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Dirt Bikes Essay
DIRT BIKES
There are two basic types of motorcycles. One type is made for riding on smooth
surfaces like roads or paved race tracks. These motorcycles are called road bikes. They
are heavier, faster, and more powerful than off–road bikes. Off–road motorcycles, or dirt
bikes, are lighter than road bikes. Dirt bikes are built to handle rough terrain like dirt,
mud, and rocks.
Not all people use dirt bikes for sport. Some people need their dirt bikes for work.
“Members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police ride Honda, Kawasaki, and Suzuki
dirt
bikes instead of horses.';(Motocross, 128) Forest rangers take dirt bikes out on ... Show more
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The coarse is an obstacle coarse with things like boulders,
logs, and streams that you will have to cross or maneuver on top of. The final kind of race
is enduro. They are very long races which test your skills in map reading and if need be
fixing your bike in the middle of nowhere with what you got. One famous race is the
Paris–Dakar Which is an astonishing 6,371 miles (10,250 kilometers).
“All dirt bikes share some basic features–knobby tires, light weight frames,
long–travel suspension, and two– or four stroke engines placed high and out of the way.';
(Kawasaki owners manual, Intro)
“Knobbies';, or knobby tires give the dirt bike good traction through mud, loose gavel,
and
sand. Without knobby tires, you would not have much control on rough trails. In deep sand it would
be very difficult to move forward with just regular tires. Although on a paved
road they will give you an rather bumpy ride. Another important part of all dirt bikes is
long–travel suspension. This includes the fork legs in the front and one or two shock
absorbers in the rear. Long–travel suspension softens the ride over the big jumps. “All
dirt
bikes have engines that are placed high in the chassis so they can clear obstacles suck as
large bumps, stumps, and rocks. The exhaust pipe also rides high so it will not catch on
boulders or fallen trees.';(Jesse Young,16)
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Tracey: A Short Story
"Let's wrap things up", Mary said. Timothy, Tracy, and Mary were all in the process of closing Wal–
Mart tonight for work. Timothy was grabbing his keys to head to the door when all of suddenly the
doors slammed shut and locked. Mary, Tracey and Timothy all shot each other a petrified look. Not
knowing what's going on they try to get a hold of their manager only to find out they have no signal.
While trying to brainstorm on what to do they hear the intercom come on. "Let's play a game, hide
and seek last one alive wins." They all look at each other with frightened looks. Timothy says, "Let's
try getting out of here again." When they look at the doors again they realized someone locked it
with chains from the outside. Mary says, "I know there ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Tracey sees that the Mary left the aisle so tracey tiptoes to get her weapon an sees that may took a
chain saw and clippers. Tracy knew that Mary had the same idea as her and that mary was going to
try to kill her. Suddenly Traceys fears weren't of the figure they were of Mary. Cautiously Tracey
picks out her weapon, so mary wouldn't be able to hear her. Once tracey got the chainsaw she
wanted she ran to a hiding spot in the chair section. She kept her eye on anything suspicious and she
sees the same dark figure she saw before, but the figure had something in its hand. Tracey saw that
the figure had a gun in its hand. The dark figure was looking all around the store looking for her and
Mary. Tracey spots mary but doesn't suspect mary seeing her. But all at once they run in to get the
figure, but the figure turns around quicker and tackles mary to the ground. At that moment Tracey
forgo all the differences her and mary had and all she could think of was to save Mary. Tracey
turned on the chainsaw and started to cut the back of the figures feet and he freezes in pain and mary
scrambles from out of under the figure. Tracey and Mary look at the clock and sees that it is opening
time andf they realize that people will be on the way to
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Internal Combustion Engines
Internal Combustion Engines
Introduction
Internal Combustion Engine, a heat engine in which the fuel is burned ( that is, united with oxygen )
within the confining space of the engine itself.
This burning process releases large amounts of energy, which are transformed into work through the
mechanism of the engine. This type of engine different from the steam engine, which process with
an external combustion engine that fuel burned apart from the engine. The principal types of internal
combustion engine are : reciprocating engine such as Otto–engine, and Diesel engines ; and rotary
engines, such as the Wankel engine and the Gas–turbine engine. In general, the internal combustion
engine has become the means of propulsion in the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Ignition
In all engines some means of igniting the fuel in the cylinder must be provided. For example, the
ignition system of Otto–cycle engines , the mixture of air and gasoline vapor delivered to the
cylinder from the carburetor and next operation is that of igniting the charge by causing a spark to
jump the gap between the electrodes of a spark plug, which projects through the walls of the
cylinder. One electrode is insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of
the plug, and both form the part of the secondary circuit of an induction system. The principal type
of high–tension ignition now commonly used is the battery–and–coil system. The current from the
battery flows through the low– tension coil and magnetizes the iron core. When this circuit is
opened at the distributor points by the interrupter cam, a transient high–frequency current is
produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the condenser. This induces a transient, high–
frequency, high–voltage current in the secondary winding. This secondary high voltage is needed to
cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder to be
fired by the distributor, which connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders
in their proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the same
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The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Four Stroke Engine
The Four Stroke engine was made by Nikolaus Otto (Daniel Levy). The machine which was built
before The Four Stroke engine was The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). The Two Stroke engine
doesn't have completed amount of stages and The Four Stroke engine had all four completed stages
for the engine to function properly (Daniel Levy). The Four Stroke engine was basically the better
form of The Two Stroke engine but it also had some disadvantage which The Two Stroke engine
was better in. These engines can create different types diseases or can release harmful gases (Martin,
Nebel and Rounds 103). The Four Stroke engine was an engine made by Nikolaus Otto (Daniel
Levy). But before taking a look at The Four Stroke, we will take a look at The Two ... Show more
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The Four Stroke engine turned the disadvantages of The Two Stroke engine into the advantages
which make the engine a whole lot better (Daniel Levy). The three advantages of The Four Stroke
engine would be that The Four Stroke engine can last much longer than The Two Stroke engine
(Daniel Levy). Another advantage is that The Four Stroke engine uses gas more efficiently than The
Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). Lastly The Four Stroke engine also pollutes a lot less than The
Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). But The Four Stroke engine also was still not an exactly a perfect
engine, it also had weaknesses of its own which are the disadvantages of it (Daniel Levy). These are
the three examples of the disadvantages of The Four Stroke engine: The first disadvantage of The
Four Stroke engine would be that the engine itself is very complicated, which makes you worry
about the parts of the engine getting damaged (Daniel Levy). Secondly The Four Stroke engine is
also half as powerful as The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). Lastly The Four Stroke engine fires
every two revolutions of the crankshaft (Daniel
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Four-Stroke Engine
Title: The Four–Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about
the history of the four–stroke engine, how it works and some brief information to other types of
engines. Thesis Statement: Internal combustion engines are very important to today 's society, the
four stroke engine is the most popular and important due to it long history of achievement and
durability. I. Introduction 1. Attention getter– Imagine life without the engine, to be more specific
the four–stroke engine or basic car engine. Everyday tasks, like coming to school, would know turn
into journeys through the snow ,up a hill, both ways. All this because no–one ever invented this
engine that helps transport most people today through all ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Transition– So these are some of the key elements that people should know about the basic engine
that we use everyday. 3. There are several other engines used in the world today. A. There is the 2–
stroke engine, a more simple version of the four–stroke, which is used in small applications such as
chainsaws or dirtbikes. The rotary engine is another type of a gasoline engine that uses a rotor
instead of a piston. B. The steam engine is an engine that uses steam under high pressure as it 's fuel,
this engine type is very outdated and not used anymore today. C. The diesel engine is another very
important engine because of it 's uses it big trucks and heavy machinery. Instead of igniting the fuel
with a spark these engines use temperature that is just high enough to ignite the fuel that they use.
III. Conclusion 1. Summarize– I hope everyone retained at least some of the information that was
given to you today, you never know when the history of the four–stroke, how it works or some other
engine types could help you. 2. Tie to intro– Hopefully everyone remembers how important these
engine 's are the next time you get into a car don 't take it for granted because you don 't want to
know what everyone 's lives would be like if these engines were not around today. 3. Concluding
thought– So finally I want everyone to take into account how important the
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How to Strip an Engine
Engineering Report
Engine Dismantle
And Rebuild
Travis Wight
TEN053B
Mr. Mulligan
Contents
Introduction p1
What is a Two Stroke Engine? P2
How a Two–Stroke Engine Works
Power Stroke p3 Fuel Intake p4
Compression stroke p5
Dismantling the Engine p
Engine Assessment p
Engine Rebuild p
Appendices
Introduction
The task at hand was to find a medium sized internal combustion engine. With this engine we had to
dismantle it recording all the steps taken to pull it down. After the engine had been taken apart, all
the functions of the engine had to be observed and recorded. After observing and recording all the
information, it was then required to make any minor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This was achieved by un–doing one primary nut, which was attached from the shaft of the engine to
the cutting deck of the mower. There was four smaller nuts the attached the engine to actual mower
frame. These five bolts were undone with a medium–size shifter. The large bolt had to be "cracked"
because it was on tight and tapping it with a hammer causes the nut to crack and let go of the bolt.
Upon removing the engine from the frame of the mower, the casing over the engine was removed
with a small shifter by undoing six small bolts around the engine.
The next component of the engine that was taken off was the carburetor, which was attached to the
side of the cylinder. It was secured onto the intake port by a tightening mechanism, which worked
by tightening two washer–like fixtures around the intake port with a screw. After taking it off all the
dirt had been removed from the surface of the carburetor
The head of the cylinder was taken off first. This was achieved after undoing four small bolts or the
top of the head. The vacuum advance system was disconnected from the carburetor to allow the
removal of the head. See Fig 6
The next component that was removed was the barrel or cylinder. It slid off the four bolts that held
the head of the cylinder off. After the barrel had been taken off, the piston was easily accessible. See
Fig 7
The plate with cooling fins on it had to be taken off and for that to be removed a large nut had to be
cracked
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History of Motorcycles
With gas prices rising higher and higher everyday, many people turned to alternate forms of
transportation. One of the most popular forms of transportation is motorcycles. These vehicles can
save a lot of money at the pump. Sports involving motorcycles are also becoming more and more
popular everyday. Motocross is the second most popular motorsport in America behind NASCAR.
This growth of the motorcycle industry got me curious about these amazing machines and how they
work. The first motorcycles were made in America. In 1867, American, Sylvester Howard Roper
invented a steam–engine motorcycle that was powered by coal called the Roper Steam Velocipede.
German, Gottlieb Daimler invented the first gasoline–powered motorcycle in 1885. ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Instead of the lifters and pushrods, the rocker arm rides along the camshaft lobe and the other end
still opens the valve. In other overhead camshaft designs the cam lobe pushes on the valve itself
(House).
Four–stroke engines are more commonly used than two–stokes. They are used in most motorcycles
that are used for transportation, such as Harley Davidson motorcycles. These engines are becoming
even more popular than they once were. There have been many advancements in the four–stroke
engine that have made them capable to do jobs they were once unable to do. These engines are now
used more commonly in motocross competition and off–road use, the only portion of the
motorcycling industry that mostly used the two–stroke engine (Bennett). This is largely due to the
fact that fuel economy and environmental awareness are very important issues in the world right
now (Total Motorcycle).
Besides the mechanics, there are many other differences between two–stroke engines and four–
stroke engines (Total Motorcycle). Both engines use gasoline for fuel, but two–stroke engines
require a mixture of gasoline and oil. This is needed to lubricate the inner parts of the engine, while
four–stroke engines have a completely separate oiling system that lubricates the engine. The mixture
of oil and gas makes these engines more harmful to the environment and produces more harmful
emissions. Four–stroke engines also
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The Physics of a Diesel Engine Essay
The Physics of a Diesel Engine
The world we live in is surrounded by diesel engines. They are on the freeways, railways, airways,
and are one of the leading electricity producers in the world. They are also becoming more popular
in automobiles. These engines are efficient and reliable and they are getting very sophisticated.
However, the physics behind these engines has not changed.
By way of definition, courtesy of Diesel Engine
Engineering: [a] diesel engine is an internal combustion engine in which the chemical energy of fuel
is transformed into thermal energy of the cylinder charge, in consequence of the self–ignition and
combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder after compression of the air charge in the cylinder (p1 ...
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The piston then travels down pulling in fresh air, (third stroke), after the piston bottoms again it
travels up compressing the fresh air, (fourth stroke). The fuel is then injected and one cycle is
completed in 720 degrees or two full rotations of the crankshaft.
The disadvantage of two–stroke engines is their dependency on a blower to force air into the
chamber and their inefficiency. A four–stroke engine does not have an expansion stroke every 360
degrees but it is more efficient because it has more time to completely burn the fuel injected into the
cylinder.
There are mechanical and fundamental differences between the two–stroke and four–stroke engines
but the physics remain the same. They both rely upon the compressed air to ignite the pressurized
fuel and the resulting expansion for their power. At first glance it may look like the explosion in the
chamber does the work but upon further inspection you can see the physics involved. There are two
questions I would like to address. The first question is what is the physics behind the compressed air
raising the temperature upwards of 900 degrees. The second question is what is the physics behind
the rapid expansion of the ignited air fuel mixture.
The physics behind the temperature increase of compressed air begins with a fresh charge of air. The
air fills the combustion chamber when the cylinder is at bottom dead center. As the
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Explain The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Principle...
Qualification B–TEC Level 3 Extended Diploma in Vehicle Technology Year 2014–2015
Unit Number And Unit Title Unit–2: Vehicle Engine Principles, Operation, Service and Repair
Learner KALPIT GAJAJAN VAZE
Grading criteria Achieved?
Explain the operating cycles of Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines. (P1)
Explain the vehicle design and performance implications of a TATAARIA. (P2)
Explain the function, operation and construction of Fiat Siena Engine. (P3)
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the design and performance of Tata Nano and Maruti
Alto engines. (M1)
Evaluate the suitability of an engine used for Renault DUSTER SUV in terms of its layout,
operation and performance. (D1) Learners feedback
P1–we came ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Chassis is made of galvanized steel. Engine is produced maximum output of 150 PS (110 kW), at
4000 RPM. And maximum torque of this engine 320 NM, at 1700 RPM.
Position of engine: TATAARIA is a front engine car, because engine is mounted front engine
compartment on galvanized steel chassis.
Cylinder Arrangement: It is four cylinder engines. Cylinders are arranged inline in the engine.
Cylinder configuration: It is four cylinder cars. Four cylinders are produced 2179cc power as well as
one cylinder is produced 544cc power.
Purpose of vehicle has been designed and expected performance: TATAARIA has a 2179 cc, 4–
cylinder diesel engine. So that car is generating 4000 rpm. , and produced a torque of 1700 rpm. The
engine has a 5 speed manual gearbox.
Why the engine for that vehicle (important): TATAARIA engine is 2179 cc, common rail diesel type
engine. It has 4 cylinders and 4 valves per cylinder and engine is generating 4000 rpm or produced
torque of 1700 rpm. In Tata aria 4 cylinder per valve, so it is produced more power and torque. So
this engine is important for this
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How Gasoline Is Used For Power The Average Automobile...
Introduction
I will describe in my own terms how gasoline is used to power the average automobile within an
internal combustion engine. I will describe this process from the perspective of thermodynamics.
The reason I feel this an interesting topic is the automobile has become such a steady presence in the
daily life of society over the past century that we often take for granted the amount of science and
engineering that go into them. The thermodynamics involved are a direct daily application of the
topics we covered in this course, it also applies concepts we learn in other courses. It's also an
important discussion, because what makes gasoline the most common fuel, how do the alternatives
stack up? Or should we look at engines that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
As the piston reaches the low point in this stroke the valves are closed. This is the end of the Intake
stroke
Compression
Next is the compression stage, the crankshaft and connector rod following a circular motion causes
the piston to move upward within the cylinder, the valves are closed and the volume begins to
decrease which compresses the fuel air mixture. Increasing both pressure and temperature of the
mixture within the cylinder.
Combustion (Power) As the piston reaches the top of its cycle and the mixture is properly
compressed the spark plug is fired. This ignites the highly pressured fuel air mixture, this ignition of
the fuel source is a chemical reaction. Simply put it's a contained explosion that even further
increases the pressure within the cylinder, the gas wants to expand with all this energy so it pushes
the piston downward in the cylinder, rotating the crankshaft by its attachment through a connector
rod. This is the stroke that does most of the work which is why it's often referred to as the power
stroke
Exhaust
The piston is now at the bottom of the cylinder, which is filled with exhaust gases left over from the
chemical reaction in the combustion cycle, the rotating crankshaft now pushes upward on the piston,
as the piston moves upwards exhaust valves open, allowing the pistons movement to push the gas
out of the cylinder so that the engine can start the 4 stroke cycle
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Ic Engine Essay
AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED TO:– SUBMITTED BY:–
Mr. Nilesh Kr. Dokania Shubham Kumar A12405413027 B.Tech (MAE)
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
I C ENGINE is an engine, where the combustion of fuel ( in general fossil fuel ) occurs with an
oxidizer ( usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow
circuit.
In an I C ENGINE, the expansion of the high pressure and high pressure gases produced by
combustion apply direct force to some component of engine.
I C ENGINES include spark ignition(SI) engines using petrol as a fossil fuel, and compression
ignition (CI) engines ( usually referred to as disesel engines) using fuel oil, etc as a fuel.
PROCESSES ( in sequence ) in these engines:
# compression
# combustion
# expansion
# induction / exhaust
Two basic mechanical disigns to achieve these four processes in either:
FOUR STROKES of the piston– hence the four stroke engine, or
TWO STROKES of the piston – hence the two stroke engine.
THE MAIN TYPES OF IC ENGINE ARE:
F NORMALLY VARIES WITH CYLINDER VOLUME: Thus the fundamental output of a
reciprocating internal combustion engine can be considered to be torque – it is theoretically
produced even when engine speed ( RPM ) is zero.
THE TORQUE FLUCTUATIONS ARE SMOOTHED OUT BY:– Multi–cylinder arrangement The
use of a flywheel
So that
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Case Analysis: The Snow Joe SJ624E
The Snow Joe SJ624E is one of the largest electric snow blowers on the market today. It's capable of
blasting 730 lbs. a snow a minute and a 180°adjustable shoot throws it 20 feet out of the way in the
direction of your aim, essentially allowing you to complete large jobs efficiently and fast. With the
Snow Joe Ultra, you can easily maneuver in any direction with its easy glide 8" all terrain wheels.
Plus, starting the blower is as simple as pushing a button with the instant start feature. Completely
functional and versatile, the Snow Joe does most of the work for you. Therefore, it's an ideal blower
for clearing snow from walk ways and driveways.
Convenient electric power allows for a no mess, no fuss operation, eliminating the need of
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How Atv's Work
Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will explain how they work and
how to fix them in this paper.
Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV 's and general knowledge and getting them wet. I also will
discuss their origin and how they need care and how to keep them doing good for a long time.
What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or four wheelers. It is also called a
quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go where other vehicles cannot go. ATV 's are also built to handle a
lot of stress and abuse. ATV 's are virtually indestructible; however, they have a few weaknesses and
it is important to know and understand those few weaknesses. You should always do a complete
check of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
You generally replace the piston, rings and valve guide seals. If you do a lot of water riding you
should do maintenance more often. If you should your quad drown out follow these four simple
steps.
(Microsoft Encarta 96 Internal Combustion Engine) Step one is to pull the quad out of the water.
Pop the lid off the airbox to see if that 's where the trouble is. If there is water in the spark plug dry it
off and set it aside. Dry with a cloth, if possible. If the air filter is wet ring it out. Step two is if it 's a
four stroke, turn off the key and kick the water out. Watch it blow out the exhaust and cylinder head.
Step three is to drain the float bowl. (If you suspect that water got in the tank )Which is very hard,
set it on it 's wheels and let the water fall to the bottom and turn the fuel petcock to reserve and drain
for a second or so. Step four is once all the water is out is to replace the spark plug and the air filter.
Pull the choke and try to start it. It will probably spit and sputter for a few minutes but DO NOT hit
the throttle or you could do serious damage. If it won 't start you better start pushing it home you
probably have gotten the stator wet or one of the CDI boxes. which are sealed and are hard to get to.
If you can check over the exposed electrical connections and dry them and get it to start good. but if
it still will not start go home and begin the stripdown which involves a complete inspection of all
electrical
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Difference Between Parallel Engine And External Combustion...
Intake stroke
In the internal combustion engine, the piston starts form the top. As the crankshaft rotates the piston
will start to move down which will allow the intake valve to open so air and fuel can flow inside the
combustion chamber. In this process, the mixture of air and fuel gets pulled in the combustion
chamber.
Compression stroke
During this stage, both intake and exhaust valve get closed. Due to this, as the piston moves
upwards, it compresses the air and fuel mixture
Combustion stroke
As the piston reaches close to the spark plug, the spark plug will cause a spark to burn the fuel and
the air mixture. This will cause the fuel and air mixture to explode which will cause the piston to go
downwards again.
Exhaust stroke
This is the final stage of the process where piston will move upwards to release the exhaust gas
through the exhaust valve. At the beginning of this stage, the exhaust valve will open to allow the
exhaust gas to release.
After the final stage, the piston will be left up where it originally stared from so the process can be
repeated.
Spark ignition and compression ignition engines
Both Spark ignition and compression ignition engines are really similar to each other. However they
both have different processor to burn the fuel as they both use different types of fuel types
(petrol/Diesel). Because of this, they both have different compression ratio.
Compression ignition engine are also know as diesel engine as they use diesel as a fuel. In
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Pros And Cons Of Chainsaw
OREGON CS1500 Self–Sharpening Electric Chain Saw: Product Review
First rule of running a chainsaw: Never, ever work with a dull chain!
One of the most difficult parts in owning a chainsaw is the upkeep that the equipment needs.
Sharpening your unit is a seemingly tedious task that several people would rather leave to
professionals instead of doing it on their own. Nevertheless, this practice may be quite expensive,
especially if you need to sharpen several chains. Eventually, you will be torn between spending your
money on a professional or putting in more effort to do the sharpening on your own.
You may think that there is no compromise for this dilemma... However, Oregon has created a
technology that enables the chainsaw to be sharpened ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However, this could be caused by human error, since these reports appear to be an isolated issue. As
it is a corded electric chainsaw, your work area is limited to places situated within the reach of an
extension cord that should also have an access to an electrical outlet. The extension cord also needs
to be securely locked to avoid being detached from the outlet while you work.
Pros
This unit comes with a patented technology called PowerSharp Chainsaw Sharpening System that
allows for tool–free chainsaw sharpening within three seconds
It has an over–mold handle that causes the chainsaw to produce less vibrations and allows the user
to run the equipment comfortably and conveniently
The Oregon CS1500 is engineered with an automated chain braking system that is designed for the
added safety for the users
It is easy to maintain and eliminates the cost of professional chainsaw sharpening
Cons
There are a few users who have commented that the chain falls off easily
Since it is a corded electric chainsaw, the working space that you can work with is limited to the
radius of the extension cord
You must avoid heavy duty cutting with any electric chainsaw, however, this unit can cut through
thicker pieces of wood (with a diameter of 16 inches) compared to other electrically powered
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Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine
Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine . i Willard W. Pulkrabek University
of Wisconsin–· .. Platteville vi Contents 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–10 2–11 2–12 Mean
Effective Pressure, 49 Torque and Power, 50 Dynamometers, 53 Air–Fuel Ratio and Fuel–Air Ratio,
55 Specific Fuel Consumption, 56 Engine Efficiencies, 59 Volumetric Efficiency, 60 Emissions, 62
Noise Abatement, 62 Conclusions–Working Equations, 63 Problems, 65 Design Problems, 67 , 3
ENGINE CYCLES 68 3–1 3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6 3–7 3–8 3–9 3–10 3–11 3–12 3–13 3–14 Air–
Standard Cycles, 68 Otto Cycle, 72 Real Air–Fuel Engine Cycles, 81 SI Engine Cycle at Part
Throttle, 83 Exhaust Process, 86 Diesel Cycle, 91 Dual Cycle, 94 ... Show more content on
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It provides the material needed for a basic understanding of the operation of internal combustion
engines. Students are assumed to have knowledge of fundamental thermodynamics, heat transfer,
and fluid mechanics as a prerequisite to get maximum benefit from the text. This book can also be
used for self–study and/or as a reference book in the field of engines. Contents include the
fundamentals of most types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating
engines. Both spark ignition and compression ignition engines are covered, as are those operating on
four–stroke and two–stroke cycles, and ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the
largest stationary engines. Rocket engines and jet engines are not included. Because of the large
number of engines that are used in automobiles and other vehicles, a major emphasis is placed on
these. The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction, terminology,
definitions, and basic operating characteristics. This is followed in Chapter 3 with a detailed analysis
of basic engine cycles. Chapter 4 reviews fundamental thermochemistry
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Is Mechanical Engineering Beng At Liverpool John Moores...
Introduction:– This essay is searching my selected major, which is Mechanical Engineering BEng at
Liverpool John Moores University. At first, it is investigating the reasons that made me choose this
major, and then compare its first year modules at LJMU with University of Liverpool. Lastly, it
presents an argument in thermodynamics, a module taught at the first year of Liverpool John
Moores University Mechanical Engineering BEng program, which is a comparison between the
efficiency of diesel and petrol engines. A:– A bachelor degree of Mechanical Engineering is my
selected major to study at Liverpool John Moores University. LJMU is one of the leading school in
teaching a practical degree of Mechanical Engineering. This degree provides ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
The second factor is school, my teachers always told me about how amazing engineers are, and how
did they help building with other scientists our modern world, until I reached high school when I
first studied physics as a single subject. My physics teacher was the most to affect me by teaching
me about engines and they work and planting the love of mechanics and engineering into my soul
which kept growing with me as I grew older. Thirdly, since I was a kid I have loved mechanics and
engines and kept always trying to fix my toy cars, thinking about how they were made, and wanting
to drive so badly. Therefore, when was a teenager, I kept asking my older brother to teach me how to
drive. Fortunately, my older brother wanted me to learn how to drive quickly in order to throw our
house chores on me. Therefore, I kept learning how to drive, and my brother taught me how engines
works in simple words, and showed me how to keep maintenance of cars in general and engines in
specific. In conclusion, I have always wanted to study Mechanical Engineering for its great job
opportunities, my family recommendation, school encouragement, and personal experience. B:–
Mechanical Engineering BEng is a program taught at Liverpool John Moores University. This part
of the essay is going to compare it between Liverpool John Moores University, and University of
Liverpool based
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A Brief Note On The Area Of Engine Position Management
1.1. Objective and Goal of the Project The project is done in the area of engine position management
which is used in gasoline 4–stroke engines. During the development of device drivers for the engine,
it is very important to test each and every feature of the device driver. Before going to the vehicle
testing or software integration, the device driver software has to be tested completely. For this
purpose, mini test benches can be used. This test setup should provide the necessary input signals to
the driver software which is to be tested. The main input signals needed for the testing includes
crank sensor and cam sensor signals. These signals help us to determine the crank and cam wheel
positions and also calculate the engine speed at which the engine is running at that particular time.
The existing mini test bench allows the engine speed information to be changed manually. The
actual engine speed dynamics in the real engine/vehicle cannot be simulated. They are not capable
of changing the engine speed in a specific pattern driven over time. They are not cost effective. The
objective of this project comes from disadvantages of the existing test equipments. The main aim is
to create a mini test bench setup to generate Cam and Crank Signals. The Setup should be able to
allow testing of device driver software without the need of Vehicle. It should allow engine speed to
change manually. The setup should allow the engine speed variation in a pre defined pattern without
the
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Essay on The Process Of An Internal Combustion Engine
Process Essay
Process of a 4–stroke Internal Combustion Engine
A common phrase that is heard whilst growing up is "curiosity killed the cat". This phrase might be
true but; "ingenuity brought the cat back". Having a mindset in which giving up is never an option
has plagued most inventors of the modern day, especially a high school drop out named Nikolaus
August Otto, born in 1832. Otto was responsible for the development and improvement of the 4–
stroke motor that is used today in just about every automobile on the road. Many people drive cars
but fail to realize how they work, and don't try to learn about engines because they think it is
complex, and not an easy concept to grasp. Air, fuel, spark, and combustion are the premise ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the next step the air travels into the combustion chamber (cylinder), where it is mixed with the
other components of combustion.
Equally important as the air, is the fuel going into the cylinder. Fuel starts off in the gas tank of the
car and then gets pumped into the fuel lines by the fuel pump. The fuel goes through the fuel lines
and into the fuel rail. Attached to the fuel rail are electronically controlled injectors (one per
cylinder), which are controlled by the mass air sensor. The mass air senor regulates how much fuel
is necessary to mix with the air to achieve the ideal air to fuel ratio. The injectors "spray" into the
cylinder at synchronized times mixing with air and eventually resulting in combustion.
The final and most important steps of the Internal Combustion Engine are the movements of the
pistons. At this point in the process fuel, and air are both present inside the chamber and are
combined into a ratio, this is called the air fuel ratio, short AFR. There are four motions of each
piston; they are in perfect balance and harmony, much like watching an orchestra perform. These
motions (strokes) are detailed as follows:
• On the intake stroke, the intake valve has opened. (The intake valve is the opening that the air and
fuel are released into the cylinder) The piston is moving down, and a mixture of air and vaporized
fuel is being
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Use Of Propulsion And The Basic Principle And Theory Of...
Air Breathing Engines Author: Mohsin Rehman Abstract: This paper mentions the history and early
attempts at propulsion and the basic principle and theory of propulsion. Different types of air
breathing engines like turbojet turbofan ramjet scramjet etc. their basic working principle along with
their different working parts and the air planes on which these engines successfully worked are
discussed down the path. Progresses made on historical basis, future planning for the betterment of
aircraft propulsion industries and their major priorities are the highlighted areas of this research
paper. Index terms: horse power, Mach no, oxidizer, stealth technology, thermodynamics. I.
Introduction: In aircraft designing, propulsion system is the basic structure. For an aircraft to leave
the ground and be in air we want a system which can speedily thrust it into air. Before going after
history and detail we have to learn what propulsion basically is. The word is derived from two Latin
words: pro means before or forwards and pellere meaning to drive. Propulsion means to push
forward or drive an object forward [1]. A propulsion system is a machine that generates thrust in
order to push an object forward. Propulsion systems work on newton's third law of action and
reaction. Action is that working fluid is accelerated by the engine and the reaction to this
acceleration produces a force on the engine [1]. The first successful free flights by a man–made
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Fixing a Car
It is estimated that over 100,000 patents created the modern automobile. The history of the
automobile reflects an evolution that took place worldwide. Since then, 21st century car tools have
evolved, affecting automotive servicing in a positive and negative prospective. Reflecting the way
that cars have evolved, the way car mechanics service them has also changed dramatically. A lot has
changed from tools and engines, to the different types of mechanics there are now.
Although the blueprint for the modern automobile was perfected in Germany and France in the late
1800s, the very first self–propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer
and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, in 1769. Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle.
The military tractor was used by the French Army to haul artillery at speeds of 2 ½ miles per hour,
resting only on three wheels. This tractor had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam
power again. In 1770, Cugnot built a steam–powered tricycle that carried four passengers. Fun Fact:
In 1771, Cugnot drove one of his road vehicles into a stone wall, making Nicolas Joseph Cugnot the
first person to get into a motor vehicle accident. Cugnot's vehicle was improved by Frenchman,
Onesiphore Pecqueur, who also invented the first differential gear.
In 1789, Oliver Evans was granted the first U.S. patent for a steam–powered land vehicle. At the age
of eighteen, Evan began his inventing of a new high–pressure steam
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Engine Speed Vs Torque Essay
CONTENTS:– 1. Torque and power curve against engine speed 3 2. Acceleration vs speed of the
vehicle graph 3 3. Working principle of Otto cycle 5 4. Reference 6 1.Calculate the torque and
power curve against the engine speed. The values of the torque, power and engine speed are The
torque is calculated by using torque =(V_d/(2π×2))×BMEP where V_d=0.00199823 =
(0.00199823/(2π×2))×804812.7193 =127.9764897 Power = T×Angular velocity =127.9764897 ×
104.7197551 = 13401.66667Watts Engine speed Torque Power 1000 127.9764897 13401.66667
2000 155.898633 32651.33333 3000 169.8597046 53363 4000 169.8597046 71150.66667 5000
141.9375613 74318.33333 2. Plot the acceleration vs speed of the vehicle . Gear ratios GEAR NO
RATIOS I1 4.23 I2 2.27 I3 1.91 I4 1.09 I5 0.97 Idiff 3.06 Speed of vehicle v=(Angular
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Internal Combustion Engines
Internal Combustion Engines An internal–combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air
inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a heat engine is an
engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The internal– combustion engine should be
distinguished from the external– combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling
engine, which burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces
mechanical motion. Both basic types produce hot, expanding gases, which may then be employed to
move pistons, turn turbine rotors, or cause locomotion through the reaction principle as they escape
through the nozzle. Most people are familiar with the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Most ignition systems require an external electrical energy source in the form of a battery or a
magneto. Spark–ignition engines require a means for mixing fuel and air. This may be either a
carburetor or fuel injection. A carburetor atomizes the fuel into the engine's incoming air supply. The
mixture is then vaporized in the intake manifold on its way to the combustion chamber. fuel
injection sprays a controlled mist of fuel into the airstream, either in the intake manifold or just
before the intake valve or valves of each cylinder. Both carburetors and fuel injectors maintain the
correct fuel– to–air ratio, about one part fuel to fifteen parts air, over a wide range of air
temperatures, engine speeds, and loads. Fuel injection can compensate for changes in altitude as
well. Internal–combustion engines require some type of starting system. Small engines are generally
started by pulling a starting rope or kicking a lever. Larger engines may use compressed air or an
electric starting system. The latter includes a starter––a high–torque electric motor––to turn the
crankshaft until the engine starts. Starting motors are extremely powerful for their size and are
designed to utilize high currents (200 to 300 amperes). The large starting currents can cause a
battery to drain rapidly; for this reason a heavy– duty battery is usually used. Interrupting this
connection is an electrical switch called a solenoid, which
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Quantitative Study Of Heat And Enthalpy Changes
PART A
Thermochemistry is the quantitative study of heat and enthalpy changes in chemical reactions.
Enthalpy (H) "... is a measure of the total energy possessed by a substance or group of substances."
(Smith 2006, pp. 289). The change in enthalpy (∆H) of a substance is defined as the heat absorbed
or released during a chemical reaction.
A car motor works by converting petrol, also known as chemical energy, to kinetic energy, therefore
assisting with the movement of a car.
A chemical reaction, known as combustion, occurs in the car motor. A combustion reaction consists
of a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen (O2) to give the products carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
(H2O). A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting simply of Hydrogen (H2) and Carbon (C), methane
(CH4) and diesel (C12H23) are examples of a hydrocarbon. The chemical equation for a combustion
reaction is as follows: Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water. The combustion reaction
of methane (CH4) is: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l), the combustion reaction of ethane
is: 2C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g)  4 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) and the combustion reaction for butane is
2C4H10 (g) +13O2 (g)  8CO2 (g) +10H2O (g). If combustion takes place internally, the engine is
referred to as an internal combustion engine. A diesel engine is an example of this. Internal
combustion engines convert the chemical energy in fuel to mechanical energy via an exothermic
reaction.
An internal combustion engine, mainly consists of a
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Chainsaw Research Paper
Chainsaw maintenance: The handiest guides for garden works
It is a powerful machine, used for pruning, cutting or cutting firewood, deforestation, even for
impeccable let your orchard or garden. But not only it serves to make these works; you can also cut
large blocks or chunks of ice. There need some skill in the use of chainsaws, & the maintenance
some of its body parts: The CHAINSAW BAR & CHAINSAW CHAIN.
The bar and chain of a chainsaw needs a constant flow of lubrication during operation. If the bar and
chain are not lubricated the tip and the bar begins to heat up. As it warms up even more, it can
damage the bar, pinion, chain and even the clutch.
Bar oil
Bar and chain oil is the only type of oil that can be used to lubricate the ... Show more content on
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Examine the bar for more than one "usage type" indicator. This indicates the types of jobs for which
the chainsaw is designed. For example, a manufacturer makes three types of bars: casual,
professional and commercial.
4. Look for an identification number stamped on the bar. Cross reference to any number that is
sealed with the list of bars or chainsaws on the manufacturer's website.
How to replace a Chainsaw Bar
Heavy wear on a chainsaw will eventually require replacement of the bar, but this costly repair can
be pushed further along the way with a regular maintenance program and replacement of the nose
pinion on the bar. Replacing the tip costs a fraction of the price of a new bar and, along with proper
care of the main body of the bar, the life of the chainsaw extends several more cutting seasons.
Instructions
1. First remove the bar and chain from the chainsaw. Take out the motor head and chain aside. Put
the bar on a flat metal surface.
2. Using the steel punch and a hammer pounds off the rivet by holding the pinion tip on the bar.
Take out the old pinion tip.
3. Before places the new nose gear of the bar try to clean any residual splinters from the tip of the
bar. Then place the new lower rivet down into the hole at the bottom of the
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An Engineering Innovation: The Automotive Internal Combustion
An Engineering Innovation: The Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Throughout history, many
engineers have worked to make life easier. The automobile is one invention that was a key part in
the development of the Americas. Although the automobile is very important, one thing is more
important than the automobile itself: the engine. The engine is what got people away from having to
use man power along with animal power, like horses, cattle, or oxen. Not only can an engine be used
to power an automobile, it can also be used to power machinery, which made industrial life and
farming life easier. The engine played an important part in industrial advancement, but the most
important advancement is when it began being used in the automobile. ... Show more content on
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The spark plugs are run by a set of coils, the number of them depends on the amount of cylinders the
engine has. The coils receive an electrical current from the engine, and it is run through the
distributor which has wires that go to each spark plug. The electricity transfers through the spark
plug into the combustion chamber of the cylinder head and ignites the fuel. The cylinder head is
where the valves are located. In most internal combustion engines, there are two valves per cylinder.
One for the intake of air, and the other to release the gases which are a product of the explosion
inside of the cylinder. The valves open and close in synchronization with the pistons in order for the
engine to work correctly. There is another part which opens and closes the valves. This part is called
the camshaft. The camshaft is much smaller than the crankshaft, and it has lobes which are in offset
positions to open and close the intake and exhaust valves at the correct times. The Valves are opened
and closed by a set of pushrods for each cylinder. The pushrods are located on top of a part called
the lifter. The lifter is what catches the lobes
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The Process of an Internal Combustion Engine
Matt Bagley
English 110
Process Essay
Process of a 4–stroke Internal Combustion Engine
A common phrase that is heard whilst growing up is "curiosity killed the cat". This phrase might be
true but; "ingenuity brought the cat back". Having a mindset in which giving up is never an option
has plagued most inventors of the modern day, especially a high school drop out named Nikolaus
August Otto, born in 1832. Otto was responsible for the development and improvement of the 4–
stroke motor that is used today in just about every automobile on the road. Many people drive cars
but fail to realize how they work, and don 't try to learn about engines because they think it is
complex, and not an easy concept to grasp. Air, fuel, spark, and ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
All of this pressure against the piston forces it down in the cylinder. The power impulse is
transmitted down through the piston, through the piston rod (connecting rod), and to the crankshaft.
The crankshaft is rotated due to the force.
• As the piston reaches the bottom of its travel, the exhaust valve opens. Now, as the piston moves
up on the exhaust stroke, it forces the burned gases out of the cylinder through the exhaust port.
When the piston reaches the top of its travel, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake valve opens.
The cycle repeats again with the intake stroke. The four strokes are continuously repeated during the
operation of the engine
This total process takes less than half a second to complete, and enables vehicles to get to their
destination. Reading this paper does not qualify the reader as a mechanic, but should give the person
reading a better appreciation for the vehicle. It is always good to know the basics of a car so if the
car ends up in need of repair, the owner can have some information and basic diagnosis. With the
knowledge gained from this paper, a basic understanding should be gained on the process of an
Internal Combustion
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The Effect Of Outdoor Two Stroke Power Equipment
Abstract:
The emissions from two stroke outdoor power equipment, light terrestrial vehicles, and marine
vehicles are a significant detriment to air quality, human health, and the environment. Due to the
mechanical nature two stroke engines operations, engines running on fuel oil mixtures that have
been blended from biologically based oils generate far less Green House Gas emissions than two
stroke engines running fuel oil mixtures blended from more traditional petroleum based outdoor
power equipment oil. Preliminary results of previous research support the hypothesis that equipment
running on bio–synthetic fuel–oil blends emits drastically lower amounts of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen
Oxides, and Carbon Monoxide than equipment operating exclusively on petroleum based fuel–oil
mixtures. In addition, qualitative factors such as the color and smell of the exhaust fumes, and
differences in engine performance have also been monitored and recorded. These data have been
gathered in two separate and complimentary stages where the results were accumulated, condensed,
and analyzed with the objective of discovering differences in the emissions and engine performance
of Outdoor Two Stroke Power Equipment (OPE) running on petroleum based oil versus bio–
synthetic oil.
Introduction:
Green House Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change:
The concern of rising temperatures due to the anthropocentric generation of Green House
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The Stroke Combustion Cycle ( Ice ) Revolutionized The Way...
Introduction I'm interested on this topic because, I think that the four stroke combustion cycle in
Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) revolutionized the way the Man think and Moves. Internal
Combustion Engines are also significantly more efficient than the well–known steam engine. Today
it has better power than electric batteries and motors, and offers similar overall efficiency. Small,
lightweight ICE made personal transportation possible. It transformed how we built cities and did
business. Engines are so important for the advancement on any society, nowadays without engines it
will be much harder for man to do what it look simple and ordinary in today's world. More than
importance of this topic on my career or profession, is the importance on the topic in our daily live,
this paper explains how with the help of physics all grate scientists revolutionized our modern world
of engines. Four Stroke Combustion Cycle Engine Thermodynamics Admission The piston is at top
dead center and starts down. At that instant the intake valve opens, remaining closed exhaust. As
you turn the crankshaft, the elbow is occupying different points of its rotary travel, and, through the
connecting rod causes the piston goes down and causing a carburetor suction through conduit that
has opened the intake valve, dragging a quantity of air and gasoline, which are mixed and sprayed
into the carburetor. These gases are filling the void left by the piston to go down. When it has
reached the
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Engines Run On Petroleum : Diesel Fuel
Engines run on petroleum. Petroleum is used in many products such as plastics, ink paint, shoe
polish, nylons, roof shingles, novelty candy, cosmetics, candles, vaseline, bug biller, ammonia, tires,
asphalt, crayons, paper, cups, and wax paper. Although petroleum may be useful in many
applications, the best used for petroleum is diesel fuel for many reasons. One reason diesel fuel is
the best and most efficient use for petroleum is that diesel fuel contains about 14% more energy by
volume than gasoline. This makes diesel fuel the most efficient fuel for use in automobiles and
trucks. Diesel fuel is especially the most efficient fuel for use in towing all types of vehicles for
many reasons. One reason diesel engines are better for towing is that they have more low end torque
because of their higher compression ratios. A diesel engine 's compression ratio is between 15:1 and
23:1 compared to the compression ratio of a gasoline engine which is 10:1 to 12:1 but if the
compression ratio is raised from 10:1 to 15:1, the thermal efficiency will improve by roughly nine
percent. Diesel engines also deliver twenty–five to thirty percent better fuel economy than similar
performing gasoline engines. When compared to a 4.0 liter gasoline engine, the Cummin's 4BT3.9
diesel engine is much more fuel efficient engine.
In theory, diesel engines and gasoline engines are quite similar. They are both internal combus­
tion
engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in fuel
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Diesel vs. Gasoline
.
How Do Diesel Engines Work?
The basic difference between a diesel engine and a gasoline engine is that in a diesel engine, the fuel
is sprayed into the combustion chambers through fuel injector nozzles just when the air in each
chamber has been placed under such great pressure that it's hot enough to ignite the fuel
spontaneously.
Following is a step–by–step view of what happens when you start up a diesel–powered vehicle. 1.
You turn the key in the ignition.
Then you wait until the engine builds up enough heat in the cylinders for satisfactory starting. (Most
vehicles have a little light that says "Wait," but a sultry computer voice may do the same job on
some vehicles.) Turning the key begins a process in which fuel is ... Show more content on
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Differences * Both gasoline and diesel fuel are derived from petroleum. The refinement process for
the creation of diesel is much simpler than gasoline 's. Diesel tends to be more oily and heavier than
gasoline. It also evaporates more easily, which is important for the fuel injection process.
Engines
* Both kinds of engines depend on internal combustion for power. A diesel engine creates
combustion by injecting compressed air into the engine. The compression causes the air to heat to
about 1,000 degrees F, which ignites the diesel fuel. In a gasoline engine, gasoline is ignited by an
electrical spark.
Diesel Engines More Efficient * Diesel engines get better mileage than gasoline engines for two
reasons: diesel fuel contains more energy than gasoline, and a diesel engine injects fuel and air into
a combustion chamber at a much higher rate of compression, which makes the fuel burn more
efficiently than fuel in a gasoline engine.
Towing and Horsepower * The design of a diesel engine requires a much heavier construction. This
heavy engine, combined with the high amount of compression it uses to ignite fuel, means that the
engine runs at a much lower rate of revolutions per minute (RPM). Because it runs at a lower RPM
rate, the engine needs much less force to rotate the machinery that moves a diesel vehicle. Because
the engine can move machinery with much less force than a gasoline engine, it is much better at
making a towed object start moving.
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Early Automobiles . Vehicles Have Changed Over Time Like
Early Automobiles Vehicles have changed over time like many other things, but the engine that
powers these vehicles has gone through the most changes. The internal combustion engine has
become a huge part in everyday life. These engines have allowed people to travel across the country,
generate electricity, and fly around the world. This engine has been a perpetual source of exploration
ever since Henry Ford mass produced the first Model–T. Automobiles have evolved over time along
with many other things; there are many fundamentals to learn about how the engine works, different
types of engines, and the history of the gas engine. The first thing to learn is how the basic engine
works. According to Nancy Hall, writing for the National ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
7). The combustion increases the temperature of the exhaust gases, any residual air in the
combustion chamber, and the combustion chamber itself. From the ideal gas law, the increased
temperature of the gases also produces an increased pressure in the combustion chamber; the high
pressure of the gases acting on the face of the piston cause the piston to move to which initiates the
power stroke (para. 8). Unlike the compression stroke, the hot gas does work on the piston during
the power stroke. The force on the piston is transmitted by the piston rod to the crankshaft, where
the linear motion of the piston is converted to angular motion of the crankshaft. Hall's article for
NASA states that the work done on the piston is then used to turn the shaft (para. 8). Having
produced the igniting spark, the electrical contact remains opened. During the power stroke, the
volume occupied by the gases is increased because of the piston motion and no heat is transferred to
the fuel/air mixture (para. 9). As the volume is increased because of the piston 's motion, the
pressure and temperature of the gas are decreased. Heat that is left over from the power stroke is
now transferred to the water in the water jacket until the pressure approaches atmospheric pressure;
the
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In Fact, In 1997, When Each Industry, Including Automobile
In fact, in 1997, when each industry, including automobile industry registered negligible growth,
two wheeler industry registered 3% growth, quiet an impressive one, mainly due to the growth in
rural demand. Market leader like TVS Suzuki, identify the reason to be good monsoon resulting in
good agriculture production, support price policy in agriculture. Agriculturists are further supported
but heavily governmental subsidies especially in fertilizer and power.
Future of two wheelers seems quite promising, as long as middle class group is growing. But the
industry should be careful of strict environmental policies adopted by the government. India has
taken the lead in enforcing strict emission norms for two wheelers by the year 2000. Not ... Show
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There have been many complaints on company surveys about him from the department. Employee
have commented that Sanjeev Rathore is "rude" during meetings and doesn't let others to speak or
contribute. There are times when he has criticized people in meetings. He also talks about his staff
"critically" or "negatively" to other managers. But Sanjeev Rathore also is a brilliantly talented
person who contributes a vast amount of knowledge and experience to the company. He is
dedicatedly working for the company and lets people know this by his arrives 7:00 a.m. each day
and leaves office at 7:30 p.m. He has been with the company since 35 years and he reports directly
to the Vice President. Sanjeev Rathore has gone to the HR department and complained that the
people his supervisors hire are not a good fit for the company. The recruits don't listen and they have
a poor work ethic. Sanjeev Rathore feels that HR should do a better job screening people.
1) What suggestions do you have for the Vice president on how to coach Sanjeev Rathore and
develop a personal improvement plan?
2) What areas would you suggest be first on Sanjeev Rathore's improvement plan?
3) What kind of timetable would you prepare? What may be the consequences? How should Sanjeev
Rathore be counselled? Is it worth to put effort, since he is going retiring soon?
Case: 3 A unique Training Program at Lotus
Sakshi Tyagi, a Lotus parcel Manager in
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The Pros And Cons Of Rudolf Diesel
In the year 1885 Rudolf Diesel sets up a small shop in Paris to begin developing an engine that
would forever change the way we look at transportation. Rudolf was trying to design an engine to
run off compression ignition to replace the costly steam locomotive. His research lasted around 13
years before showing a successful test of a slow burning, efficient, compression ignition engine.
diesels had his first running engine built on February 17,1897 with an efficiency of 26.7% v.s the
steam engine's efficiency at 10%.
Rudolf had paved the path for modern diesel engines, quickly evolving from running on coal dust to
having computerized injectors with injection so microscopic water is incapable of traveling through
in a little over a century. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
One pro of diesel engines is also a con. While a diesel engine is an internal combustion engine it
fires off of the heat of the engine. The heat is caused from the friction inside the cylinders, this
causes the engine to have a little less maintenance and run more efficiently. The con of diesel
engines combustion off of cylinder heat is in northern climates it isn't always warm enough for the
engine to maintain enough heat to run. They solved this problem in the northern climates by
installing glow plugs and block warmers. Glow plugs are used to heat the fuel before it gets injected
into the cylinder helping the motor start because the heat needed for combustion isn't used to warm
the fuel. Block warmers are a small heater that is placed in a soft plug hole on the side of the engine
and helps keep the coolant warm so that the block stays warm while the truck is sitting for a week or
a few minutes. Cold weather can cause more then just starting issues for diesel engines it can cause
them to just shut off from a lack of fuel, the diesel itself will gel in cold weather and be like a jello
like substance and then needs additives added to the fuel to be bring it back to its original
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The Effect Of Wankel Engines And Four Stroke Engines
Have you ever wondered how engines work? That is exactly what this paper is about, engines. I will
explain how Wankel engines, Diesel engines, turbojet engines, Gnome rotary engines, two stroke
engines, and four stroke engines work. I will also explain their histories. Some times when you look
at an engine it looks like a mess and you wonder how it could make anything move. The two stroke
engine was very popular in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Two stroke engines were used in
cars, tractors, and ships. One reason for their popularity was their simple design. The two stroke
engine has a lower cost to rebuild and maintain than most other engines, which is why the two
stroke engine was very popular. The reason why most two stroke ... Show more content on
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While this is happening a crankcase compression is happening beneath the piston. The two stroke
engine fires on every circle of the piston. Because of this they are more powerful than the four
stroke engine of equivalent size. Two stroke engines also have lighter and simpler construction.
These two reasons are, why they are used in motorcycles chain saws, line trimmers and outboard
motors. Sadly two stroke engines cause a lot of pollution because some of exhaust gasses are
expelled from the exhaust part of the cycle. The four stroke engines are used in lawn mowers,
garden tractors, tillers, and washers. There is more than one type of four stroke engines. They are the
horizontal–camshaft, side valve engine and the vertical–camshaft, side valve engine. Both of these
types use four cycles four cycles in one full cycle. four stroke engine The four stroke engine is the
now the most popular engine for cars. The first thing that happens is that the intake piston moves
down drawing in a fresh charge fuel and air mixture into the cylinder. As the piston rises the intake
valve is forced shut by increased cylinder pressure. As the piston rises, the intake valve is forced
shut by the increased cylinder pressure. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward, compressing
the fuel and air mixture. At the top of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires, igniting the
compressed fuel. As the fuel burns it expands driving the piston down. When the piston reaches the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Advantages And Disadvantages Of An Engine
INTRODUCTION:
The internаl combustion engine is аn engine in which the combustion of а fuel (normаlly а fossil
fuel) occurs with аn oxidizer (usuаlly аir) in а combustion chаmber. In аn internаl combustion
engine the expаnsion of the high–temperаture аnd –pressure gаses produced by combustion аpplies
direct force to some component of the engine, such аs pistons, turbine blаdes, or а nozzle. This force
moves the component over а distаnce, generаting useful mechаnicаl energy
The term internаl combustion engine usuаlly refers to аn engine in which combustion is intermittent,
such аs the more fаmiliаr four–stroke аnd two–stroke piston engines, аlong with vаriаnts, such аs
the rotаry engine. А second clаss of internаl combustion engines use continuous ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Cooling systems
Combustion generаtes а greаt deаl of heаt, аnd some of this trаnsfers to the wаlls of the engine.
Fаilure will occur if the body of the engine is аllowed to reаch too high а temperаture; either the
engine will physicаlly fаil, or аny lubricаnts used will degrаde to the point thаt they no longer
protect the engine. The lubricаnts must be cleаn аs dirty lubricаnts mаy leаd to over formаtion of
sludge in the engines.
Cooling systems usuаlly employ аir (аir–cooled) or liquid (usuаlly wаter) cooling, while some very
hot engines using rаdiаtive cooling (especiаlly some rocket engines). Some high–аltitude rocket
engines use аblаtive cooling, where the wаlls grаduаlly erode in а controlled fаshion. Rockets in
pаrticulаr cаn use regenerаtive cooling, which uses the fuel to cool the solid pаrts of the engine.
Piston
А piston is а component of reciprocаting engines. It is locаted in а cylinder аnd is mаde gаs–tight by
piston rings. Its purpose is to trаnsfer force from expаnding gаs in the cylinder to the crаnkshаft viа
а piston rod аnd/or connecting rod. In two–stroke engines the piston аlso
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
How ATVs Work Essay
Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will explain how they work and
how to fix them in this paper.
Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV's and general knowledge and getting them wet. I also will
discuss their origin and how they need care and how to keep them doing good for a long time.
What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or four wheelers. It is also called a
quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go where other vehicles cannot go. ATV's are also built to handle a
lot of stress and abuse. ATV's are virtually indestructible; however, they have a few weaknesses and
it is important to know and understand those few weaknesses. You should always do a ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The compression then stroke follows, and the charge is ignited when the piston reaches the end of
this stroke. The piston then moves outward on the power stroke, uncovering the exhaust port and
permitting the gases to escape from the combustion chamber.1 The four stroke model has four
strokes instead of two. The strokes are Intake, into which a mixture of gas and air are pulled into the
cylinder. Second, Compression, where the piston moves up and the gases are compressed. The Third
is power in which the spark plug fires and ignites the compressed gases, And last is exhaust in which
the gases that were burned are expels through the exhaust then the procedure repeats itself. The most
common type of ATV (Three and Four wheelers)
Manufactures are Yamaha, Honda, Kawasaki, Hosquravana, Suzuki and
Polaris. There are several other brands but for time's sake I have only listed a few of the most
popular ones. ATV's come in a variety of sizes and powers. from a small 80cc to a huge two stroke
600cc! I own a 1989
Yamaha Breeze and have to repair it quite often. There are some simple things to do that are cheap
and will save money in the long run. For example adding transmission fluid or crankcase oil could
save hundreds at a repair shop. Some times repairs get challenging as your quad (ATV) ages it will
need special care such as an oil change, Brake pads, spark
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
A Study On Engineering And The University Of Liverpool
The purpose of this study is to learn more about engineering and especially mechanical engineering.
This text is divided into three parts, part A describes my degree choice, why I chose it and what I am
hoping to be in the future. Part B will be a comparison between LJMU and the University of
Liverpool, also it will provide an information of a lecturer in LJMU. Part C will compare and
contrast between two types of internal combustion engines.
Part A
Engineering is a very important specialization and it can be founded in every organization, I am
interested in studying engineering especially mechanical engineering which is the subject of
understanding the principle of engineering such as forces and how do they effect on substances, the
functionality of systems and how they work, manufacturing of tools, devices, machines and their
parts with different sizes, shapes and different functions, and operation of mechanical systems.
There are several career options for mechanical engineers like an automotive engineer, Design
Engineer, Control and instrumentation engineer, Maintenance engineer, Mechanical engineer. My
career choice is to be an automotive engineer who is involved in making whole vehicle design,
manufacturing and operating. I chose to be an automotive engineer because basically I like
everything that is related to cars, prepare them to build them from scratch and I love cars in general.
I chose mechanical engineering because, firstly I followed my father's advice, he
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Dirt Bikes Essay

  • 1. Dirt Bikes Essay DIRT BIKES There are two basic types of motorcycles. One type is made for riding on smooth surfaces like roads or paved race tracks. These motorcycles are called road bikes. They are heavier, faster, and more powerful than off–road bikes. Off–road motorcycles, or dirt bikes, are lighter than road bikes. Dirt bikes are built to handle rough terrain like dirt, mud, and rocks. Not all people use dirt bikes for sport. Some people need their dirt bikes for work. “Members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police ride Honda, Kawasaki, and Suzuki dirt bikes instead of horses.';(Motocross, 128) Forest rangers take dirt bikes out on ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The coarse is an obstacle coarse with things like boulders, logs, and streams that you will have to cross or maneuver on top of. The final kind of race is enduro. They are very long races which test your skills in map reading and if need be fixing your bike in the middle of nowhere with what you got. One famous race is the Paris–Dakar Which is an astonishing 6,371 miles (10,250 kilometers). “All dirt bikes share some basic features–knobby tires, light weight frames, long–travel suspension, and two– or four stroke engines placed high and out of the way.'; (Kawasaki owners manual, Intro) “Knobbies';, or knobby tires give the dirt bike good traction through mud, loose gavel,
  • 2. and sand. Without knobby tires, you would not have much control on rough trails. In deep sand it would be very difficult to move forward with just regular tires. Although on a paved road they will give you an rather bumpy ride. Another important part of all dirt bikes is long–travel suspension. This includes the fork legs in the front and one or two shock absorbers in the rear. Long–travel suspension softens the ride over the big jumps. “All dirt bikes have engines that are placed high in the chassis so they can clear obstacles suck as large bumps, stumps, and rocks. The exhaust pipe also rides high so it will not catch on boulders or fallen trees.';(Jesse Young,16) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3.
  • 4. Tracey: A Short Story "Let's wrap things up", Mary said. Timothy, Tracy, and Mary were all in the process of closing Wal– Mart tonight for work. Timothy was grabbing his keys to head to the door when all of suddenly the doors slammed shut and locked. Mary, Tracey and Timothy all shot each other a petrified look. Not knowing what's going on they try to get a hold of their manager only to find out they have no signal. While trying to brainstorm on what to do they hear the intercom come on. "Let's play a game, hide and seek last one alive wins." They all look at each other with frightened looks. Timothy says, "Let's try getting out of here again." When they look at the doors again they realized someone locked it with chains from the outside. Mary says, "I know there ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Tracey sees that the Mary left the aisle so tracey tiptoes to get her weapon an sees that may took a chain saw and clippers. Tracy knew that Mary had the same idea as her and that mary was going to try to kill her. Suddenly Traceys fears weren't of the figure they were of Mary. Cautiously Tracey picks out her weapon, so mary wouldn't be able to hear her. Once tracey got the chainsaw she wanted she ran to a hiding spot in the chair section. She kept her eye on anything suspicious and she sees the same dark figure she saw before, but the figure had something in its hand. Tracey saw that the figure had a gun in its hand. The dark figure was looking all around the store looking for her and Mary. Tracey spots mary but doesn't suspect mary seeing her. But all at once they run in to get the figure, but the figure turns around quicker and tackles mary to the ground. At that moment Tracey forgo all the differences her and mary had and all she could think of was to save Mary. Tracey turned on the chainsaw and started to cut the back of the figures feet and he freezes in pain and mary scrambles from out of under the figure. Tracey and Mary look at the clock and sees that it is opening time andf they realize that people will be on the way to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5.
  • 6. Internal Combustion Engines Internal Combustion Engines Introduction Internal Combustion Engine, a heat engine in which the fuel is burned ( that is, united with oxygen ) within the confining space of the engine itself. This burning process releases large amounts of energy, which are transformed into work through the mechanism of the engine. This type of engine different from the steam engine, which process with an external combustion engine that fuel burned apart from the engine. The principal types of internal combustion engine are : reciprocating engine such as Otto–engine, and Diesel engines ; and rotary engines, such as the Wankel engine and the Gas–turbine engine. In general, the internal combustion engine has become the means of propulsion in the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ignition In all engines some means of igniting the fuel in the cylinder must be provided. For example, the ignition system of Otto–cycle engines , the mixture of air and gasoline vapor delivered to the cylinder from the carburetor and next operation is that of igniting the charge by causing a spark to jump the gap between the electrodes of a spark plug, which projects through the walls of the cylinder. One electrode is insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form the part of the secondary circuit of an induction system. The principal type of high–tension ignition now commonly used is the battery–and–coil system. The current from the battery flows through the low– tension coil and magnetizes the iron core. When this circuit is opened at the distributor points by the interrupter cam, a transient high–frequency current is produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the condenser. This induces a transient, high– frequency, high–voltage current in the secondary winding. This secondary high voltage is needed to cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder to be fired by the distributor, which connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders in their proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the same ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7.
  • 8. The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Four Stroke Engine The Four Stroke engine was made by Nikolaus Otto (Daniel Levy). The machine which was built before The Four Stroke engine was The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). The Two Stroke engine doesn't have completed amount of stages and The Four Stroke engine had all four completed stages for the engine to function properly (Daniel Levy). The Four Stroke engine was basically the better form of The Two Stroke engine but it also had some disadvantage which The Two Stroke engine was better in. These engines can create different types diseases or can release harmful gases (Martin, Nebel and Rounds 103). The Four Stroke engine was an engine made by Nikolaus Otto (Daniel Levy). But before taking a look at The Four Stroke, we will take a look at The Two ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Four Stroke engine turned the disadvantages of The Two Stroke engine into the advantages which make the engine a whole lot better (Daniel Levy). The three advantages of The Four Stroke engine would be that The Four Stroke engine can last much longer than The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). Another advantage is that The Four Stroke engine uses gas more efficiently than The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). Lastly The Four Stroke engine also pollutes a lot less than The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). But The Four Stroke engine also was still not an exactly a perfect engine, it also had weaknesses of its own which are the disadvantages of it (Daniel Levy). These are the three examples of the disadvantages of The Four Stroke engine: The first disadvantage of The Four Stroke engine would be that the engine itself is very complicated, which makes you worry about the parts of the engine getting damaged (Daniel Levy). Secondly The Four Stroke engine is also half as powerful as The Two Stroke engine (Daniel Levy). Lastly The Four Stroke engine fires every two revolutions of the crankshaft (Daniel ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9.
  • 10. Four-Stroke Engine Title: The Four–Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about the history of the four–stroke engine, how it works and some brief information to other types of engines. Thesis Statement: Internal combustion engines are very important to today 's society, the four stroke engine is the most popular and important due to it long history of achievement and durability. I. Introduction 1. Attention getter– Imagine life without the engine, to be more specific the four–stroke engine or basic car engine. Everyday tasks, like coming to school, would know turn into journeys through the snow ,up a hill, both ways. All this because no–one ever invented this engine that helps transport most people today through all ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Transition– So these are some of the key elements that people should know about the basic engine that we use everyday. 3. There are several other engines used in the world today. A. There is the 2– stroke engine, a more simple version of the four–stroke, which is used in small applications such as chainsaws or dirtbikes. The rotary engine is another type of a gasoline engine that uses a rotor instead of a piston. B. The steam engine is an engine that uses steam under high pressure as it 's fuel, this engine type is very outdated and not used anymore today. C. The diesel engine is another very important engine because of it 's uses it big trucks and heavy machinery. Instead of igniting the fuel with a spark these engines use temperature that is just high enough to ignite the fuel that they use. III. Conclusion 1. Summarize– I hope everyone retained at least some of the information that was given to you today, you never know when the history of the four–stroke, how it works or some other engine types could help you. 2. Tie to intro– Hopefully everyone remembers how important these engine 's are the next time you get into a car don 't take it for granted because you don 't want to know what everyone 's lives would be like if these engines were not around today. 3. Concluding thought– So finally I want everyone to take into account how important the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11.
  • 12. How to Strip an Engine Engineering Report Engine Dismantle And Rebuild Travis Wight TEN053B Mr. Mulligan Contents Introduction p1 What is a Two Stroke Engine? P2 How a Two–Stroke Engine Works Power Stroke p3 Fuel Intake p4 Compression stroke p5 Dismantling the Engine p Engine Assessment p Engine Rebuild p Appendices Introduction The task at hand was to find a medium sized internal combustion engine. With this engine we had to dismantle it recording all the steps taken to pull it down. After the engine had been taken apart, all the functions of the engine had to be observed and recorded. After observing and recording all the
  • 13. information, it was then required to make any minor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This was achieved by un–doing one primary nut, which was attached from the shaft of the engine to the cutting deck of the mower. There was four smaller nuts the attached the engine to actual mower frame. These five bolts were undone with a medium–size shifter. The large bolt had to be "cracked" because it was on tight and tapping it with a hammer causes the nut to crack and let go of the bolt. Upon removing the engine from the frame of the mower, the casing over the engine was removed with a small shifter by undoing six small bolts around the engine. The next component of the engine that was taken off was the carburetor, which was attached to the side of the cylinder. It was secured onto the intake port by a tightening mechanism, which worked by tightening two washer–like fixtures around the intake port with a screw. After taking it off all the dirt had been removed from the surface of the carburetor The head of the cylinder was taken off first. This was achieved after undoing four small bolts or the top of the head. The vacuum advance system was disconnected from the carburetor to allow the removal of the head. See Fig 6 The next component that was removed was the barrel or cylinder. It slid off the four bolts that held the head of the cylinder off. After the barrel had been taken off, the piston was easily accessible. See Fig 7 The plate with cooling fins on it had to be taken off and for that to be removed a large nut had to be cracked ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. History of Motorcycles With gas prices rising higher and higher everyday, many people turned to alternate forms of transportation. One of the most popular forms of transportation is motorcycles. These vehicles can save a lot of money at the pump. Sports involving motorcycles are also becoming more and more popular everyday. Motocross is the second most popular motorsport in America behind NASCAR. This growth of the motorcycle industry got me curious about these amazing machines and how they work. The first motorcycles were made in America. In 1867, American, Sylvester Howard Roper invented a steam–engine motorcycle that was powered by coal called the Roper Steam Velocipede. German, Gottlieb Daimler invented the first gasoline–powered motorcycle in 1885. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Instead of the lifters and pushrods, the rocker arm rides along the camshaft lobe and the other end still opens the valve. In other overhead camshaft designs the cam lobe pushes on the valve itself (House). Four–stroke engines are more commonly used than two–stokes. They are used in most motorcycles that are used for transportation, such as Harley Davidson motorcycles. These engines are becoming even more popular than they once were. There have been many advancements in the four–stroke engine that have made them capable to do jobs they were once unable to do. These engines are now used more commonly in motocross competition and off–road use, the only portion of the motorcycling industry that mostly used the two–stroke engine (Bennett). This is largely due to the fact that fuel economy and environmental awareness are very important issues in the world right now (Total Motorcycle). Besides the mechanics, there are many other differences between two–stroke engines and four– stroke engines (Total Motorcycle). Both engines use gasoline for fuel, but two–stroke engines require a mixture of gasoline and oil. This is needed to lubricate the inner parts of the engine, while four–stroke engines have a completely separate oiling system that lubricates the engine. The mixture of oil and gas makes these engines more harmful to the environment and produces more harmful emissions. Four–stroke engines also ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. The Physics of a Diesel Engine Essay The Physics of a Diesel Engine The world we live in is surrounded by diesel engines. They are on the freeways, railways, airways, and are one of the leading electricity producers in the world. They are also becoming more popular in automobiles. These engines are efficient and reliable and they are getting very sophisticated. However, the physics behind these engines has not changed. By way of definition, courtesy of Diesel Engine Engineering: [a] diesel engine is an internal combustion engine in which the chemical energy of fuel is transformed into thermal energy of the cylinder charge, in consequence of the self–ignition and combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder after compression of the air charge in the cylinder (p1 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The piston then travels down pulling in fresh air, (third stroke), after the piston bottoms again it travels up compressing the fresh air, (fourth stroke). The fuel is then injected and one cycle is completed in 720 degrees or two full rotations of the crankshaft. The disadvantage of two–stroke engines is their dependency on a blower to force air into the chamber and their inefficiency. A four–stroke engine does not have an expansion stroke every 360 degrees but it is more efficient because it has more time to completely burn the fuel injected into the cylinder. There are mechanical and fundamental differences between the two–stroke and four–stroke engines but the physics remain the same. They both rely upon the compressed air to ignite the pressurized fuel and the resulting expansion for their power. At first glance it may look like the explosion in the chamber does the work but upon further inspection you can see the physics involved. There are two questions I would like to address. The first question is what is the physics behind the compressed air raising the temperature upwards of 900 degrees. The second question is what is the physics behind the rapid expansion of the ignited air fuel mixture. The physics behind the temperature increase of compressed air begins with a fresh charge of air. The air fills the combustion chamber when the cylinder is at bottom dead center. As the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Explain The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Principle... Qualification B–TEC Level 3 Extended Diploma in Vehicle Technology Year 2014–2015 Unit Number And Unit Title Unit–2: Vehicle Engine Principles, Operation, Service and Repair Learner KALPIT GAJAJAN VAZE Grading criteria Achieved? Explain the operating cycles of Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines. (P1) Explain the vehicle design and performance implications of a TATAARIA. (P2) Explain the function, operation and construction of Fiat Siena Engine. (P3) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the design and performance of Tata Nano and Maruti Alto engines. (M1) Evaluate the suitability of an engine used for Renault DUSTER SUV in terms of its layout, operation and performance. (D1) Learners feedback P1–we came ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Chassis is made of galvanized steel. Engine is produced maximum output of 150 PS (110 kW), at 4000 RPM. And maximum torque of this engine 320 NM, at 1700 RPM. Position of engine: TATAARIA is a front engine car, because engine is mounted front engine compartment on galvanized steel chassis. Cylinder Arrangement: It is four cylinder engines. Cylinders are arranged inline in the engine. Cylinder configuration: It is four cylinder cars. Four cylinders are produced 2179cc power as well as one cylinder is produced 544cc power. Purpose of vehicle has been designed and expected performance: TATAARIA has a 2179 cc, 4– cylinder diesel engine. So that car is generating 4000 rpm. , and produced a torque of 1700 rpm. The engine has a 5 speed manual gearbox. Why the engine for that vehicle (important): TATAARIA engine is 2179 cc, common rail diesel type engine. It has 4 cylinders and 4 valves per cylinder and engine is generating 4000 rpm or produced torque of 1700 rpm. In Tata aria 4 cylinder per valve, so it is produced more power and torque. So this engine is important for this
  • 20. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21.
  • 22. How Gasoline Is Used For Power The Average Automobile... Introduction I will describe in my own terms how gasoline is used to power the average automobile within an internal combustion engine. I will describe this process from the perspective of thermodynamics. The reason I feel this an interesting topic is the automobile has become such a steady presence in the daily life of society over the past century that we often take for granted the amount of science and engineering that go into them. The thermodynamics involved are a direct daily application of the topics we covered in this course, it also applies concepts we learn in other courses. It's also an important discussion, because what makes gasoline the most common fuel, how do the alternatives stack up? Or should we look at engines that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As the piston reaches the low point in this stroke the valves are closed. This is the end of the Intake stroke Compression Next is the compression stage, the crankshaft and connector rod following a circular motion causes the piston to move upward within the cylinder, the valves are closed and the volume begins to decrease which compresses the fuel air mixture. Increasing both pressure and temperature of the mixture within the cylinder. Combustion (Power) As the piston reaches the top of its cycle and the mixture is properly compressed the spark plug is fired. This ignites the highly pressured fuel air mixture, this ignition of the fuel source is a chemical reaction. Simply put it's a contained explosion that even further increases the pressure within the cylinder, the gas wants to expand with all this energy so it pushes the piston downward in the cylinder, rotating the crankshaft by its attachment through a connector rod. This is the stroke that does most of the work which is why it's often referred to as the power stroke Exhaust The piston is now at the bottom of the cylinder, which is filled with exhaust gases left over from the chemical reaction in the combustion cycle, the rotating crankshaft now pushes upward on the piston, as the piston moves upwards exhaust valves open, allowing the pistons movement to push the gas out of the cylinder so that the engine can start the 4 stroke cycle ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23.
  • 24. Ic Engine Essay AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SUBMITTED TO:– SUBMITTED BY:– Mr. Nilesh Kr. Dokania Shubham Kumar A12405413027 B.Tech (MAE) INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE I C ENGINE is an engine, where the combustion of fuel ( in general fossil fuel ) occurs with an oxidizer ( usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an I C ENGINE, the expansion of the high pressure and high pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of engine. I C ENGINES include spark ignition(SI) engines using petrol as a fossil fuel, and compression ignition (CI) engines ( usually referred to as disesel engines) using fuel oil, etc as a fuel. PROCESSES ( in sequence ) in these engines: # compression # combustion # expansion # induction / exhaust Two basic mechanical disigns to achieve these four processes in either: FOUR STROKES of the piston– hence the four stroke engine, or TWO STROKES of the piston – hence the two stroke engine. THE MAIN TYPES OF IC ENGINE ARE: F NORMALLY VARIES WITH CYLINDER VOLUME: Thus the fundamental output of a reciprocating internal combustion engine can be considered to be torque – it is theoretically produced even when engine speed ( RPM ) is zero. THE TORQUE FLUCTUATIONS ARE SMOOTHED OUT BY:– Multi–cylinder arrangement The use of a flywheel So that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25.
  • 26. Case Analysis: The Snow Joe SJ624E The Snow Joe SJ624E is one of the largest electric snow blowers on the market today. It's capable of blasting 730 lbs. a snow a minute and a 180°adjustable shoot throws it 20 feet out of the way in the direction of your aim, essentially allowing you to complete large jobs efficiently and fast. With the Snow Joe Ultra, you can easily maneuver in any direction with its easy glide 8" all terrain wheels. Plus, starting the blower is as simple as pushing a button with the instant start feature. Completely functional and versatile, the Snow Joe does most of the work for you. Therefore, it's an ideal blower for clearing snow from walk ways and driveways. Convenient electric power allows for a no mess, no fuss operation, eliminating the need of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27.
  • 28. How Atv's Work Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will explain how they work and how to fix them in this paper. Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV 's and general knowledge and getting them wet. I also will discuss their origin and how they need care and how to keep them doing good for a long time. What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or four wheelers. It is also called a quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go where other vehicles cannot go. ATV 's are also built to handle a lot of stress and abuse. ATV 's are virtually indestructible; however, they have a few weaknesses and it is important to know and understand those few weaknesses. You should always do a complete check of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... You generally replace the piston, rings and valve guide seals. If you do a lot of water riding you should do maintenance more often. If you should your quad drown out follow these four simple steps. (Microsoft Encarta 96 Internal Combustion Engine) Step one is to pull the quad out of the water. Pop the lid off the airbox to see if that 's where the trouble is. If there is water in the spark plug dry it off and set it aside. Dry with a cloth, if possible. If the air filter is wet ring it out. Step two is if it 's a four stroke, turn off the key and kick the water out. Watch it blow out the exhaust and cylinder head. Step three is to drain the float bowl. (If you suspect that water got in the tank )Which is very hard, set it on it 's wheels and let the water fall to the bottom and turn the fuel petcock to reserve and drain for a second or so. Step four is once all the water is out is to replace the spark plug and the air filter. Pull the choke and try to start it. It will probably spit and sputter for a few minutes but DO NOT hit the throttle or you could do serious damage. If it won 't start you better start pushing it home you probably have gotten the stator wet or one of the CDI boxes. which are sealed and are hard to get to. If you can check over the exposed electrical connections and dry them and get it to start good. but if it still will not start go home and begin the stripdown which involves a complete inspection of all electrical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29.
  • 30. Difference Between Parallel Engine And External Combustion... Intake stroke In the internal combustion engine, the piston starts form the top. As the crankshaft rotates the piston will start to move down which will allow the intake valve to open so air and fuel can flow inside the combustion chamber. In this process, the mixture of air and fuel gets pulled in the combustion chamber. Compression stroke During this stage, both intake and exhaust valve get closed. Due to this, as the piston moves upwards, it compresses the air and fuel mixture Combustion stroke As the piston reaches close to the spark plug, the spark plug will cause a spark to burn the fuel and the air mixture. This will cause the fuel and air mixture to explode which will cause the piston to go downwards again. Exhaust stroke This is the final stage of the process where piston will move upwards to release the exhaust gas through the exhaust valve. At the beginning of this stage, the exhaust valve will open to allow the exhaust gas to release. After the final stage, the piston will be left up where it originally stared from so the process can be repeated. Spark ignition and compression ignition engines Both Spark ignition and compression ignition engines are really similar to each other. However they both have different processor to burn the fuel as they both use different types of fuel types (petrol/Diesel). Because of this, they both have different compression ratio. Compression ignition engine are also know as diesel engine as they use diesel as a fuel. In ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31.
  • 32. Pros And Cons Of Chainsaw OREGON CS1500 Self–Sharpening Electric Chain Saw: Product Review First rule of running a chainsaw: Never, ever work with a dull chain! One of the most difficult parts in owning a chainsaw is the upkeep that the equipment needs. Sharpening your unit is a seemingly tedious task that several people would rather leave to professionals instead of doing it on their own. Nevertheless, this practice may be quite expensive, especially if you need to sharpen several chains. Eventually, you will be torn between spending your money on a professional or putting in more effort to do the sharpening on your own. You may think that there is no compromise for this dilemma... However, Oregon has created a technology that enables the chainsaw to be sharpened ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, this could be caused by human error, since these reports appear to be an isolated issue. As it is a corded electric chainsaw, your work area is limited to places situated within the reach of an extension cord that should also have an access to an electrical outlet. The extension cord also needs to be securely locked to avoid being detached from the outlet while you work. Pros This unit comes with a patented technology called PowerSharp Chainsaw Sharpening System that allows for tool–free chainsaw sharpening within three seconds It has an over–mold handle that causes the chainsaw to produce less vibrations and allows the user to run the equipment comfortably and conveniently The Oregon CS1500 is engineered with an automated chain braking system that is designed for the added safety for the users It is easy to maintain and eliminates the cost of professional chainsaw sharpening Cons There are a few users who have commented that the chain falls off easily Since it is a corded electric chainsaw, the working space that you can work with is limited to the radius of the extension cord You must avoid heavy duty cutting with any electric chainsaw, however, this unit can cut through thicker pieces of wood (with a diameter of 16 inches) compared to other electrically powered ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33.
  • 34. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine . i Willard W. Pulkrabek University of Wisconsin–· .. Platteville vi Contents 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–10 2–11 2–12 Mean Effective Pressure, 49 Torque and Power, 50 Dynamometers, 53 Air–Fuel Ratio and Fuel–Air Ratio, 55 Specific Fuel Consumption, 56 Engine Efficiencies, 59 Volumetric Efficiency, 60 Emissions, 62 Noise Abatement, 62 Conclusions–Working Equations, 63 Problems, 65 Design Problems, 67 , 3 ENGINE CYCLES 68 3–1 3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6 3–7 3–8 3–9 3–10 3–11 3–12 3–13 3–14 Air– Standard Cycles, 68 Otto Cycle, 72 Real Air–Fuel Engine Cycles, 81 SI Engine Cycle at Part Throttle, 83 Exhaust Process, 86 Diesel Cycle, 91 Dual Cycle, 94 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It provides the material needed for a basic understanding of the operation of internal combustion engines. Students are assumed to have knowledge of fundamental thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics as a prerequisite to get maximum benefit from the text. This book can also be used for self–study and/or as a reference book in the field of engines. Contents include the fundamentals of most types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. Both spark ignition and compression ignition engines are covered, as are those operating on four–stroke and two–stroke cycles, and ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the largest stationary engines. Rocket engines and jet engines are not included. Because of the large number of engines that are used in automobiles and other vehicles, a major emphasis is placed on these. The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction, terminology, definitions, and basic operating characteristics. This is followed in Chapter 3 with a detailed analysis of basic engine cycles. Chapter 4 reviews fundamental thermochemistry ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35.
  • 36. Is Mechanical Engineering Beng At Liverpool John Moores... Introduction:– This essay is searching my selected major, which is Mechanical Engineering BEng at Liverpool John Moores University. At first, it is investigating the reasons that made me choose this major, and then compare its first year modules at LJMU with University of Liverpool. Lastly, it presents an argument in thermodynamics, a module taught at the first year of Liverpool John Moores University Mechanical Engineering BEng program, which is a comparison between the efficiency of diesel and petrol engines. A:– A bachelor degree of Mechanical Engineering is my selected major to study at Liverpool John Moores University. LJMU is one of the leading school in teaching a practical degree of Mechanical Engineering. This degree provides ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The second factor is school, my teachers always told me about how amazing engineers are, and how did they help building with other scientists our modern world, until I reached high school when I first studied physics as a single subject. My physics teacher was the most to affect me by teaching me about engines and they work and planting the love of mechanics and engineering into my soul which kept growing with me as I grew older. Thirdly, since I was a kid I have loved mechanics and engines and kept always trying to fix my toy cars, thinking about how they were made, and wanting to drive so badly. Therefore, when was a teenager, I kept asking my older brother to teach me how to drive. Fortunately, my older brother wanted me to learn how to drive quickly in order to throw our house chores on me. Therefore, I kept learning how to drive, and my brother taught me how engines works in simple words, and showed me how to keep maintenance of cars in general and engines in specific. In conclusion, I have always wanted to study Mechanical Engineering for its great job opportunities, my family recommendation, school encouragement, and personal experience. B:– Mechanical Engineering BEng is a program taught at Liverpool John Moores University. This part of the essay is going to compare it between Liverpool John Moores University, and University of Liverpool based ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37.
  • 38. A Brief Note On The Area Of Engine Position Management 1.1. Objective and Goal of the Project The project is done in the area of engine position management which is used in gasoline 4–stroke engines. During the development of device drivers for the engine, it is very important to test each and every feature of the device driver. Before going to the vehicle testing or software integration, the device driver software has to be tested completely. For this purpose, mini test benches can be used. This test setup should provide the necessary input signals to the driver software which is to be tested. The main input signals needed for the testing includes crank sensor and cam sensor signals. These signals help us to determine the crank and cam wheel positions and also calculate the engine speed at which the engine is running at that particular time. The existing mini test bench allows the engine speed information to be changed manually. The actual engine speed dynamics in the real engine/vehicle cannot be simulated. They are not capable of changing the engine speed in a specific pattern driven over time. They are not cost effective. The objective of this project comes from disadvantages of the existing test equipments. The main aim is to create a mini test bench setup to generate Cam and Crank Signals. The Setup should be able to allow testing of device driver software without the need of Vehicle. It should allow engine speed to change manually. The setup should allow the engine speed variation in a pre defined pattern without the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39.
  • 40. Essay on The Process Of An Internal Combustion Engine Process Essay Process of a 4–stroke Internal Combustion Engine A common phrase that is heard whilst growing up is "curiosity killed the cat". This phrase might be true but; "ingenuity brought the cat back". Having a mindset in which giving up is never an option has plagued most inventors of the modern day, especially a high school drop out named Nikolaus August Otto, born in 1832. Otto was responsible for the development and improvement of the 4– stroke motor that is used today in just about every automobile on the road. Many people drive cars but fail to realize how they work, and don't try to learn about engines because they think it is complex, and not an easy concept to grasp. Air, fuel, spark, and combustion are the premise ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the next step the air travels into the combustion chamber (cylinder), where it is mixed with the other components of combustion. Equally important as the air, is the fuel going into the cylinder. Fuel starts off in the gas tank of the car and then gets pumped into the fuel lines by the fuel pump. The fuel goes through the fuel lines and into the fuel rail. Attached to the fuel rail are electronically controlled injectors (one per cylinder), which are controlled by the mass air sensor. The mass air senor regulates how much fuel is necessary to mix with the air to achieve the ideal air to fuel ratio. The injectors "spray" into the cylinder at synchronized times mixing with air and eventually resulting in combustion. The final and most important steps of the Internal Combustion Engine are the movements of the pistons. At this point in the process fuel, and air are both present inside the chamber and are combined into a ratio, this is called the air fuel ratio, short AFR. There are four motions of each piston; they are in perfect balance and harmony, much like watching an orchestra perform. These motions (strokes) are detailed as follows: • On the intake stroke, the intake valve has opened. (The intake valve is the opening that the air and fuel are released into the cylinder) The piston is moving down, and a mixture of air and vaporized fuel is being ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41.
  • 42. Use Of Propulsion And The Basic Principle And Theory Of... Air Breathing Engines Author: Mohsin Rehman Abstract: This paper mentions the history and early attempts at propulsion and the basic principle and theory of propulsion. Different types of air breathing engines like turbojet turbofan ramjet scramjet etc. their basic working principle along with their different working parts and the air planes on which these engines successfully worked are discussed down the path. Progresses made on historical basis, future planning for the betterment of aircraft propulsion industries and their major priorities are the highlighted areas of this research paper. Index terms: horse power, Mach no, oxidizer, stealth technology, thermodynamics. I. Introduction: In aircraft designing, propulsion system is the basic structure. For an aircraft to leave the ground and be in air we want a system which can speedily thrust it into air. Before going after history and detail we have to learn what propulsion basically is. The word is derived from two Latin words: pro means before or forwards and pellere meaning to drive. Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward [1]. A propulsion system is a machine that generates thrust in order to push an object forward. Propulsion systems work on newton's third law of action and reaction. Action is that working fluid is accelerated by the engine and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the engine [1]. The first successful free flights by a man–made ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43.
  • 44. Fixing a Car It is estimated that over 100,000 patents created the modern automobile. The history of the automobile reflects an evolution that took place worldwide. Since then, 21st century car tools have evolved, affecting automotive servicing in a positive and negative prospective. Reflecting the way that cars have evolved, the way car mechanics service them has also changed dramatically. A lot has changed from tools and engines, to the different types of mechanics there are now. Although the blueprint for the modern automobile was perfected in Germany and France in the late 1800s, the very first self–propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, in 1769. Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle. The military tractor was used by the French Army to haul artillery at speeds of 2 ½ miles per hour, resting only on three wheels. This tractor had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power again. In 1770, Cugnot built a steam–powered tricycle that carried four passengers. Fun Fact: In 1771, Cugnot drove one of his road vehicles into a stone wall, making Nicolas Joseph Cugnot the first person to get into a motor vehicle accident. Cugnot's vehicle was improved by Frenchman, Onesiphore Pecqueur, who also invented the first differential gear. In 1789, Oliver Evans was granted the first U.S. patent for a steam–powered land vehicle. At the age of eighteen, Evan began his inventing of a new high–pressure steam ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45.
  • 46. Engine Speed Vs Torque Essay CONTENTS:– 1. Torque and power curve against engine speed 3 2. Acceleration vs speed of the vehicle graph 3 3. Working principle of Otto cycle 5 4. Reference 6 1.Calculate the torque and power curve against the engine speed. The values of the torque, power and engine speed are The torque is calculated by using torque =(V_d/(2π×2))×BMEP where V_d=0.00199823 = (0.00199823/(2π×2))×804812.7193 =127.9764897 Power = T×Angular velocity =127.9764897 × 104.7197551 = 13401.66667Watts Engine speed Torque Power 1000 127.9764897 13401.66667 2000 155.898633 32651.33333 3000 169.8597046 53363 4000 169.8597046 71150.66667 5000 141.9375613 74318.33333 2. Plot the acceleration vs speed of the vehicle . Gear ratios GEAR NO RATIOS I1 4.23 I2 2.27 I3 1.91 I4 1.09 I5 0.97 Idiff 3.06 Speed of vehicle v=(Angular ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47.
  • 48. Internal Combustion Engines Internal Combustion Engines An internal–combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a heat engine is an engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The internal– combustion engine should be distinguished from the external– combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, which burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces mechanical motion. Both basic types produce hot, expanding gases, which may then be employed to move pistons, turn turbine rotors, or cause locomotion through the reaction principle as they escape through the nozzle. Most people are familiar with the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Most ignition systems require an external electrical energy source in the form of a battery or a magneto. Spark–ignition engines require a means for mixing fuel and air. This may be either a carburetor or fuel injection. A carburetor atomizes the fuel into the engine's incoming air supply. The mixture is then vaporized in the intake manifold on its way to the combustion chamber. fuel injection sprays a controlled mist of fuel into the airstream, either in the intake manifold or just before the intake valve or valves of each cylinder. Both carburetors and fuel injectors maintain the correct fuel– to–air ratio, about one part fuel to fifteen parts air, over a wide range of air temperatures, engine speeds, and loads. Fuel injection can compensate for changes in altitude as well. Internal–combustion engines require some type of starting system. Small engines are generally started by pulling a starting rope or kicking a lever. Larger engines may use compressed air or an electric starting system. The latter includes a starter––a high–torque electric motor––to turn the crankshaft until the engine starts. Starting motors are extremely powerful for their size and are designed to utilize high currents (200 to 300 amperes). The large starting currents can cause a battery to drain rapidly; for this reason a heavy– duty battery is usually used. Interrupting this connection is an electrical switch called a solenoid, which ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49.
  • 50. Quantitative Study Of Heat And Enthalpy Changes PART A Thermochemistry is the quantitative study of heat and enthalpy changes in chemical reactions. Enthalpy (H) "... is a measure of the total energy possessed by a substance or group of substances." (Smith 2006, pp. 289). The change in enthalpy (∆H) of a substance is defined as the heat absorbed or released during a chemical reaction. A car motor works by converting petrol, also known as chemical energy, to kinetic energy, therefore assisting with the movement of a car. A chemical reaction, known as combustion, occurs in the car motor. A combustion reaction consists of a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen (O2) to give the products carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting simply of Hydrogen (H2) and Carbon (C), methane (CH4) and diesel (C12H23) are examples of a hydrocarbon. The chemical equation for a combustion reaction is as follows: Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water. The combustion reaction of methane (CH4) is: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l), the combustion reaction of ethane is: 2C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g)  4 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) and the combustion reaction for butane is 2C4H10 (g) +13O2 (g)  8CO2 (g) +10H2O (g). If combustion takes place internally, the engine is referred to as an internal combustion engine. A diesel engine is an example of this. Internal combustion engines convert the chemical energy in fuel to mechanical energy via an exothermic reaction. An internal combustion engine, mainly consists of a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. Chainsaw Research Paper Chainsaw maintenance: The handiest guides for garden works It is a powerful machine, used for pruning, cutting or cutting firewood, deforestation, even for impeccable let your orchard or garden. But not only it serves to make these works; you can also cut large blocks or chunks of ice. There need some skill in the use of chainsaws, & the maintenance some of its body parts: The CHAINSAW BAR & CHAINSAW CHAIN. The bar and chain of a chainsaw needs a constant flow of lubrication during operation. If the bar and chain are not lubricated the tip and the bar begins to heat up. As it warms up even more, it can damage the bar, pinion, chain and even the clutch. Bar oil Bar and chain oil is the only type of oil that can be used to lubricate the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Examine the bar for more than one "usage type" indicator. This indicates the types of jobs for which the chainsaw is designed. For example, a manufacturer makes three types of bars: casual, professional and commercial. 4. Look for an identification number stamped on the bar. Cross reference to any number that is sealed with the list of bars or chainsaws on the manufacturer's website. How to replace a Chainsaw Bar Heavy wear on a chainsaw will eventually require replacement of the bar, but this costly repair can be pushed further along the way with a regular maintenance program and replacement of the nose pinion on the bar. Replacing the tip costs a fraction of the price of a new bar and, along with proper care of the main body of the bar, the life of the chainsaw extends several more cutting seasons. Instructions 1. First remove the bar and chain from the chainsaw. Take out the motor head and chain aside. Put the bar on a flat metal surface. 2. Using the steel punch and a hammer pounds off the rivet by holding the pinion tip on the bar.
  • 53. Take out the old pinion tip. 3. Before places the new nose gear of the bar try to clean any residual splinters from the tip of the bar. Then place the new lower rivet down into the hole at the bottom of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. An Engineering Innovation: The Automotive Internal Combustion An Engineering Innovation: The Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Throughout history, many engineers have worked to make life easier. The automobile is one invention that was a key part in the development of the Americas. Although the automobile is very important, one thing is more important than the automobile itself: the engine. The engine is what got people away from having to use man power along with animal power, like horses, cattle, or oxen. Not only can an engine be used to power an automobile, it can also be used to power machinery, which made industrial life and farming life easier. The engine played an important part in industrial advancement, but the most important advancement is when it began being used in the automobile. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The spark plugs are run by a set of coils, the number of them depends on the amount of cylinders the engine has. The coils receive an electrical current from the engine, and it is run through the distributor which has wires that go to each spark plug. The electricity transfers through the spark plug into the combustion chamber of the cylinder head and ignites the fuel. The cylinder head is where the valves are located. In most internal combustion engines, there are two valves per cylinder. One for the intake of air, and the other to release the gases which are a product of the explosion inside of the cylinder. The valves open and close in synchronization with the pistons in order for the engine to work correctly. There is another part which opens and closes the valves. This part is called the camshaft. The camshaft is much smaller than the crankshaft, and it has lobes which are in offset positions to open and close the intake and exhaust valves at the correct times. The Valves are opened and closed by a set of pushrods for each cylinder. The pushrods are located on top of a part called the lifter. The lifter is what catches the lobes ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. The Process of an Internal Combustion Engine Matt Bagley English 110 Process Essay Process of a 4–stroke Internal Combustion Engine A common phrase that is heard whilst growing up is "curiosity killed the cat". This phrase might be true but; "ingenuity brought the cat back". Having a mindset in which giving up is never an option has plagued most inventors of the modern day, especially a high school drop out named Nikolaus August Otto, born in 1832. Otto was responsible for the development and improvement of the 4– stroke motor that is used today in just about every automobile on the road. Many people drive cars but fail to realize how they work, and don 't try to learn about engines because they think it is complex, and not an easy concept to grasp. Air, fuel, spark, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All of this pressure against the piston forces it down in the cylinder. The power impulse is transmitted down through the piston, through the piston rod (connecting rod), and to the crankshaft. The crankshaft is rotated due to the force. • As the piston reaches the bottom of its travel, the exhaust valve opens. Now, as the piston moves up on the exhaust stroke, it forces the burned gases out of the cylinder through the exhaust port. When the piston reaches the top of its travel, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake valve opens. The cycle repeats again with the intake stroke. The four strokes are continuously repeated during the operation of the engine This total process takes less than half a second to complete, and enables vehicles to get to their destination. Reading this paper does not qualify the reader as a mechanic, but should give the person reading a better appreciation for the vehicle. It is always good to know the basics of a car so if the car ends up in need of repair, the owner can have some information and basic diagnosis. With the knowledge gained from this paper, a basic understanding should be gained on the process of an Internal Combustion ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. The Effect Of Outdoor Two Stroke Power Equipment Abstract: The emissions from two stroke outdoor power equipment, light terrestrial vehicles, and marine vehicles are a significant detriment to air quality, human health, and the environment. Due to the mechanical nature two stroke engines operations, engines running on fuel oil mixtures that have been blended from biologically based oils generate far less Green House Gas emissions than two stroke engines running fuel oil mixtures blended from more traditional petroleum based outdoor power equipment oil. Preliminary results of previous research support the hypothesis that equipment running on bio–synthetic fuel–oil blends emits drastically lower amounts of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Monoxide than equipment operating exclusively on petroleum based fuel–oil mixtures. In addition, qualitative factors such as the color and smell of the exhaust fumes, and differences in engine performance have also been monitored and recorded. These data have been gathered in two separate and complimentary stages where the results were accumulated, condensed, and analyzed with the objective of discovering differences in the emissions and engine performance of Outdoor Two Stroke Power Equipment (OPE) running on petroleum based oil versus bio– synthetic oil. Introduction: Green House Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change: The concern of rising temperatures due to the anthropocentric generation of Green House ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. The Stroke Combustion Cycle ( Ice ) Revolutionized The Way... Introduction I'm interested on this topic because, I think that the four stroke combustion cycle in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) revolutionized the way the Man think and Moves. Internal Combustion Engines are also significantly more efficient than the well–known steam engine. Today it has better power than electric batteries and motors, and offers similar overall efficiency. Small, lightweight ICE made personal transportation possible. It transformed how we built cities and did business. Engines are so important for the advancement on any society, nowadays without engines it will be much harder for man to do what it look simple and ordinary in today's world. More than importance of this topic on my career or profession, is the importance on the topic in our daily live, this paper explains how with the help of physics all grate scientists revolutionized our modern world of engines. Four Stroke Combustion Cycle Engine Thermodynamics Admission The piston is at top dead center and starts down. At that instant the intake valve opens, remaining closed exhaust. As you turn the crankshaft, the elbow is occupying different points of its rotary travel, and, through the connecting rod causes the piston goes down and causing a carburetor suction through conduit that has opened the intake valve, dragging a quantity of air and gasoline, which are mixed and sprayed into the carburetor. These gases are filling the void left by the piston to go down. When it has reached the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Engines Run On Petroleum : Diesel Fuel Engines run on petroleum. Petroleum is used in many products such as plastics, ink paint, shoe polish, nylons, roof shingles, novelty candy, cosmetics, candles, vaseline, bug biller, ammonia, tires, asphalt, crayons, paper, cups, and wax paper. Although petroleum may be useful in many applications, the best used for petroleum is diesel fuel for many reasons. One reason diesel fuel is the best and most efficient use for petroleum is that diesel fuel contains about 14% more energy by volume than gasoline. This makes diesel fuel the most efficient fuel for use in automobiles and trucks. Diesel fuel is especially the most efficient fuel for use in towing all types of vehicles for many reasons. One reason diesel engines are better for towing is that they have more low end torque because of their higher compression ratios. A diesel engine 's compression ratio is between 15:1 and 23:1 compared to the compression ratio of a gasoline engine which is 10:1 to 12:1 but if the compression ratio is raised from 10:1 to 15:1, the thermal efficiency will improve by roughly nine percent. Diesel engines also deliver twenty–five to thirty percent better fuel economy than similar performing gasoline engines. When compared to a 4.0 liter gasoline engine, the Cummin's 4BT3.9 diesel engine is much more fuel efficient engine. In theory, diesel engines and gasoline engines are quite similar. They are both internal combus­ tion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in fuel ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Diesel vs. Gasoline . How Do Diesel Engines Work? The basic difference between a diesel engine and a gasoline engine is that in a diesel engine, the fuel is sprayed into the combustion chambers through fuel injector nozzles just when the air in each chamber has been placed under such great pressure that it's hot enough to ignite the fuel spontaneously. Following is a step–by–step view of what happens when you start up a diesel–powered vehicle. 1. You turn the key in the ignition. Then you wait until the engine builds up enough heat in the cylinders for satisfactory starting. (Most vehicles have a little light that says "Wait," but a sultry computer voice may do the same job on some vehicles.) Turning the key begins a process in which fuel is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Differences * Both gasoline and diesel fuel are derived from petroleum. The refinement process for the creation of diesel is much simpler than gasoline 's. Diesel tends to be more oily and heavier than gasoline. It also evaporates more easily, which is important for the fuel injection process. Engines * Both kinds of engines depend on internal combustion for power. A diesel engine creates combustion by injecting compressed air into the engine. The compression causes the air to heat to about 1,000 degrees F, which ignites the diesel fuel. In a gasoline engine, gasoline is ignited by an electrical spark. Diesel Engines More Efficient * Diesel engines get better mileage than gasoline engines for two reasons: diesel fuel contains more energy than gasoline, and a diesel engine injects fuel and air into a combustion chamber at a much higher rate of compression, which makes the fuel burn more efficiently than fuel in a gasoline engine. Towing and Horsepower * The design of a diesel engine requires a much heavier construction. This heavy engine, combined with the high amount of compression it uses to ignite fuel, means that the engine runs at a much lower rate of revolutions per minute (RPM). Because it runs at a lower RPM rate, the engine needs much less force to rotate the machinery that moves a diesel vehicle. Because the engine can move machinery with much less force than a gasoline engine, it is much better at making a towed object start moving. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Early Automobiles . Vehicles Have Changed Over Time Like Early Automobiles Vehicles have changed over time like many other things, but the engine that powers these vehicles has gone through the most changes. The internal combustion engine has become a huge part in everyday life. These engines have allowed people to travel across the country, generate electricity, and fly around the world. This engine has been a perpetual source of exploration ever since Henry Ford mass produced the first Model–T. Automobiles have evolved over time along with many other things; there are many fundamentals to learn about how the engine works, different types of engines, and the history of the gas engine. The first thing to learn is how the basic engine works. According to Nancy Hall, writing for the National ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 7). The combustion increases the temperature of the exhaust gases, any residual air in the combustion chamber, and the combustion chamber itself. From the ideal gas law, the increased temperature of the gases also produces an increased pressure in the combustion chamber; the high pressure of the gases acting on the face of the piston cause the piston to move to which initiates the power stroke (para. 8). Unlike the compression stroke, the hot gas does work on the piston during the power stroke. The force on the piston is transmitted by the piston rod to the crankshaft, where the linear motion of the piston is converted to angular motion of the crankshaft. Hall's article for NASA states that the work done on the piston is then used to turn the shaft (para. 8). Having produced the igniting spark, the electrical contact remains opened. During the power stroke, the volume occupied by the gases is increased because of the piston motion and no heat is transferred to the fuel/air mixture (para. 9). As the volume is increased because of the piston 's motion, the pressure and temperature of the gas are decreased. Heat that is left over from the power stroke is now transferred to the water in the water jacket until the pressure approaches atmospheric pressure; the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. In Fact, In 1997, When Each Industry, Including Automobile In fact, in 1997, when each industry, including automobile industry registered negligible growth, two wheeler industry registered 3% growth, quiet an impressive one, mainly due to the growth in rural demand. Market leader like TVS Suzuki, identify the reason to be good monsoon resulting in good agriculture production, support price policy in agriculture. Agriculturists are further supported but heavily governmental subsidies especially in fertilizer and power. Future of two wheelers seems quite promising, as long as middle class group is growing. But the industry should be careful of strict environmental policies adopted by the government. India has taken the lead in enforcing strict emission norms for two wheelers by the year 2000. Not ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There have been many complaints on company surveys about him from the department. Employee have commented that Sanjeev Rathore is "rude" during meetings and doesn't let others to speak or contribute. There are times when he has criticized people in meetings. He also talks about his staff "critically" or "negatively" to other managers. But Sanjeev Rathore also is a brilliantly talented person who contributes a vast amount of knowledge and experience to the company. He is dedicatedly working for the company and lets people know this by his arrives 7:00 a.m. each day and leaves office at 7:30 p.m. He has been with the company since 35 years and he reports directly to the Vice President. Sanjeev Rathore has gone to the HR department and complained that the people his supervisors hire are not a good fit for the company. The recruits don't listen and they have a poor work ethic. Sanjeev Rathore feels that HR should do a better job screening people. 1) What suggestions do you have for the Vice president on how to coach Sanjeev Rathore and develop a personal improvement plan? 2) What areas would you suggest be first on Sanjeev Rathore's improvement plan? 3) What kind of timetable would you prepare? What may be the consequences? How should Sanjeev Rathore be counselled? Is it worth to put effort, since he is going retiring soon? Case: 3 A unique Training Program at Lotus Sakshi Tyagi, a Lotus parcel Manager in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. The Pros And Cons Of Rudolf Diesel In the year 1885 Rudolf Diesel sets up a small shop in Paris to begin developing an engine that would forever change the way we look at transportation. Rudolf was trying to design an engine to run off compression ignition to replace the costly steam locomotive. His research lasted around 13 years before showing a successful test of a slow burning, efficient, compression ignition engine. diesels had his first running engine built on February 17,1897 with an efficiency of 26.7% v.s the steam engine's efficiency at 10%. Rudolf had paved the path for modern diesel engines, quickly evolving from running on coal dust to having computerized injectors with injection so microscopic water is incapable of traveling through in a little over a century. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One pro of diesel engines is also a con. While a diesel engine is an internal combustion engine it fires off of the heat of the engine. The heat is caused from the friction inside the cylinders, this causes the engine to have a little less maintenance and run more efficiently. The con of diesel engines combustion off of cylinder heat is in northern climates it isn't always warm enough for the engine to maintain enough heat to run. They solved this problem in the northern climates by installing glow plugs and block warmers. Glow plugs are used to heat the fuel before it gets injected into the cylinder helping the motor start because the heat needed for combustion isn't used to warm the fuel. Block warmers are a small heater that is placed in a soft plug hole on the side of the engine and helps keep the coolant warm so that the block stays warm while the truck is sitting for a week or a few minutes. Cold weather can cause more then just starting issues for diesel engines it can cause them to just shut off from a lack of fuel, the diesel itself will gel in cold weather and be like a jello like substance and then needs additives added to the fuel to be bring it back to its original ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. The Effect Of Wankel Engines And Four Stroke Engines Have you ever wondered how engines work? That is exactly what this paper is about, engines. I will explain how Wankel engines, Diesel engines, turbojet engines, Gnome rotary engines, two stroke engines, and four stroke engines work. I will also explain their histories. Some times when you look at an engine it looks like a mess and you wonder how it could make anything move. The two stroke engine was very popular in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Two stroke engines were used in cars, tractors, and ships. One reason for their popularity was their simple design. The two stroke engine has a lower cost to rebuild and maintain than most other engines, which is why the two stroke engine was very popular. The reason why most two stroke ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While this is happening a crankcase compression is happening beneath the piston. The two stroke engine fires on every circle of the piston. Because of this they are more powerful than the four stroke engine of equivalent size. Two stroke engines also have lighter and simpler construction. These two reasons are, why they are used in motorcycles chain saws, line trimmers and outboard motors. Sadly two stroke engines cause a lot of pollution because some of exhaust gasses are expelled from the exhaust part of the cycle. The four stroke engines are used in lawn mowers, garden tractors, tillers, and washers. There is more than one type of four stroke engines. They are the horizontal–camshaft, side valve engine and the vertical–camshaft, side valve engine. Both of these types use four cycles four cycles in one full cycle. four stroke engine The four stroke engine is the now the most popular engine for cars. The first thing that happens is that the intake piston moves down drawing in a fresh charge fuel and air mixture into the cylinder. As the piston rises the intake valve is forced shut by increased cylinder pressure. As the piston rises, the intake valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward, compressing the fuel and air mixture. At the top of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires, igniting the compressed fuel. As the fuel burns it expands driving the piston down. When the piston reaches the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Advantages And Disadvantages Of An Engine INTRODUCTION: The internаl combustion engine is аn engine in which the combustion of а fuel (normаlly а fossil fuel) occurs with аn oxidizer (usuаlly аir) in а combustion chаmber. In аn internаl combustion engine the expаnsion of the high–temperаture аnd –pressure gаses produced by combustion аpplies direct force to some component of the engine, such аs pistons, turbine blаdes, or а nozzle. This force moves the component over а distаnce, generаting useful mechаnicаl energy The term internаl combustion engine usuаlly refers to аn engine in which combustion is intermittent, such аs the more fаmiliаr four–stroke аnd two–stroke piston engines, аlong with vаriаnts, such аs the rotаry engine. А second clаss of internаl combustion engines use continuous ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Cooling systems Combustion generаtes а greаt deаl of heаt, аnd some of this trаnsfers to the wаlls of the engine. Fаilure will occur if the body of the engine is аllowed to reаch too high а temperаture; either the engine will physicаlly fаil, or аny lubricаnts used will degrаde to the point thаt they no longer protect the engine. The lubricаnts must be cleаn аs dirty lubricаnts mаy leаd to over formаtion of sludge in the engines. Cooling systems usuаlly employ аir (аir–cooled) or liquid (usuаlly wаter) cooling, while some very hot engines using rаdiаtive cooling (especiаlly some rocket engines). Some high–аltitude rocket engines use аblаtive cooling, where the wаlls grаduаlly erode in а controlled fаshion. Rockets in pаrticulаr cаn use regenerаtive cooling, which uses the fuel to cool the solid pаrts of the engine. Piston А piston is а component of reciprocаting engines. It is locаted in а cylinder аnd is mаde gаs–tight by piston rings. Its purpose is to trаnsfer force from expаnding gаs in the cylinder to the crаnkshаft viа а piston rod аnd/or connecting rod. In two–stroke engines the piston аlso ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. How ATVs Work Essay Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will explain how they work and how to fix them in this paper. Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV's and general knowledge and getting them wet. I also will discuss their origin and how they need care and how to keep them doing good for a long time. What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or four wheelers. It is also called a quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go where other vehicles cannot go. ATV's are also built to handle a lot of stress and abuse. ATV's are virtually indestructible; however, they have a few weaknesses and it is important to know and understand those few weaknesses. You should always do a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The compression then stroke follows, and the charge is ignited when the piston reaches the end of this stroke. The piston then moves outward on the power stroke, uncovering the exhaust port and permitting the gases to escape from the combustion chamber.1 The four stroke model has four strokes instead of two. The strokes are Intake, into which a mixture of gas and air are pulled into the cylinder. Second, Compression, where the piston moves up and the gases are compressed. The Third is power in which the spark plug fires and ignites the compressed gases, And last is exhaust in which the gases that were burned are expels through the exhaust then the procedure repeats itself. The most common type of ATV (Three and Four wheelers) Manufactures are Yamaha, Honda, Kawasaki, Hosquravana, Suzuki and Polaris. There are several other brands but for time's sake I have only listed a few of the most popular ones. ATV's come in a variety of sizes and powers. from a small 80cc to a huge two stroke 600cc! I own a 1989 Yamaha Breeze and have to repair it quite often. There are some simple things to do that are cheap and will save money in the long run. For example adding transmission fluid or crankcase oil could save hundreds at a repair shop. Some times repairs get challenging as your quad (ATV) ages it will need special care such as an oil change, Brake pads, spark ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 78.
  • 79. A Study On Engineering And The University Of Liverpool The purpose of this study is to learn more about engineering and especially mechanical engineering. This text is divided into three parts, part A describes my degree choice, why I chose it and what I am hoping to be in the future. Part B will be a comparison between LJMU and the University of Liverpool, also it will provide an information of a lecturer in LJMU. Part C will compare and contrast between two types of internal combustion engines. Part A Engineering is a very important specialization and it can be founded in every organization, I am interested in studying engineering especially mechanical engineering which is the subject of understanding the principle of engineering such as forces and how do they effect on substances, the functionality of systems and how they work, manufacturing of tools, devices, machines and their parts with different sizes, shapes and different functions, and operation of mechanical systems. There are several career options for mechanical engineers like an automotive engineer, Design Engineer, Control and instrumentation engineer, Maintenance engineer, Mechanical engineer. My career choice is to be an automotive engineer who is involved in making whole vehicle design, manufacturing and operating. I chose to be an automotive engineer because basically I like everything that is related to cars, prepare them to build them from scratch and I love cars in general. I chose mechanical engineering because, firstly I followed my father's advice, he ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...