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Big Data Is Not the Insight: The Language Of Discovery:

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Big Data Is Not the Insight: The Language Of Discovery:

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Designing Effective Search and Discovery Experiences for the Enterprise, Using the Language of Discovery


The oncoming tidal wave of Big Data, with its rapidly evolving ecosystem of multi-channel information saturated environments and services, brings profound challenges and opportunities for the design of effective user experiences that UX practitioners are just beginning to engage with in a meaningful fashion. In this coming Age of Insight, 'discovery' is not only the purview of specialized Data Scientists who create exotic visualizations of massive data sets, it is a fundamental category of human activity that is essential to everyday interactions between people, resources, and environments. Search is the gateway to discovery, and thus is indispensable as a capability.

To provide architects and designers with an effective starting point for creating satisfying search and discovery experiences this session presents a simple analytical and generative vocabulary for understanding how people conduct the broad range of discovery activities necessary in the information-permeated enterprise, and defining the search experiences they need.

Specifically, this session will present:

A simple, research-derived language for describing search and discovery needs and activities that spans domains, environments, media, and user types

Observed and reusable patterns of discovery activities in individual and collaborative settings

A practical model that defines actionable patterns of information engagement throughout the enterprise

Examples of the architecture of successful discovery experiences at small and large scales

A vocabulary and perspective for discovery as a critical individual and organizational capability

Guidance on using this vocabulary to drive large scale IT portfolio management as well as the design of individual search solutions

Designing Effective Search and Discovery Experiences for the Enterprise, Using the Language of Discovery


The oncoming tidal wave of Big Data, with its rapidly evolving ecosystem of multi-channel information saturated environments and services, brings profound challenges and opportunities for the design of effective user experiences that UX practitioners are just beginning to engage with in a meaningful fashion. In this coming Age of Insight, 'discovery' is not only the purview of specialized Data Scientists who create exotic visualizations of massive data sets, it is a fundamental category of human activity that is essential to everyday interactions between people, resources, and environments. Search is the gateway to discovery, and thus is indispensable as a capability.

To provide architects and designers with an effective starting point for creating satisfying search and discovery experiences this session presents a simple analytical and generative vocabulary for understanding how people conduct the broad range of discovery activities necessary in the information-permeated enterprise, and defining the search experiences they need.

Specifically, this session will present:

A simple, research-derived language for describing search and discovery needs and activities that spans domains, environments, media, and user types

Observed and reusable patterns of discovery activities in individual and collaborative settings

A practical model that defines actionable patterns of information engagement throughout the enterprise

Examples of the architecture of successful discovery experiences at small and large scales

A vocabulary and perspective for discovery as a critical individual and organizational capability

Guidance on using this vocabulary to drive large scale IT portfolio management as well as the design of individual search solutions

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Big Data Is Not the Insight: The Language Of Discovery:

  1. #EnterpriseSearchEurope #languageofdiscovery #ageofinsight The Language of Discovery Wednesday, May 15, 13
  2. Joe Lamantia UX Lead: Discovery Products & Services Oracle @moJoe JoeLamantia.com Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe Wednesday, May 15, 13
  3. designed many discovery solutions Wednesday, May 15, 13
  4. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research Wednesday, May 15, 13
  5. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s) Wednesday, May 15, 13
  6. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  7. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  8. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  9. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  10. “‘Big Data’ always make[s] me think of some weird Star Trek: TNG fan fiction pron.” Dan Saffer Wednesday, May 15, 13
  11. value!data Wednesday, May 15, 13
  12. value!data PHASE1 PHASE 3PHASE 2 ? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  13. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286 Wednesday, May 15, 13
  14. “the ...scarce factor is the ability to understand that data...” http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286 Wednesday, May 15, 13
  15. discovery is...? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  16. not just search Wednesday, May 15, 13
  17. more than visualization Wednesday, May 15, 13
  18. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  19. search visualization analysis prediction Wednesday, May 15, 13
  20. discovery is making sense of the world search visualization analysis prediction Wednesday, May 15, 13
  21. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  22. insight!discoverydata + Wednesday, May 15, 13
  23. Welcome to The Age of Insight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  24. Everything is discoverable Wednesday, May 15, 13
  25. http://citydashboard.org/london/ urban status Wednesday, May 15, 13
  26. W Antwerp WT? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  27. influence Wednesday, May 15, 13
  28. data journalism Wednesday, May 15, 13
  29. cultural analytics Wednesday, May 15, 13
  30. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases. scientific disciplines Wednesday, May 15, 13
  31. we know you’re a dog Wednesday, May 15, 13
  32. Everyone discovers Wednesday, May 15, 13
  33. ready data Wednesday, May 15, 13
  34. interaction tools Wednesday, May 15, 13
  35. engagement models Wednesday, May 15, 13
  36. consumer devices Wednesday, May 15, 13
  37. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.” data as lifestyle Wednesday, May 15, 13
  38. Horizon of Discoverability present soon future past Wednesday, May 15, 13
  39. discovery capability is expected in all interaction contexts Wednesday, May 15, 13
  40. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/ Wednesday, May 15, 13
  41. Discovery is Everyware multi-channel experiences networked devices & places ubicomp environments information shadows product, service, personal avatars mixed realities Wednesday, May 15, 13
  42. Discovery is the most important interaction in the emerging Age of Insight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  43. How to design discovery experiences...? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  44. mediated sense making Wednesday, May 15, 13
  45. information retrieval Wednesday, May 15, 13
  46. precursors Bates - tactics & categories O’Day & Jeffries - categories Cool & Belkin Ellis - behaviors & modes Marchionini - IR framework Spencer - Modes Lamantia - Modes & patterns Wednesday, May 15, 13
  47. Patterns of form are inadequate. Need & context vary wildly Wednesday, May 15, 13
  48. Task patterns = vague... Wednesday, May 15, 13
  49. insight!activitydata + Wednesday, May 15, 13
  50. Activity Centered Design Wednesday, May 15, 13
  51. The same thing we do every night... Wednesday, May 15, 13
  52. Research-based Wednesday, May 15, 13
  53. Research Develop & Produce Market Sell & Deliver Operations & Planning Digital Asset Mgmt Financial Analysis Enterprise Search & Knowledge Mgmt Spend Analysis Market Intelligence Product Information Mgmt Inventory & DeliverySales & Customer Analysis Field Service Analysis Warranty Analysis Maintenance Repair & Overhaul Call Centers & Knowledge Mgmt Customer Risk Analysis Part, Commodity & Supplier Analysis Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Demand Visibility Human Capital Management Program & Portfolio Mgmt Data Quality & Governance Pricing Analysis Claims Analysis Service Support & Maintain Measure Plan & Operate solution contexts Wednesday, May 15, 13
  54. scenario analysis Wednesday, May 15, 13
  55. “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement User Scenarios Wednesday, May 15, 13
  56. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  57. activity grammar Wednesday, May 15, 13
  58. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  59. Enables understanding of discovery needs and context Wednesday, May 15, 13
  60. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences Wednesday, May 15, 13
  61. DISCOVERY S Wednesday, May 15, 13
  62. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement Wednesday, May 15, 13
  63. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image Wednesday, May 15, 13
  64. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer Wednesday, May 15, 13
  65. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  66. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct orthogonal conceptually connected sequencable combinable Wednesday, May 15, 13
  67. Modes seem to be internalized & common. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  68. they work like music notes Wednesday, May 15, 13
  69. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  70. MODE Wednesday, May 15, 13
  71. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement Wednesday, May 15, 13
  72. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  73. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  74. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  75. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer Wednesday, May 15, 13
  76. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  77. Evaluate ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement Wednesday, May 15, 13
  78. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  79. Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist Wednesday, May 15, 13
  80. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  81. Compare ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer Wednesday, May 15, 13
  82. best route is? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  83. Locate Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize 9 modes Wednesday, May 15, 13
  84. Locate To find a specific (possibly known) thing e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier - Engineering Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist Monitor ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  85. Compare To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering Comprehend To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image Explore To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of knowledge discovery e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement Wednesday, May 15, 13
  86. Analyze To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns & relationships e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering Evaluate To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark or model e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price - Procurement Synthesize To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep Wednesday, May 15, 13
  87. grammatical structure & behavior Wednesday, May 15, 13
  88. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  89. Explore something to effect result or goal. verb object predicate Discovery Goal Wednesday, May 15, 13
  90. You can explore: people places events objects data topics processes ...?? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  91. you said they work like music? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  92. ModeWednesday, May 15, 13
  93. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  94. Monitor Explore ...currently popular colors over useful intervals ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past When I use the tool, I can... Wednesday, May 15, 13
  95. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  96. Monitor Explore ...articles to see what is new and available. ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials. As a reader, I can... Wednesday, May 15, 13
  97. Monitor Explore ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics My twitter home page allows me to... Locate Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  98. you said they work like music? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  99. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes Wednesday, May 15, 13
  100. Chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  101. 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  102. 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost. Analyze Compare Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  103. Comparative Search 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost. Analyze Compare Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  104. 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  105. 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Analyze Compare Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  106. Comparative Search 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Analyze Compare Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  107. enterprise scenario chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  108. Comparative Search Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators Analyze Compare Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  109. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  110. Strategic Oversight Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target Monitor Analyze Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  111. Strategic Insight Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  112. Comparative Synthesis Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst Analyze Compare Synthesize Wednesday, May 15, 13
  113. Explore Analyze Evaluate Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Monitor Analyze Evaluate Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Exploratory Search Strategic Insight Comparative Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Enterprise Scenario Chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  114. consumer scenario chains http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_zero/7350565830/in/photostream/ consumer scenario chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  115. 277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to achieve it. • Find best offers before the others do so I can have a high margin. • Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely so that I can achieve a good price. • Understand what is selling by area/region so I can source the correct stock. • See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online to supply to the Head of Global Media. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  116. Qualified Search A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required: “Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances) Locate Verify A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf Wednesday, May 15, 13
  117. Insight-driven Search An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need: “Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances) Explore Analyze Comprehend A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf Wednesday, May 15, 13
  118. Opportunity-driven Search A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery: “Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances) Explore Locate Evaluate A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf Wednesday, May 15, 13
  119. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  120. ModeWednesday, May 15, 13
  121. recognizable mode chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  122. Analyze Evaluate Comparative Search 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their current and historic importance and popularity. Color Forecast users can... ...of colors I may use for my purposes Compare Wednesday, May 15, 13
  123. Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Data blog readers can... into events & actions of government & society Wednesday, May 15, 13
  124. Analyze Comparative synthesis 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Data blog readers can... of all insights into the causes of the UK riots Compare Synthesize Wednesday, May 15, 13
  125. Evaluate Exploratory search 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Twitter users can... ... for valuable people streams to follow Explore Analyze Wednesday, May 15, 13
  126. mode networks Wednesday, May 15, 13
  127. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Mode Networks Wednesday, May 15, 13
  128. AnalyzeExplore Comprehend Evaluate Verify Locate Mode Networks Wednesday, May 15, 13
  129. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  130. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate Wednesday, May 15, 13
  131. Initial SummaryOperative Wednesday, May 15, 13
  132. Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate Initial SummaryOperative Wednesday, May 15, 13
  133. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Initial SummaryOperative Wednesday, May 15, 13
  134. Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology Sensemaking Wednesday, May 15, 13
  135. Initial SummaryOperative Wednesday, May 15, 13
  136. Using the languageUsing the language Wednesday, May 15, 13
  137. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors To evaluate the quality and success of product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. To establish a roadmap for the product's evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products Product Strategy, Definition & Design Wednesday, May 15, 13
  138. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite solution design for product customers Wednesday, May 15, 13
  139. Mode-based design Wednesday, May 15, 13
  140. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  141. discovery application template Supply Chain Management Analytics and Forecasting Wednesday, May 15, 13
  142. Enables understanding of discovery needs and context Wednesday, May 15, 13
  143. Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context Goals & Scenarios §Plan §Optimize §Launch §Build User Types §Knowledgeable §Enthusiast §Uncertain Explorer §Manager Business Goals §Engagement §Conversion §Cross-Sell §Adoption §Acquisition Discovery Assets §Product info §Rich Media §Textual Info §Social Media §Metrics What decision- discovery support and information assets will help them achieve their goals? What are business- user critical goals & scenarios? What do they need to know to succeed? What are the business strategies, objectives, & priorities? Modes & Chains §Locate §Explore §Strategic Insight §Qualified Search How do people need to interact with information assets & each other to achieve their goals? Who are the critical users and how do their discovery needs & behaviors vary? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  144. Supply Chain Process Source ManufacturePlan Distribute Replenish Planning Team Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  145. Planners: Needs & Goals Planner / Analyst • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  146. Planning Manager • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams Managers: Needs & Goals • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team Wednesday, May 15, 13
  147. recognizable mode chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  148. Synthesize Analyze To create new forecasts, Planners: Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors Compare them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical activities Planners: Mode Chains Comparative Synthesis Compare Wednesday, May 15, 13
  149. Forecast activitydata + Wednesday, May 15, 13
  150. To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners: Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to Understand the factors affecting forecasts Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts Planners: Mode Chains Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  151. Causes activitydata + Wednesday, May 15, 13
  152. Analyze Managers assessing Planner performance: Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Planning Managers: Mode Chains Evaluate Strategic Oversight Monitor Wednesday, May 15, 13
  153. Method activitydata + Wednesday, May 15, 13
  154. Forecast (location) Causal Factor Methodology Item Discovery scope ??? Wednesday, May 15, 13
  155. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences Wednesday, May 15, 13
  156. how much? when & where? what behavior? Information in workspaces: Wednesday, May 15, 13
  157. 3 screen types composed of defined components (portlets) offering discovery ‘functions’ • faceted navigation • data visualization • application navigation • tabular data • search • context management • metrics • alerts • filtering Application Structure Wednesday, May 15, 13
  158. Dashboard Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  159. Planners Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. Dashboard Screen Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  160. One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity. Provides summary status of processes via KPIs and measurements. Dashboard Screen A chart presents historical values of these measures for Analysis. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  161. Alerts allow Planners to monitor, analyze, and evaluate changes to supply chain flow. Initiate the Strategic Insight chain: follow linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the information space. Dashboard Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  162. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  163. Focused on one sub-function of the supply chain: forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings through stages of the supply chain. Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to understand & manage the data that is presented in the workspace tables, charts, while analyzing the information. Summarize and communicate workspace context to users to provide orientation and comprehension. Analysis Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  164. ‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate). Analysis Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  165. Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone. Analysis Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  166. Supporting tables provide lists of the individual transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation. Analysis Screen Wednesday, May 15, 13
  167. Analysis Screen Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  168. Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Trends Screen Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Explore Analyze Evaluate Exploration-driven Search Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  169. Sequences Wednesday, May 15, 13
  170. Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts vs. actual activity in the supply chain; When errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation. They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly generated insights and improved understanding. They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / Analyst Wednesday, May 15, 13
  171. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Optimization “Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  172. Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices. They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices. They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Exploratory Search Strategic Oversight Managers: Mode Sequences Planning Manager Wednesday, May 15, 13
  173. Strategic Insight Comparison-driven Synthesis Exploration-driven Search Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Re-Engineering / Design “Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering Wednesday, May 15, 13
  174. interaction-based language for business- level dialog Wednesday, May 15, 13
  175. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  176. Monitor Synthesize Locate Explore Wednesday, May 15, 13
  177. Monitor • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended Wednesday, May 15, 13
  178. • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  179. Analyze AnalyzeMonitor Explore Compare Comprehend Synthesize Evaluate Verify Mode Networks Wednesday, May 15, 13
  180. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains Wednesday, May 15, 13
  181. AnalyzeExplore Comprehend Evaluate Verify Locate Mode Networks Wednesday, May 15, 13
  182. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  183. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  184. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  185. Header Stream CoreSecondary Wednesday, May 15, 13
  186. Monitoring consoles Monitoring consoles Search results Home Me #Discover@Connect Favorites Lists Following Followers Mentions Activity Who to follow Find friends Browse categories Tweet Shared asset Exploration & extension workspaces Wednesday, May 15, 13
  187. • Using the modes as a generative design tool requires mapping of information assets. • Not a one-to-one correspondence between a composite of modes such as a chain, and an interaction component of any size or scope. • Modes are useful as alignment tool for product’s concept model and users’ mental models. • Well designed interaction components combine modes together into compact functions that accomplish more than one ‘micro-task’ at the same time – e.g. Show conversation link locates and presents info for exploration / comprehension/ analysis. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  188. • Every individual system will have its own idiosyncratic network of modes and chains that arises from the particular user journeys it needs to support.  Designers must understand and reference this local map to create effective systems, and specifically to define the right UX architecture. • Local mode networks should be analyzed along three axes: for recurring modes and mode chains, for intersecting or overlapping modes and mode chains, and for sequences of modes and chains. • Constructive units need ‘linkages’ – not sure what / how to represent linkage using current language. Continuity is one thing linkages address and enable. Need an understanding / definition of continuity. • Scope of information needed for an activity and the interaction component that enables it can be addressed via density of info, or scope of interaction component. • Wednesday, May 15, 13
  189. learn hearts & minds rely on known modes & sequences parsimonious composition hunt cross-channel flows optimize for core scenarios every interaction enhances insight Wednesday, May 15, 13
  190. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  191. References & Resources Language of Discovery Wednesday, May 15, 13
  192. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  193. Publications Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012, Nijmegen, NL. Designing the Search Experience: forthcoming Wednesday, May 15, 13
  194. References & Resources The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005) https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume 49 Issue 4, April 2006 http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 30: 205-214 Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424. Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002 Wednesday, May 15, 13
  195. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004) Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371. Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46 Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6 O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445 Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  196. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45(3), pp. 171-212. Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369. Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403. Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634. Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  197. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  198. Wednesday, May 15, 13
  199. @moJoe JoeLamantia.com Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe Wednesday, May 15, 13

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