Livelihood schemes
  31. 31. Appropriate Governments shall Identify posts, in the establishments, which can be reserved for the persons with disability 1% each shall be reserved for persons suffering from – • Blindness or low vision • Hearing impairment • Locomotor disability or cerebral palsy Three percent Reservation in Government Jobs
  32. 32. The Apprenticeship Training Scheme Governed by the Apprentices Act, 1961 SALIENT FEATURES Apprenticeship Training is on the job training in industry • Comprises Basic Training and Practical Training • Make PwD eligible for gainful employment • Class VIII pass to XII class pass persons can avail the benefits of Scheme in 260 trades • Minimum age 14 years • Period of training - 6 months to 4 years
  33. 33. Scheme for Upgrading existing Polytechnics to Integrate PwD • Aim = integrate physically disabled persons into the mainstream through technical and vocational education • 50 existing polytechnics in the country have been selected for upgradation • Enabled to introduce technical/vocational and continue education programmes for PwDs • Targeted to benefit • 1250 disabled students / year in the formal diploma level courses • 5000 students / year in short duration technical/vocational courses
  34. 34. National Handicapped Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC) • Set up by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India on 24th January 1997 • The company is registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 as a Company not for profit • Wholly owned by Government of India and has an authorized share capital of Rupees Four Billion. • Functions as an apex institution for channelizing the funds to PwDs through the State Channelizing Agencies (SCAs) or through NGOs
  35. 35. Functioning of Social Security • Social assistance and social protection defined as non-contributory, regular and predictable cash or in-kind transfers • Includes social insurance to protect people against the risks and consequences of livelihood shocks, and legislative and regulatory frameworks that protect against discrimination and abuse • Social assistance are also used as a compensatory mechanism for an interim period between temporary disablements to return of work.
  36. 36. Functioning of Social Security • A closer analysis at available social security schemes for the PwDs questions the rudimentary objectives and purpose • Example, the eligibility criteria set by Government of Rajasthan for the pension scheme is that a PwD who is unable to earn and any of his/her family members aged 20 years and above are also incapable of earning can avail of the government pension of 700/- per month • If such a criterion is fixed, it automatically excludes almost all PwDs from pension benefits
  37. 37. Functioning of Social Security • Similarly, the unemployment allowance (UA) being given by various State governments does not follow a uniform standard and are more often fixed without any substantive rationale. • Only 3 states namely Bihar, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh provide for an UA • Schemes and allowance amounts vary from Rs 50 to Rs 500, which can be higher or lower than disability pension amounts depending on the State/UT. • Many PwDs expected grants instead of loans. It is important to raise awareness on loans and break the ‘dependency syndrome’ when this exists
  38. 38. In conclusion • Although most people with disabilities are able to maintain the capacity to make decisions concerning their needs and life-styles, they may need time to be educated and empowered about new roles and options in learning to cope with disability
  39. 39. Thank you

×