Sue Myburgh PhD University of South Australia
Librarians and other information professionals, such as records managers, archivists and museum curators, have long been t...
WHY do we think this is good?  In other words, why do we do this work at all??????
 
<ul><li>Internationalisation can be interpreted in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predatory and protectionist, using cult...
<ul><li>What is a digital librarian? </li></ul>
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>If libraries are already avoided (or not used) by many people in the course of their daily activities – work or pl...
 
<ul><li>Action guided by habitus has the appearance of rationality but is based not so much on reason as on socially-const...
<ul><li>Focus on documents, not information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on physical stores (even when they are digital), not s...
<ul><li>LIS will almost certainly not survive in its present form or paradigm, and the greatest threat to the profession i...
Action guided by habitus has the appearance of rationality but is based not so much on reason as on socially-constituted d...
<ul><li>Focus on documents, not information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on physical stores (even when they are digital), not s...
<ul><li>Once upon a time, long ago and far away… </li></ul>
<ul><li>Telephone engineers (Shannon and Weaver) </li></ul><ul><li>On and off (binary bits and bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Po...
Reductionism
<ul><li>This hierarchy is first suggested in a poem by T. S. Eliot, published in 1934, called  The chorus of the rock : </...
<ul><li>At the centre of our universe, and guiding all our activities, is information.  And it is therefore very important...
<ul><li>information theory was characterised as being able to measure information, and information is associated with ‘kno...
Donald McKay:  this theory  “ enables us to speak precisely and quantitatively.  It provides objective substitutes for int...
<ul><li>An expression of the form is considered by convention to be equal to zero whenever  p  = 0.  This is justified bec...
<ul><li>“ IPs collect, organise, describe, manage, preserve and make accessible… ”.  </li></ul><ul><li>the pattern of orga...
<ul><li>‘ The mother of all models’ </li></ul>Transmission model.  Shown to cultural and communication studies as a poor, ...
<ul><li>Information is that part of knowledge that is selected to be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>It is communicated by ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Access to information resources has long been considered the most important task of a library, but this is a falla...
<ul><li>Learning is a process of active engagement with experience.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is what people do when they want...
<ul><li>Information is that part of knowledge that is selected to be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>It is communicated by ...
 
<ul><li>manage digital libraries;  </li></ul><ul><li>organize digital knowledge and information;  </li></ul><ul><li>dissem...
<ul><li>Anything to do with the Internet: </li></ul><ul><li>navigation, browsing, filtering;  </li></ul><ul><li>retrieving...
<ul><li>Anything to do with digital media (including virtual worlds) </li></ul><ul><li>multimedia indexing, image processi...
<ul><li>Understanding the creation and development of digital knowledge and information (communication) </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Isn’t this what librarians already have to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t this what many other people, besides librar...
<ul><li>In 1996, Kirk Hastings and Roy Tennant wrote a piece called  How to Build a Digital Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>digital library theory and practice (???),  </li></ul><ul><li>HyperText Markup Language (HTML),  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Practice is the execution of the theoretical principles  embodied in the knowledge domain of a discipline/professi...
<ul><li>WHY we do this work  </li></ul><ul><li>at all??? </li></ul><ul><li>Rearticulation of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Inv...
<ul><li>That information possesses transformative abilities is an article of faith for IPs  </li></ul><ul><li>This transfo...
<ul><li>For Castells, it is the interaction between knowledge creation, making meaning, learning and application that is a...
<ul><li>They control mastery of and access to those discursive resources which could provide essential competencies in an ...
<ul><li>Habermas (1962) argues, in his book,  The structural transformation of the bourgeois public sphere,  that art crit...
<ul><li>The purposes of a North American digital library system are: </li></ul><ul><li>To expedite the systematic developm...
<ul><li>Foucault’s notion of a library was as a place to explore knowledge, rather than to fix it, for a library provides ...
<ul><li>Possibilities for the future </li></ul><ul><li>New service models for libraries, with more outward focus on users;...
<ul><li>How and why is knowledge created </li></ul><ul><li>How and why is knowledge selected for communication; how is it ...
<ul><li>Understand the user </li></ul><ul><li>Understand human information behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Understand informat...
<ul><li>Different curriculum – broader, longer, deeper… </li></ul><ul><li>Different service model in institutions…. </li><...
IF IPs DO NOT REJUVENATE THEIR THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK, THEIR PRAXIS AND THEIR SOCIAL PURPOSE they are doomed.
<ul><li>The secret to success is to know something nobody else knows.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle Onassis </li></ul>
Thanks for your kind attention. Any questions? Sue
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The profession known as revised ed

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  • Data, information and knowledge are thus collocated at the heart of a collection of complex interrelationships which are ideologically instituted, through selectivity within discourse. This study has shown from within the core of IP literature that they are articulated within ideologies which already pose a challenge to their putative role in society. Within the literature, these concepts have been reduced to such an extent that they do not appear to be complex or robust enough undertake the tasks with which they have been charged: can simple data be processed sufficiently to bring economic prosperity and freedom from disease? This reductionism and simplification is evident in the research done in the field, as well as in the definitions. Furthermore, there appears to be no recognition of the bias that this simplification implies, particularly when it is uncritically attached to technologies, which are then seen as the transforming agents, rather than the information itself. A computer cannot create knowledge
  • Exactly what the information professional’s role is in these processes cannot be described, although the implications of this rationalist, empiricist discourse are demonstrated in information work. One example is the classification and categorisation of documents according to content or subject matter. The classification systems commonly used (Dewey Decimal System, Library of Congress Classification) are not based on any principles of division that might be considered in a philosophical approach, but instead emulate those principles of Aristotelian categorisation which provided the basis for the division of universities into faculties, with the addition of taxonomies devised by Enlightenment scholars, such as Linnaeus. Such definitive and seemingly stable boundaries reflect both the rationalist and the hegemonic nature of science discourse. Available to IPs for the purposes of content classification are such theorisations as Shera’s social epistemology, which discusses the creation and maintenance of the body of socially constructed and validated knowledge (1965, 1972, 1976). Library classification and arrangement are understood to reflect and correspond to the structure of social knowledge – and yet its classification systems still operate as if established within science discourse – often reinforced for instance by mathematical formulae, such as those deployed in A81:
  • This is also related to our ideas of information needs and users. Sometimes librarians think that having access to the catalogue, or the metadata it contains, is enough to satisfy an information need (never mind access to the materials themselves) Sometimes, librarians (and others) think that access to computers – particularly those connected to the internet) will achieve our professional goals.
  • Information is a key component of what Giddens calls ‘structuration’, an emergent process in which neither structure nor individual action predominates. but (in other words, if it can be made meaningful). It must be related to what is already known and understood; but it must also have an element of novelty and so inspire creativity. Durkheim for instance rejected the idea that education could be the force to transform society (Simon and Pezone, 2003, p.1), because education teaches what and how other people thought, and does not encourage individual knowledge creation.
  • Frohmann comments:   If, as Andrew Ross claims, ‘a code of intellectual activism which is not grounded in the vernacular of information technology and the discourses and images of popular, commercial culture, will have as much leverage over the new nomination of modern social movements as the spells of medieval witches or consultations of the I Ching’ (Ross, 1989, pp. 212-213), then the question of what intellectual activism in information science would look like cannot avoid confronting postmodernist debates about the relationship between the new communication and information technologies and human subjectivity (Frohmann, 2000, online). i.e. Information professionals need to engage in the current debates, in their terms. Information professionals are notorious for talking only to each other.
  • Rather than considering the information professions/disciplines in terms of documents (more or less ignoring their information content) and the places in which they are kept (libraries), it is therefore preferable to consider them as social institutions. ‘Institution’ here does not refer though to an organisation, but is understood in broader, sociological terms, to indicate the social, cultural or political structures that are a feature of a society, and which govern or pattern behaviour in some way, becoming as it were, customary. Institutions develop in order to serve some useful purpose, and function in ways that go beyond the conscious intentions of the individuals involved. Institutions have objective and subjective, formal and informal aspects. One example is education, which includes schools, the practice of teaching, teachers, pupils and learning materials, as well as curricula and standards. Institutions might in turn construct other customs and expected behaviours; they are intrinsically embedded in time, culture and society; and while they are sometimes considered to be extensions of human nature (e.g. patriarchy), they are always the outcome of social and cultural decisions. What is of particular interest to this work is what is called the ‘new institutionalism’ – the ways in which institutions, as defined above, are now seen to interact, develop out of and in turn impact upon society – in other words, their constructivist role.
  • The profession known as revised ed

    1. 1. Sue Myburgh PhD University of South Australia
    2. 2. Librarians and other information professionals, such as records managers, archivists and museum curators, have long been taken for granted as the almost invisible, but nonetheless omnipresent and indispensable, guardians of the record of human thought, creation, discovery and invention.
    3. 3. WHY do we think this is good? In other words, why do we do this work at all??????
    4. 5. <ul><li>Internationalisation can be interpreted in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predatory and protectionist, using cultural and technological imposition to achieve competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can also provide the opportunity for organisations to defuse some of the more negative characteristics of globalisation, by demonstrating collaboration, co-operation, solidarity and mutual assistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A useful definition of the term is “the process of integrating an international/intercultural dimension into the work of an institution (Knight and Wit, 1995). </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>What is a digital librarian? </li></ul>
    6. 11. <ul><li>If libraries are already avoided (or not used) by many people in the course of their daily activities – work or pleasure – why are we so sure that digital libraries will be embraced instead? </li></ul>
    7. 13. <ul><li>Action guided by habitus has the appearance of rationality but is based not so much on reason as on socially-constituted dispositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Van House and Sutton, 1996 </li></ul>
    8. 14. <ul><li>Focus on documents, not information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on physical stores (even when they are digital), not skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on legitimizing such tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on LIS programs that focus on tools and institutions, rather in transferable concepts and analysis of information work. </li></ul>
    9. 15. <ul><li>LIS will almost certainly not survive in its present form or paradigm, and the greatest threat to the profession is the ‘librarian mindset’ </li></ul>
    10. 16. Action guided by habitus has the appearance of rationality but is based not so much on reason as on socially-constituted dispositions. Van House and Sutton, 1996
    11. 17. <ul><li>Focus on documents, not information </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on physical stores (even when they are digital), not skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on legitimizing such tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on LIS programs that focus on tools and institutions, rather in transferable concepts and analysis of information work. </li></ul>
    12. 18. <ul><li>Once upon a time, long ago and far away… </li></ul>
    13. 19. <ul><li>Telephone engineers (Shannon and Weaver) </li></ul><ul><li>On and off (binary bits and bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry (T. S. Eliot) </li></ul>
    14. 20. Reductionism
    15. 21. <ul><li>This hierarchy is first suggested in a poem by T. S. Eliot, published in 1934, called The chorus of the rock : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the Life we have lost in living? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? </li></ul>
    16. 22. <ul><li>At the centre of our universe, and guiding all our activities, is information. And it is therefore very important to have a very clear idea of what information is. </li></ul><ul><li>Sadly, this does not appear to be the case… </li></ul>
    17. 23. <ul><li>information theory was characterised as being able to measure information, and information is associated with ‘knowing’ and the reduction of uncertainty. </li></ul>
    18. 24. Donald McKay: this theory “ enables us to speak precisely and quantitatively. It provides objective substitutes for intuitive criteria and subjective prejudices” (McKay, 1969, cited by Borgmann, 1999, p. 132). Without the – appropriated and unintentional – conceptualisation of engineers, information professionals literally ‘cannot speak’ – since to do so is to risk relegation to non-scientific categories of subjectivity, intuition, and prejudice. Introducing a formula that appears to be able to measure information, this theory “at long last did for this crucial force of nature and culture what the sciences had done for matter, energy and organisms” (Borgmann, 1999, p. 132).   The four basic entities of the proposed model are data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. They are the four entities of information theory and can be constructed collectively as a basic entity set, denoted by S’. The mathematical representation is s’ = ( (S, j = 1 to 4) ) = W,I,K, W>), (1) where Sr = D = data, Sz = Z = information, S3 = K = knowledge, and S4 = W = wisdom are the elements of the set.
    19. 25. <ul><li>An expression of the form is considered by convention to be equal to zero whenever p = 0. This is justified because for any logarithmic base. </li></ul>
    20. 26. <ul><li>“ IPs collect, organise, describe, manage, preserve and make accessible… ”. </li></ul><ul><li>the pattern of organisation of matter and energy that has been given meaning by a living being. </li></ul><ul><li>the lifeblood of the knowledge-based organisation . </li></ul><ul><li>anything that makes sense . </li></ul><ul><li>something that is intended to make sense . </li></ul><ul><li>an objective phenomenon, something that is generated by, transmitted in, received and stored in physical media, but the existence of which is independent of an interpreting agent. </li></ul><ul><li>the presence of a 1 or 0 in a bit . </li></ul><ul><li>a stimulus which expands or amends the World View of the informed. </li></ul><ul><li>what people or systems need to be able to carry out work practices. </li></ul>
    21. 27. <ul><li>‘ The mother of all models’ </li></ul>Transmission model. Shown to cultural and communication studies as a poor, oversimplified and irrelevant example.
    22. 28. <ul><li>Information is that part of knowledge that is selected to be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>It is communicated by being represented in symbols (sound and image) – language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of language (sound and image) must exist before communication can take place (i.e. mutual understanding of cultural symbols) </li></ul>
    23. 36. <ul><li>Access to information resources has long been considered the most important task of a library, but this is a fallacious view and one restricted by a mindset located in a time when books (or documents) were, to all intents and purposes, synonymous with ‘information’. </li></ul><ul><li>And what is information used for, anyway? </li></ul>
    24. 37. <ul><li>Learning is a process of active engagement with experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It is what people do when they want to make sense of the world. It may involve the development or deepening of skills, knowledge, understanding, awareness, values, ideas and feelings, or an increase in the capacity to reflect. Effective learning leads to change, development and the desire to learn more. </li></ul>
    25. 38. <ul><li>Information is that part of knowledge that is selected to be communicated </li></ul><ul><li>It is communicated by being represented in symbols (sound and image) – language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of language (sound and image) must exist before communication can take place (i.e. mutual understanding of cultural symbols) </li></ul>
    26. 40. <ul><li>manage digital libraries; </li></ul><ul><li>organize digital knowledge and information; </li></ul><ul><li>disseminate digital information from the computer; </li></ul><ul><li>provide digital reference services and electronic information services; </li></ul><ul><li>provide knowledge mining from the knowledge warehouses; </li></ul><ul><li>handle the tasks of massive digitization, digital storage process, and digital preservation; </li></ul><ul><li>provide universal access and retrieval of digital knowledge, ultimately access to all; </li></ul><ul><li>catalogue and classify digital documents and digital knowledge. </li></ul>
    27. 41. <ul><li>Anything to do with the Internet: </li></ul><ul><li>navigation, browsing, filtering; </li></ul><ul><li>retrieving, accessing, digital document analysis; </li></ul><ul><li>digital information and reference services; </li></ul><ul><li>searching digital sources and Web sites; </li></ul><ul><li>creating home pages, content conversion; </li></ul><ul><li>Web publishing; </li></ul><ul><li>creating and/or archiving digital documents; </li></ul><ul><li>digital preservation and storage; </li></ul>
    28. 42. <ul><li>Anything to do with digital media (including virtual worlds) </li></ul><ul><li>multimedia indexing, image processing, object-oriented processing; </li></ul><ul><li>Information visualization; </li></ul><ul><li>cataloguing and classification of digital documents (must not forget – constantly mentioned); </li></ul><ul><li>searching and retrieval of text, images and other multimedia objects; </li></ul><ul><li>conferencing techniques including teleconferencing, video conferencing. </li></ul>
    29. 43. <ul><li>Understanding the creation and development of digital knowledge and information (communication) </li></ul><ul><li>development of machine readable catalogue records; </li></ul><ul><li>design and development of databases; </li></ul><ul><li>design and development of software agents for digital libraries; </li></ul><ul><li>conversion of print media into digital media. </li></ul>
    30. 44. <ul><li>Isn’t this what librarians already have to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t this what many other people, besides librarians and other ‘information professionals’ do anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t some of this done by computer scientists? </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this stuff change all the time? </li></ul>
    31. 45. <ul><li>In 1996, Kirk Hastings and Roy Tennant wrote a piece called How to Build a Digital Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>They stated there that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Digital librarians are required to select, acquire, organize, make accessible, and preserve digital collections”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our primary goal was to train information professionals in practical techniques that they could use to create new kinds of collections and services using current technologies”. </li></ul>
    32. 46. <ul><li>digital library theory and practice (???), </li></ul><ul><li>HyperText Markup Language (HTML), </li></ul><ul><li>imaging, </li></ul><ul><li>optical character recognition, </li></ul><ul><li>access and indexing, </li></ul><ul><li>selection of materials for digitizing, and </li></ul><ul><li>effective training techniques. </li></ul>
    33. 47. <ul><li>Practice is the execution of the theoretical principles embodied in the knowledge domain of a discipline/profession. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not unique to LIS. </li></ul><ul><li>What has confused us is the physical embodiment of what we deal with (‘health’, ‘law’, ‘design’, and so forth do not have a similar embodiment). </li></ul><ul><li>Also the sheer scale : information affects, influences or is involved in every human activity. </li></ul>
    34. 48. <ul><li>WHY we do this work </li></ul><ul><li>at all??? </li></ul><ul><li>Rearticulation of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation of social landscape </li></ul><ul><li>New roles in a changed/changing world </li></ul>
    35. 49. <ul><li>That information possesses transformative abilities is an article of faith for IPs </li></ul><ul><li>This transformation can occur only if the information can be interpreted by the user </li></ul><ul><li>Giddens and structuration </li></ul><ul><li>Durkheim </li></ul>
    36. 50. <ul><li>For Castells, it is the interaction between knowledge creation, making meaning, learning and application that is a key aspect of the Information Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Power then is central to information – for information, as Castells in particular has so forcefully argued, is an element which must flow. Where it flows from, and to whom, is the province of power. </li></ul>
    37. 51. <ul><li>They control mastery of and access to those discursive resources which could provide essential competencies in an information-based economy and society, and which directly affect social and economic power. </li></ul>
    38. 52. <ul><li>Habermas (1962) argues, in his book, The structural transformation of the bourgeois public sphere, that art criticism, social criticism and literary criticism developed in public spaces like coffee houses. They became organised in the sense that criticism developed particular forms of communication in order to talk and write about social, political and cultural issues in society. </li></ul><ul><li>The success of the public sphere, according to Habermas, depends upon: </li></ul><ul><li>the extent of access (as close to universal as possible), </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of autonomy (the citizens must be free of coercion), </li></ul><ul><li>the rejection of hierarchy (so that each might participate on an equal footing), </li></ul><ul><li>the rule of law (particularly the subordination of the state), </li></ul><ul><li>the quality of participation (the common commitment to the ways of logic). </li></ul><ul><li>rational-critical discourse (Rutherford, 2000, p. 18). </li></ul>
    39. 53. <ul><li>The purposes of a North American digital library system are: </li></ul><ul><li>To expedite the systematic development of: the means to collect, store and organize information and knowledge in digital form; and of digital library collections in North America; </li></ul><ul><li>To promote the economical and efficient delivery of information to all sectors of North American society; </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage co-operative efforts which leverage the considerably investment in North American research resources, computing and communications network; </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen communication and collaboration between and among the research, business, government and educational communities; </li></ul><ul><li>To take an international leadership role in the generation and dissemination of knowledge in areas of strategic importance to North America </li></ul><ul><li>To contribute to the lifelong learning opportunities of all North Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Research Libraries. (1995). Definition and purposes of a digital library. [Online]. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/arl-dlib.txt </li></ul>
    40. 54. <ul><li>Foucault’s notion of a library was as a place to explore knowledge, rather than to fix it, for a library provides a context for never-ending and multi-facetted knowledge creation, as each text located and read strengthens knowledge but never makes it final. Rather, a new text comes to make sense only in the contexts of those already accessed and used (in the knowledge already accumulated). In the Bibliothèque fantastique , there is no longer a canon (implying hegemony); instead everything is potentially valuable, depending on the individual searcher. Foucault (1977) writes that </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>… the imaginary is not formed in opposition to reality as its denial or compensation; it grows among signs, from book to book, in the interstices of repetitions and commentaries; it is born and takes shape in the interval between books. It is a phenomenon of the library (Foucault, 1977, p. 91). </li></ul>
    41. 55. <ul><li>Possibilities for the future </li></ul><ul><li>New service models for libraries, with more outward focus on users; broad engagement in planning for the future and the importance of collaboration and partnerships in enhancing, expanding and re-defining library services. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing role of collections, comprising more information on demand, social networking and user creation (and interaction); focus on special, local and unique collections as well as shared repositories for print and electronic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff transformation involving a re-design of work to focus on user impact and increased efficiencies; the need for knowledge and skills development and outsourcing and flexible staffing options. </li></ul><ul><li>Library as place and the re-purposing of buildings, including more multi-purpose community and collaborative space and less collection/information storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Library as social institution </li></ul>
    42. 56. <ul><li>How and why is knowledge created </li></ul><ul><li>How and why is knowledge selected for communication; how is it represented </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the intended recipients of the coded message? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they decode it and extract meaning and make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when they have received and understood the information? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this ‘transform’ them (change their decisions and actions)? </li></ul>
    43. 57. <ul><li>Understand the user </li></ul><ul><li>Understand human information behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Understand information </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the document </li></ul><ul><li>Understand information and communication technologies (ICTs) </li></ul>
    44. 58. <ul><li>Different curriculum – broader, longer, deeper… </li></ul><ul><li>Different service model in institutions…. </li></ul><ul><li>Disassociation from libraries as ‘warehouses’; libraries rather as social institutions (like marriage).. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement that libraries have a social role and are willy-nilly political sites… </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition by us in the profession (and the wider community) of all the very useful competencies that we possess… </li></ul>
    45. 59. IF IPs DO NOT REJUVENATE THEIR THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK, THEIR PRAXIS AND THEIR SOCIAL PURPOSE they are doomed.
    46. 60. <ul><li>The secret to success is to know something nobody else knows. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle Onassis </li></ul>
    47. 61. Thanks for your kind attention. Any questions? Sue

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