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Diversity in Legal Education:
Considering the Hollow Spaces Between
Speech and Action
Larry Catá Backer
W. Richard and Mary Eshelman Faculty Scholar Professor of Law
and International Affairs
Pennsylvania State University
Prepared for Event: All in at Penn State Law:
Addressing Diversity & Implicit Bias; Sponsored by the
Diversity Committee Penn State Law
March 16, 2017
Context
• institutions of post secondary education, has been struggling with the very
hard work of moving from the embrace of flowery statements of solidarity
respecting diversity to actually making it a lived reality in the environment
in which students, staff, faculty and particularly administrators operate.
(Statement From the Penn State University Faculty Senate Chair ).
• Much of the discussion has focused on obligation centers
• Of students, faculty and
• others at the lowest end of the institutional pyramid
• But fairly little attention has been paid to responsibility centers
• Middle Managers (deans and their staff)
• Central university administrators
Issue
• Is it time to refocus the analysis
of diversity and diversity related
programs from conformity at the
bottom to shaping responsibility
at the top?
• How does an institution create
robust measures to assess and
discipline those whose
responsibility is to shape the
organizational cultures of their
units?
Roadmap
• Consider as a baseline for analysis
the 2010 ABA Report “Diversity in
the Legal Profession: The Next
Steps” especially as they relate to
“Recommendations to Law Schools
and the Academy (pp.17-25).
• Reflect on their consequences for
Law Schools
• Suggest the top down bottom up
approach to their realization
suggested in the
Recommendations of the Penn
State Joint Diversity Awareness
Task Force (2016)
The ABA Report and Recommendations
• “The Report’s Recommendations for next steps
reflect and incorporate the multiple
experiences, false starts, insights, frustrations
and new beginnings that represent the various
ways that diversity works within the different
sectors of the legal profession.” (PP. 6)
• Included recommendations already being used as
well as some that are ambitious and aspirational.
• Recommendations broadly categorized, but not
prioritized.
• Recognition that organizations have its own
contextually compelling circumstances.
ABA Report: Foundations
• What is Diversity (pp. 9):
• When we talk about increasing
diversity in the profession, we are
addressing a history of laws,
practices, and employment decisions
that excluded broad sectors from
participation in the political,
economic, and social activities and
benefits of this society.
• The specific groups that fall within
ABA diversity programs and policies
include racial and ethnic minorities,
women, persons with disabilities,
and the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual,
and transgender) community.
• Diversity Rationales:
• Business Rationale: “A diverse
workforce within legal and judicial
offices exhibits different perspectives,
life experiences, linguistic and cultural
skills, and knowledge about
international markets, legal regimes,
different geographies, and current
events.” (pp 9)
• Leadership Rationale: this society
draws its leaders from the ranks of
the legal profession and that is one
reason why diversity is a
constitutionally protected principle
and practice. (pp. 10)
• Demographic Rationale: U.S.
population is getting older and more
diverse.
The ABA Law School Recommendations
• “Law schools contribute to the
ongoing transformation of the
profession from one that has
historically been dominated by
white men from the upper classes
to one that is inclusive of persons
from many different backgrounds
with different perspectives,
cultures, abilities, worldviews, and
tastes.” (PP. 15)
• “Diversity in law schools, as in
other institutions, affects all areas
of activity.” (PP. 15)
• A. Culture: Building
consensus/creating accountability
• B. Planning
• C. Accountability
• D. Diverse faculty: Hiring and
Retention
• E. Educational practices:
admissions, Law school Debt
• F. Data collection, Law school
Rankings
• G. Pipeline practices
Challenges
• Definition
• Where is religion?
• Focus on formal, rule based impediments
• Focus on system, not on social values
• Socialization Versus Naturalization
• No one likes to be told what to do
• No sense of the possibilities of naturalizing
diversity principles in the everyday lives of
Law School stakeholders
• Metrics
• Focus on outside metrics
• No real engagement with the relationship
between principles and metrics
• Simple output measures will distort and
promote strategic avoidance around
metrics
• Accountability
• No accountability measures that reach
institutional leaders
• Opens door to broad administrative
discretion and impunity
• Only discipline is at the bottom
• Passive versus Active Engagement
• Approach seems to cultivate passivity
among stakeholders
• Objects of diversity as instruments to better
rankings and “new wave” hierarchies
• Hidden Agendas
• Is diversity merely an instrument to counter
dominance of US News rankings?
Penn State Statement on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence
• The Pennsylvania State University is committed to and accountable for
advancing diversity, equity, and inclusion in all of its forms. We embrace
individual uniqueness, foster a culture of inclusive excellence that
supports both broad and specific diversity initiatives, leverage the
educational and institutional benefits of diversity, and engage all
individuals to help them thrive. We value inclusive excellence as a core
strength and an essential element of our public service mission.
• At Penn State:
• We will foster and maintain a safe environment of respect and inclusion for faculty,
staff, students, and members of the communities we serve
• We will educate our faculty, staff, and students to be social justice advocates, creatively
providing curricula, programs, and environments that reflect the diversity of our
communities, and elevate cultural awareness.
• We will ensure fair and inclusive access to our facilities, programs, resources, and
services, and ensure that all of our policies and practices are inclusive and equitable.
• We will advance and build our workforce by assessing hiring practices and performance
review procedures to attract, retain, and develop talented faculty and staff from diverse
backgrounds.
• We will address intergroup disparities in areas such as representation, retention,
learning outcomes, and graduation rates.
The Penn State Joint Diversity
• It was my great honor to serve as the Chair of the Penn State University Joint
Diversity Awareness Task Force (JDATF). JDATF was charged this past April by our
Provost and the University Faculty Senate Chair to consider a number of
important diversity initiatives at Penn State (Charge (PDF); Members). Our work
over the academic year has produced four reports with recommendations for
substantial changes in a number of areas.
• Presented March 2016 for consideration by the PSU Faculty Senate April 2016:
1. US/IL Courses Survey--Recommendations (Legislative;
Advisory/Consultative)
2. Diversity Best Practices
3. Moving Forward Embedding Diversity Policy
• Presented February 2016 and Approved by the PSU Faculty Senate March 2016
4. Moving Forward
JDATF Current Committee Charge
• Continue to undertake a review of issues
related to cultural awareness, curricular
and out-of-class climate changes which
could enhance the environment for all
students across the University;
• Continue to work with and contribute to
any effort relating to curricular
programs, including general education
and engaged scholarship;
• Assess the document "A Framework to
Foster Diversity at Penn State" paying
particular attention how the Faculty
Senate can assist with the following
Framework challenges: . . .Campus
Climate, Recruiting and Retaining a
Diverse Work Force, Developing a
Curriculum That Fosters United States and
International Cultural Competencies
• Explore creation of a framework for
advancing diversity and inclusion that
goes beyond the current Framework to
Foster Diversity;
• Contribute to the President’s “Student
Career and Economic Development”
Imperative in coordination with the
Provost and the Office of the President;
and
• Conduct an analysis of the current US
and IL diversity courses across the
University. This includes gathering data,
considering the ways in which outcomes
are monitored and systems of
accountability. Such a study should
benchmark across CIC Institutions as it
relates to the course content that focuses
on diversity, and consider alternative
models to monitoring and accountability.
Technical Curricular Sub-Committee: REPORT
• Recommendations:
• The following criterion should be added to the list of criteria that are used to
designate a course as a US or IL course (strongly supported by the newly
adopted PSU Statement on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence).
• For US: Increase student understanding of the nature of social justice, and equity in
the United States at the societal, institutional, and individual levels.
• For IL: Increase student understanding of the nature of social justice, and equity in
international nations at the societal, institutional, and individual levels..
• Future courses that receive the US or IL designation should include at least
50% of the course content addressed by the US or IL course designation
criteria.
• Appropriate funding should be provided to implement the Recommendations
1-5 above.
Policy Coordination Sub-Committee: REPORT
• Engaged Scholarship initiative and Student Career and Economic
Development: incorporate principles of inclusive excellence.
• Assessment metrics should be established at the outset to monitor for intergroup
disparities in participation and outcomes.
• Further study to assess institutional embedding of the Framework Review
recommendations.
• Units should highlight information about diversity and inclusion
resources online, following the best practices indicated above.
• Adequate resources are necessary to support institutional priorities;
diversity efforts cannot be successful as an “unfunded mandate.”
• In addition to adequate resources for pursuing diversity and inclusive
excellence initiatives, significant accomplishments and outcomes should
earn rewards, which will help to incentivize progress.
• A uniform system of rewards for diversity enhancing measures ought to be
established in a fair manner.
Policy Coordination Sub-Committee: REPORT
• New executives and administrators should be made aware of
University expectations and priorities regarding diversity and inclusive
excellence, and should be made aware of University strategic
planning and particularly their unit’s diversity strategic planning and
associated Framework Reviews.
• Administrative reviews AD-14 should include measures for incorporation of
the A Framework to Foster Diversity at Penn State.
• Units should make use of informational resources available to guide
strategic planning, implementation, reporting, and assessment
efforts, available on the Diversity Strategic Planning website of the
Office of the VP for Educ.;
• unit executives and their representatives should utilize the consultation
services available from VPEE representatives to assist with diversity strategic
planning, implementation, reporting and assessment initiatives
Substantive Policy Sub-Committee: Report (1)
• Recommendations:
• The Office of Educational Equity and Campus Environment:
• (a) develop a diversity action plan, in collaboration with unit administrators to enhance
recruitment and retention of students, faculty, and staff,
• (b) develop recommended standards and metrics, centered on the objectives of the
University’s Diversity Statement, for assessing recruitment and retention;
• (c) work with relevant stakeholders, such as Human Resources, unit administrators, and
others to develop unit plans for effective implementation of the goals and metrics for
administrative assessment.
• The Senate Committee on Educational Equity and Campus Environment:
• sponsor an annual report from the Office of Educational Equity and Campus Environment
assessing its programs, initiatives and other significant work, and provide an opportunity for
Senators to pose questions.
• The Office of Senior Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations:
• should prepare a written articulation of standards and objectives that link development
campaign themes to diversity initiatives. That office should provide summary information,
annually, to the university faculty senate assessing the implementation of those standards
and providing senators with an opportunity to pose questions.
Substantive Policy Sub-Committee: REPORT (2)
• Create a platform for “conversations” on diversity.
• focus of this discussion should center on the concepts built into the University Diversity Statement
• The University should consider adopting the statement on expressive freedom that is not
grounded on protection from speech or speech acts that may be merely offensive.
• Diversity in recruiting and retention of students, staff and administrative personnel
should be an element in administrative reviews at the unit and senior administrative
levels
• The university should develop binding and transparent measures by which unit
administrators and senior administration officials, may account for the embedding of
diversity issues in ethics based decision making.
• The university should establish a mechanism for the rigorous review of the
administrative structures of diversity units at the university. The process should be
transparent and inclusive.
• Diversity ought to be incorporated as part of the metrics for assessing all aspects of strategic plan
implementation
• The university should include issues of diversity in the construction and elaboration of
its health benefit programs—including programs of mental and physical health—as well
as in its operations and the administration of all human resources programs.
• The responsible administrators should report annually on the progress made in this regard.
Challenges
• Definition
• Almost inverse of ABA approach; open ended and ambiguous
• Shifts power over inclusion to senior administrators who hold
the keys to the “diversity kingdom”
• Socialization Versus Naturalization
• Retains the ABA socialization approach; no one likes to be told
what to do
• A significant effort to naturalize in the recommendations—via
inclusion in courses and in the ordinary operations of units; yet
even this largely undefined and thus open to abuses of
discretion
• Easy enough t use diversity to reframe but not eliminate the
hierarchies produce the need for “diversity measures” in the
first place.
• Metrics
• Metrics remain aspirational, though the recommendations call
for better metrics
• Metrics require “all-in” conversations that are unlikely in an
unwieldy institutional organization like a large research
university
• The problematics of “social justice advocates”: a back door to
constraining academic freedom and broader discretionary
authority to middle managers to discipline faculty and
students?
• Accountability
• Focus on accountability measures that reach institutional
leaders
• Seeks to narrow and manage broad administrative discretion
and impunity
• Fiscal accountability: no unfunded mandates; requires
leadership from the top beyond pretty words and good
intentions
• Passive versus Active Engagement
• Approach seems to reduce passivity among stakeholders; but is
it enough? Targeted in the right direction?
• Still Objects of diversity as instruments to better rankings and
“new wave” hierarchies
• Hidden Agendas
• Is diversity merely an instrument to counter dominance of
rankings?
• The problems of the ABA business case in a new guise—if
diversity is framed in terms of the business case then does it
reduce merely to an instrumental mechanism for greater profit?
Is that a sufficient rationale? How does that affect approaches?
Conclusion
• The gulf that separates aspiration and realization remains quite broad
• The focus on lowest level stakeholders to bear the burden of realizing
diversity creates a misalignment between obligation and
responsibility
• The focus on principles permits a broad exercise of administrative
discretion that is unbounded by principles of abuse and may be
exercised with impunity.
• The failure to tie diversity to accountability and performance review
among middle and upper managers substantially inhibits the
implementation of robust programs

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Diversity in Legal Education: Considering the Hollow Spaces Between Speech and Action

  • 1. Diversity in Legal Education: Considering the Hollow Spaces Between Speech and Action Larry Catá Backer W. Richard and Mary Eshelman Faculty Scholar Professor of Law and International Affairs Pennsylvania State University Prepared for Event: All in at Penn State Law: Addressing Diversity & Implicit Bias; Sponsored by the Diversity Committee Penn State Law March 16, 2017
  • 2. Context • institutions of post secondary education, has been struggling with the very hard work of moving from the embrace of flowery statements of solidarity respecting diversity to actually making it a lived reality in the environment in which students, staff, faculty and particularly administrators operate. (Statement From the Penn State University Faculty Senate Chair ). • Much of the discussion has focused on obligation centers • Of students, faculty and • others at the lowest end of the institutional pyramid • But fairly little attention has been paid to responsibility centers • Middle Managers (deans and their staff) • Central university administrators
  • 3. Issue • Is it time to refocus the analysis of diversity and diversity related programs from conformity at the bottom to shaping responsibility at the top? • How does an institution create robust measures to assess and discipline those whose responsibility is to shape the organizational cultures of their units?
  • 4. Roadmap • Consider as a baseline for analysis the 2010 ABA Report “Diversity in the Legal Profession: The Next Steps” especially as they relate to “Recommendations to Law Schools and the Academy (pp.17-25). • Reflect on their consequences for Law Schools • Suggest the top down bottom up approach to their realization suggested in the Recommendations of the Penn State Joint Diversity Awareness Task Force (2016)
  • 5. The ABA Report and Recommendations • “The Report’s Recommendations for next steps reflect and incorporate the multiple experiences, false starts, insights, frustrations and new beginnings that represent the various ways that diversity works within the different sectors of the legal profession.” (PP. 6) • Included recommendations already being used as well as some that are ambitious and aspirational. • Recommendations broadly categorized, but not prioritized. • Recognition that organizations have its own contextually compelling circumstances.
  • 6. ABA Report: Foundations • What is Diversity (pp. 9): • When we talk about increasing diversity in the profession, we are addressing a history of laws, practices, and employment decisions that excluded broad sectors from participation in the political, economic, and social activities and benefits of this society. • The specific groups that fall within ABA diversity programs and policies include racial and ethnic minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) community. • Diversity Rationales: • Business Rationale: “A diverse workforce within legal and judicial offices exhibits different perspectives, life experiences, linguistic and cultural skills, and knowledge about international markets, legal regimes, different geographies, and current events.” (pp 9) • Leadership Rationale: this society draws its leaders from the ranks of the legal profession and that is one reason why diversity is a constitutionally protected principle and practice. (pp. 10) • Demographic Rationale: U.S. population is getting older and more diverse.
  • 7. The ABA Law School Recommendations • “Law schools contribute to the ongoing transformation of the profession from one that has historically been dominated by white men from the upper classes to one that is inclusive of persons from many different backgrounds with different perspectives, cultures, abilities, worldviews, and tastes.” (PP. 15) • “Diversity in law schools, as in other institutions, affects all areas of activity.” (PP. 15) • A. Culture: Building consensus/creating accountability • B. Planning • C. Accountability • D. Diverse faculty: Hiring and Retention • E. Educational practices: admissions, Law school Debt • F. Data collection, Law school Rankings • G. Pipeline practices
  • 8. Challenges • Definition • Where is religion? • Focus on formal, rule based impediments • Focus on system, not on social values • Socialization Versus Naturalization • No one likes to be told what to do • No sense of the possibilities of naturalizing diversity principles in the everyday lives of Law School stakeholders • Metrics • Focus on outside metrics • No real engagement with the relationship between principles and metrics • Simple output measures will distort and promote strategic avoidance around metrics • Accountability • No accountability measures that reach institutional leaders • Opens door to broad administrative discretion and impunity • Only discipline is at the bottom • Passive versus Active Engagement • Approach seems to cultivate passivity among stakeholders • Objects of diversity as instruments to better rankings and “new wave” hierarchies • Hidden Agendas • Is diversity merely an instrument to counter dominance of US News rankings?
  • 9. Penn State Statement on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence • The Pennsylvania State University is committed to and accountable for advancing diversity, equity, and inclusion in all of its forms. We embrace individual uniqueness, foster a culture of inclusive excellence that supports both broad and specific diversity initiatives, leverage the educational and institutional benefits of diversity, and engage all individuals to help them thrive. We value inclusive excellence as a core strength and an essential element of our public service mission. • At Penn State: • We will foster and maintain a safe environment of respect and inclusion for faculty, staff, students, and members of the communities we serve • We will educate our faculty, staff, and students to be social justice advocates, creatively providing curricula, programs, and environments that reflect the diversity of our communities, and elevate cultural awareness. • We will ensure fair and inclusive access to our facilities, programs, resources, and services, and ensure that all of our policies and practices are inclusive and equitable. • We will advance and build our workforce by assessing hiring practices and performance review procedures to attract, retain, and develop talented faculty and staff from diverse backgrounds. • We will address intergroup disparities in areas such as representation, retention, learning outcomes, and graduation rates.
  • 10. The Penn State Joint Diversity • It was my great honor to serve as the Chair of the Penn State University Joint Diversity Awareness Task Force (JDATF). JDATF was charged this past April by our Provost and the University Faculty Senate Chair to consider a number of important diversity initiatives at Penn State (Charge (PDF); Members). Our work over the academic year has produced four reports with recommendations for substantial changes in a number of areas. • Presented March 2016 for consideration by the PSU Faculty Senate April 2016: 1. US/IL Courses Survey--Recommendations (Legislative; Advisory/Consultative) 2. Diversity Best Practices 3. Moving Forward Embedding Diversity Policy • Presented February 2016 and Approved by the PSU Faculty Senate March 2016 4. Moving Forward
  • 11. JDATF Current Committee Charge • Continue to undertake a review of issues related to cultural awareness, curricular and out-of-class climate changes which could enhance the environment for all students across the University; • Continue to work with and contribute to any effort relating to curricular programs, including general education and engaged scholarship; • Assess the document "A Framework to Foster Diversity at Penn State" paying particular attention how the Faculty Senate can assist with the following Framework challenges: . . .Campus Climate, Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse Work Force, Developing a Curriculum That Fosters United States and International Cultural Competencies • Explore creation of a framework for advancing diversity and inclusion that goes beyond the current Framework to Foster Diversity; • Contribute to the President’s “Student Career and Economic Development” Imperative in coordination with the Provost and the Office of the President; and • Conduct an analysis of the current US and IL diversity courses across the University. This includes gathering data, considering the ways in which outcomes are monitored and systems of accountability. Such a study should benchmark across CIC Institutions as it relates to the course content that focuses on diversity, and consider alternative models to monitoring and accountability.
  • 12. Technical Curricular Sub-Committee: REPORT • Recommendations: • The following criterion should be added to the list of criteria that are used to designate a course as a US or IL course (strongly supported by the newly adopted PSU Statement on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence). • For US: Increase student understanding of the nature of social justice, and equity in the United States at the societal, institutional, and individual levels. • For IL: Increase student understanding of the nature of social justice, and equity in international nations at the societal, institutional, and individual levels.. • Future courses that receive the US or IL designation should include at least 50% of the course content addressed by the US or IL course designation criteria. • Appropriate funding should be provided to implement the Recommendations 1-5 above.
  • 13. Policy Coordination Sub-Committee: REPORT • Engaged Scholarship initiative and Student Career and Economic Development: incorporate principles of inclusive excellence. • Assessment metrics should be established at the outset to monitor for intergroup disparities in participation and outcomes. • Further study to assess institutional embedding of the Framework Review recommendations. • Units should highlight information about diversity and inclusion resources online, following the best practices indicated above. • Adequate resources are necessary to support institutional priorities; diversity efforts cannot be successful as an “unfunded mandate.” • In addition to adequate resources for pursuing diversity and inclusive excellence initiatives, significant accomplishments and outcomes should earn rewards, which will help to incentivize progress. • A uniform system of rewards for diversity enhancing measures ought to be established in a fair manner.
  • 14. Policy Coordination Sub-Committee: REPORT • New executives and administrators should be made aware of University expectations and priorities regarding diversity and inclusive excellence, and should be made aware of University strategic planning and particularly their unit’s diversity strategic planning and associated Framework Reviews. • Administrative reviews AD-14 should include measures for incorporation of the A Framework to Foster Diversity at Penn State. • Units should make use of informational resources available to guide strategic planning, implementation, reporting, and assessment efforts, available on the Diversity Strategic Planning website of the Office of the VP for Educ.; • unit executives and their representatives should utilize the consultation services available from VPEE representatives to assist with diversity strategic planning, implementation, reporting and assessment initiatives
  • 15. Substantive Policy Sub-Committee: Report (1) • Recommendations: • The Office of Educational Equity and Campus Environment: • (a) develop a diversity action plan, in collaboration with unit administrators to enhance recruitment and retention of students, faculty, and staff, • (b) develop recommended standards and metrics, centered on the objectives of the University’s Diversity Statement, for assessing recruitment and retention; • (c) work with relevant stakeholders, such as Human Resources, unit administrators, and others to develop unit plans for effective implementation of the goals and metrics for administrative assessment. • The Senate Committee on Educational Equity and Campus Environment: • sponsor an annual report from the Office of Educational Equity and Campus Environment assessing its programs, initiatives and other significant work, and provide an opportunity for Senators to pose questions. • The Office of Senior Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations: • should prepare a written articulation of standards and objectives that link development campaign themes to diversity initiatives. That office should provide summary information, annually, to the university faculty senate assessing the implementation of those standards and providing senators with an opportunity to pose questions.
  • 16. Substantive Policy Sub-Committee: REPORT (2) • Create a platform for “conversations” on diversity. • focus of this discussion should center on the concepts built into the University Diversity Statement • The University should consider adopting the statement on expressive freedom that is not grounded on protection from speech or speech acts that may be merely offensive. • Diversity in recruiting and retention of students, staff and administrative personnel should be an element in administrative reviews at the unit and senior administrative levels • The university should develop binding and transparent measures by which unit administrators and senior administration officials, may account for the embedding of diversity issues in ethics based decision making. • The university should establish a mechanism for the rigorous review of the administrative structures of diversity units at the university. The process should be transparent and inclusive. • Diversity ought to be incorporated as part of the metrics for assessing all aspects of strategic plan implementation • The university should include issues of diversity in the construction and elaboration of its health benefit programs—including programs of mental and physical health—as well as in its operations and the administration of all human resources programs. • The responsible administrators should report annually on the progress made in this regard.
  • 17. Challenges • Definition • Almost inverse of ABA approach; open ended and ambiguous • Shifts power over inclusion to senior administrators who hold the keys to the “diversity kingdom” • Socialization Versus Naturalization • Retains the ABA socialization approach; no one likes to be told what to do • A significant effort to naturalize in the recommendations—via inclusion in courses and in the ordinary operations of units; yet even this largely undefined and thus open to abuses of discretion • Easy enough t use diversity to reframe but not eliminate the hierarchies produce the need for “diversity measures” in the first place. • Metrics • Metrics remain aspirational, though the recommendations call for better metrics • Metrics require “all-in” conversations that are unlikely in an unwieldy institutional organization like a large research university • The problematics of “social justice advocates”: a back door to constraining academic freedom and broader discretionary authority to middle managers to discipline faculty and students? • Accountability • Focus on accountability measures that reach institutional leaders • Seeks to narrow and manage broad administrative discretion and impunity • Fiscal accountability: no unfunded mandates; requires leadership from the top beyond pretty words and good intentions • Passive versus Active Engagement • Approach seems to reduce passivity among stakeholders; but is it enough? Targeted in the right direction? • Still Objects of diversity as instruments to better rankings and “new wave” hierarchies • Hidden Agendas • Is diversity merely an instrument to counter dominance of rankings? • The problems of the ABA business case in a new guise—if diversity is framed in terms of the business case then does it reduce merely to an instrumental mechanism for greater profit? Is that a sufficient rationale? How does that affect approaches?
  • 18. Conclusion • The gulf that separates aspiration and realization remains quite broad • The focus on lowest level stakeholders to bear the burden of realizing diversity creates a misalignment between obligation and responsibility • The focus on principles permits a broad exercise of administrative discretion that is unbounded by principles of abuse and may be exercised with impunity. • The failure to tie diversity to accountability and performance review among middle and upper managers substantially inhibits the implementation of robust programs