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twin studies Essay
ARTICLE REVIEW
Separated Twins and the Genetics of Personality Differences: A Critique
Author(s): Jay Joseph
EDP 1002 : THEORIES OF PERSONALITIES
Introduction
Throughout history, across all cultures, people have been fascinated with twins. In addition to
interest in the close emotional ties and biological similarities that twins may share, reports of special
twin languages and twin extrasensory perception (ESP) help people to explore ideas of what it
means to be human. How similar or different are they to each other? How important are genes and
environment for development? Because identical twins share all of their genes, it is the
environment–rather than genetics–that accounts for any differences between them. ... Show more
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and Shields studies, MISTRA twins were discovered on the basis of similarity and their knowledge
of each other's existence. Also, Minnesota study also lack of case histories and the failure to share
data. Although most of the earlier researchers were viewing twins through a hereditary lens, their
descriptions provided a wealth of information.
Method of research and Findings In this study, they are used several type of method, one of the
technique is used two or more test instrument to ensure the adequate coverage, for example the
participants were given a battery of personality and mental ability tests, interest and value
inventories and psychomotor tests. In addition, separate of examiners administer the IQ test, life
history interview, psychiatric interview and sexual life history interview. The twin also complete
questionnaire independently under the constant supervision of the staff members. Twin studies are
valuable to researchers because identical twins share 100% of their genes and fraternal twins share,
on average, 50% of their genes. Both identical and fraternal twins share certain aspects of their
environment (e.g. religious practices in the home). This allows researchers to estimate the
heritability of certain traits. Participants are asked about academic ability, personality, and interests;
family and social relationships; mental and physical health; physiological measurements. Of interest
to researchers are prevalence of psychopathology, substance
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Twin Studies In Behavior Genetics
Twin Studies Twin studies are part of the methods used in behavior genetics, which includes all data
that are genetically informative – siblings, adoptees, pedigree data etc. Monozygotic (identical) have
all of the same genes and dizygotic (fraternal) have 50% of the same genes. Twin studies are very
unique.
One set of twins sisters are being raised 275 miles apart by a kind of accidental science experiment.
Two sets of couples traveled together to Chenzhou, a city in China's Hunan Province. When they
saw the babies they were adopting, the couples had their first twin moment. When the kids come off
the elevator the couples said that they were shocked that the fact that they were getting twins and
didn't know it. They said they laughed the same and cried the same... and they couldn't tell one kid
from the other. Before ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The infants were six months old at them time and the couples wondered if they were sisters. They
asked the people at the orphanage to see if they were and they said they were not even related even
though they were listed as having the same birthday. The couples feared that if they did not continue
with them adoption that the girls would get separated far away from each other. So the couples took
the girls back to Canada with them. They wanted to do what was the best for the babies, even if it
they had to raise the twins apart from each other. The family's now are trying to get together as
much as possible, so that their kids can bond with each other. One of the twins after she got a little
older said I don't hate it. I don't love it. Both of the girls took their first steps on the same. They both
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Darwin's Influence On Sir Francis Galton
Sir Francis Galton was, by in large part, a product of his environment. Through his family, Galton
was well connected––he came from a wealthy, upper–class, lineage of academics. Having inherited
a large sum of money, Galton was able to explore a variety of endeavours before making his mark
on modern day psychology (Goodwin, 2012, p.151). Galton excelled in the fields of geography,
exploration, meteorology, and science; it was not until Galton's half–cousin Darwin wrote his 1859
book on evolution that inspired his interest in psychology (pp.151–152). Darwin was, unequivocally,
Galton's most notable relative and someone from whom he drew large inspiration. Darwin became
influenced by economist Thomas Malthus who recognized, "that life is a constant "struggle for
existence" and only those best suited for survival will do so" (Goodwin, 2012, p. 135). Malthus'
aforementioned belief was one that Darwin observed during his expedition on the Beagle––Darwin's
ship. Darwin recognizes that the finches he had studied during his voyage to the Galapagos islands
varied from each other depending on island location and available food sources; he also notes that
these variations assist the finches in survival (i.e. different beak shape to forage a specific food,
stronger beaks) (p. 136). The concept that grew from Darwin's initial findings was the concept of
natural selection. Natural selection is defined as the natural process in which those that are better
adapted to their environment
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Twin Early Development Study: Nature versus Nurture
Since people began to wonder about our history and making, there has been the question of why.
Why do people do the things they do? Are these traits inherited by a person's ancestors, or are they
simply following what they observe? To begin, you must give credit to the two philosophers who
initially sparked different opinions about these two ideas. Aristotle theorized, that humans are born
into the world with a blank slate and their behavior and thoughts are due solely to experience
(Ashcraft, 1998). That theory would suggest that humans learn their phobias, sexuality, gender
association, and all other traits through the world that surrounds them. Plato, thought quite the
opposite. He believed that believed that behaviors and knowledge were due to inborn factors.
Although the view of Plato are heavily opposed today, there must be some connection in the way we
as humans turn out. There is so much that is unknown that we come "prewired" with at birth. Who's
to say that a person is not born with a predisposition of their sexual preference, or in more recent
years, the role of gender? I believe that both nature and nurture are responsible for the way one
matures. You cannot overlook the fact that some people carry the traits of their ancestors, or the fact
that in many situations, people are victims of circumstance. I think the more important question is
which side has a larger role in the way people turn out. When assessing the character roles that
nurture creates, you must
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Examining Genetic Influence On Intelligence
Identical twin studies are most useful in determining genetic influence on intelligence. Since the
identical twins share the same exact genes, the straightforward comparison of intelligence can
display if this human trait is truly heritable. Similarity of intelligence scores between identical twins
supports the genetic influence on intelligence. According to Myers (2007),
Across studies of 10,000 twins, the intelligence test scores of identical twins reared together are
virtually as similar as those of the same person taking the same test twice...Likewise, the test scores
of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead twin researcher Thomas Bouchard
(1996) to estimate that 'about 70 percent' of intelligence score variation 'can be attributed to genetic
variation. (p. 455) As stated by Myers (2007), in the above quote, adopted twins studies also play a
role in determining levels of intelligence and its heritability. However, like in all other psychological
testing, correlation does not always mean causation and atypical findings may find their way into the
data poll. It must also be noted that in order to successfully foster an identical twin study, all the
twins should be adopted. This provides for a better chance for the twins to grow up in a different
environment from their biological parents. If this is not the cases, how can professionals determine
that environmental influences are not the cause of the intellectual levels? In addition, if separated,
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Twin Family Studies
Researchers that have investigated social phobia has also suggested that family factors may be
responsible for social phobia, but in a biological way. Twin and family studies on social phobia has
suggested that genetic factors play an important role in the development of social phobia at any
stage of a human life. As twin studies are designed to specifically differentiate the two twin's
behaviour. Comparisons between twins has resulted in the conclusion that there is a concordance
rate between twins and that genetic factors plays a limited role in the chances of developing social
phobia. An example of a twin study (Kendler et al. 1992) constructed using only female participants
produced a set of statistical data for the concordance rate between ... Show more content on
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However, Daniels & Plomin (1985) investigated infant shyness, although the shyness of infants do
not directly suggest that the infants suffer from social phobia as they cannot verbally express
anything, it is only fair to argue that since infants rarely interact with any outside factors because of
their weak immune systems they are the least influenced by environmental factors and therefore
should provide the more reliable results than individuals at other ages. The results of the research
showed that infant shyness was found to be significantly correlated with shyness in biological
mothers but was not as correlated with shyness in adopted mothers. Other twin studies such as Rose
and Ditto (1983) also submitted evidence of the concurrence rate in fear between monozygotic and
dizygotic twins during adolescence. The results suggested that the concurrence rate of fear was
higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins, also the researchers revealed that a twin's
fearfulness could be predicted from the cotwin's
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Twin Cancer Studies
Cancer has been around for longer than people expect, with the first documented case dating back to
1500 bc. Because of the complexity of tumors, the origin of the disease was unknown until the late
19th century and the search for treatment or a cure came even later. The 20th century saw the
greatest progression of cancer research, with twins being crucial to such studies. Twin studies were
used as an important method in the field of cancer study.
Scientists and researchers did not pay particular attention to twins and zygosity before the 20th
century. One of the earliest and the simplest of assessments was based on the question, "Were you as
children as alike as two peas in a pod?" When both twins answered affirmatively, they were defined
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By comparing multiple types of cancer, not just lung cancer, results of over 14 studies indicated that
zygosity of twins play a minimal role in the causation of most types of cancer (3). This further
indicates that if zygosity, that is, the percentage of DNA shared between two people does not affect
the development of cancer, than the genetic makeup of humans does not affect the development of
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Nature Vs Nurture Debate
How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia?
INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal
with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities.
Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis
generally refers to a genetic vulnerability, which is known as the first hit, triggered by something in
the environment, which is known as the second hit The first hit is proposed to involve disruption of
some sort of brain mechanism that is susceptible to numerous genetic and environmental agitations,
and capable of producing long–term significant changes. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Procedure: The procedure was a case study, and the researcher interviewed two brothers, which are
both diagnosed with the mental disorder, schizophrenia. While being interviewed, they spoke about
their past experiences during their childhood, and how their mother had the carrier gene, which one
twin inherited. Conclusions / Results: Conclusions suggest that the nature vs nurture dichotomy may
not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces. It was discovered that
while one's genetic heritage creates a predisposition towards schizophrenia, other factors such as the
home environment, the parental environment, dietary factors and others may determine whether the
disease is manifested. Source 2: Schizophrenia as a complex trait Sullivan, P.F, Kendler, K.S, &
Neale, M.C. (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60, 1187–1192. Aim: To
calculate meta–analytic estimates of heritability in liability and shared an individual – specific
environmental effects from the pooled twin data. Procedure: To identify all relevant primary studies,
computerized PubMed searches for an inclusive list of descriptors were performed and searched the
reference lists of prior reviews of schizophrenia to identify any reports not retrieved in the PubMed
search. 14 published studies were identified of schizophrenia from independent samples in 6
European countries, Japan and
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Developing A Unique Personality Is A Process By...
Developing a unique personality is a process by temperament, environment, and character. Some
characteristics are already pre–determined by genetics. On the other hand, some characteristics are
the result of how a child is brought up in his or her environment. Finally, the third aspect is
character. Character is how a child thinks and grows morally. The forming of personality has long
been a main argument of the nature versus nurture debate. Multiple of today's psychologists and
sociologists have said that neither nature or nurture can be the sole answer of how a person is the
way they are. It is the balance between nature and nurture.
According to psychologist Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, there are eight main
stages a person will go through in developing their unique personality. Five of these happen through
childhood while the other three happen later on in adulthood. His study has both nature and nurture
qualities. The psychosocial development is a good basis for how an average personality will
develop. These eight stages were put in to place to see how a child will react and respond to their
developing needs. An article from simplypsychology.org on Erik Erikson says, "According to the
theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of
basic virtues."(McLeod). If a child does not properly succeed through a stage it will make it harder
for them to go through the next stages.
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Personality Is Developed From Genes ( Nature ) Or...
This paper explores the notion on whether a person's personality is developed from genes (nature) or
influenced by environment (nurture). Personality is something every human has and is an essential
element in their social world. This research is important to know if, how, and why personalities
change. Different scholarly–based material was used to support either stance on the issue. The
articles and research helped to decipher the roles of parents, genes, biology, the environment,
experiences, and culture in a person's personality. Personality theories were inputted to come to a
conclusion on the subject of interest that is derived from actions, emotions, and attitudes. Many
contemporary psychologists have distinguished five clusters of personality traits called the Big Five.
The results of the research from the paper identify the answer to the question about personality. The
conclusion recognized that everybody has a different personality developed by different components
that includes both inherited traits and learned traits. Plus, how those traits modify personalities. The
Origin of Personality: Nature or Nurture?
Personality is debated over what factors influence and shape it the most. Is it a person's nature
including genes and temperament or nurture with the environment and culture? Do they both have
an effect in the development of a personality? The main purpose of this research paper will address
these questions and examine how these factors impact personalities.
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Nature Vs. Nurture Essay
Violence take multiple forms, many of which are covered in the nightly news. Murder, rape, familial
abuse, bullying, workplace hostility, armed robbery–all of these are societal problems with far–
reaching repercussions. There have long debates and discussions regarding whether nature or
nurture influences individual violent behavior. People are concerned about what makes an individual
to engage in violent behavior such murder or burglary among other types of crimes. They are also
concerned about what makes people stop such behavior. However, there is no precise conception
whether nature, nurture or both influence violence. Some people assume that, violent behavior
results from individual's life experiences or upbringing also known as nurture. Others feel that
violent behavior is more complex and results from individual's genetic character or nature. In other
words, it is not clear whether violent behavior is inborn or occurs at some point in persons' lives, but
even it's hard, emphasizing one and ignoring other influences is always an unwise way to go.
"Trying to separate out nature and nurture as explanations for behavior, as in classic genetic studies
of twins and families, is now said to be both impossible and unproductive" (Levitt, 1). Social
scientists have declared the nature–nurture debate to be unnecessary. Similarly, scientists feel that
such debate is not only unhelpful, but also outdated. From geneticists' perspective, nurture and
nature interact to influence
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Arthur Shawcross Killer
People move all the time. Whether the relocation is due to personal or professional reasons, most
often is it to start a new, and better, life. The community doesn't usually know that new members are
present and they go about their daily lives. In April of 1987, Rochester, NY gained two new
members of the community and they were none the wiser until women, mainly prostitutes, began to
disappear and then would turn up murdered starting in early 1988. Arthur Shawcross, relocated to
Rochester after being paroled and having his criminal record sealed, was given the ability to start a
new life, but he returned to his old habits of mutilation and murder by killing 11 women over two
years. There are numerous categories and classifications of ... Show more content on
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First attributed to Aristotle was the concept of the tabula rasa, or blank slate. He believed that a
person was born pure and their interactions with the world shaped their persona. From the moment
we are born, we observe the world around us and, for good or bad, retain bits and pieces that
collectively make up our personalities. In the video Inside the Killer's Mind, neurologist Dr.
Jonathan Pincus posited that brain damage coupled with a history of abuse could result in aggressive
behavior. "The violent ones were all neurologically impaired on examination." He discussed a cyst
found on Shawcross' MRI in the temporal lobe that by itself wouldn't necessarily be significant, but
coupled with an EEG spike in the same area it indicated an abnormality. Also in the film, Dr.
Dorothy Lewis stated that in her exams of violent children she "found that these kids had more
accidents, injuries, illnesses and hospitalizations than other kids." I believe that brain injuries and
abnormalities could account for elements of personality that are attributed to empathy, inhibition and
moral concepts; characteristics sometimes lacking or poorly displayed in those with criminal
behaviors.
Shawcross had other physical conditions noted in the textbook: he had kryptopyrroluria, was
hospitalized for an inflammation of the brain and had
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Twin Studies: How Twins And Their Differences
It is true that twins are the same, but they still have their differences. Like Brenda and Bonnie were
both different. They may have looked alike and wore the same clothes,but they were not really
twins. Bonnie changed genders and became a male and Brenda and Bonnie were no longer sisters
they were brother and sister because Bonnie became trans genders and turned into a guy and at first
Brenda was not too thrilled to hear that her sister became a man. So nurture was the reason that
Bonnie became a male. My personality has changed a little bit since I was little, but I am still the
same person that I was when I was little. My personality type is an ENFP so I am 22% Extravert,
9% intuitive, 41% feeling, and 44% perceiving, and it has been proven that you only change a little
bit as you grow up. That is why Nurture plays a bigger role in our life. It is the ... Show more
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With the conclusion of the twin studies, I know that nurture has a lot to do with their personalities.
The genes we get from our parents tell us whether we are optimistic or pessimistic. It is rare for
twins to weight the same even at birth but heavier twins seem to dominate the lighter one.It is not
likily for twins to act differently do to illness.Twins have the exact same DNA. When you take two
of the same twins and break them apart one will act like the parents and the other will act the same
as it had before they were separated from each other. Have you ever thought about how you got your
personality? Was it from your parents or was it from how you were raised? The nature versus
nurture debate is always happening around us. Some believe it's nature and some believe it's nurture.
Identical twins are different in many ways, and this is because of nurture. Nurture is from how you
were raised by your parents. Nature is from how you were born. Have you ever wondered why you
do the things you do? it might have been from your parents and how the raised
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Is Nuture Nature Or Nurture
"IS INTELLIGENCE NATURE OR NURTURE?" Now days, people are still debating whether
intelligence is determined by nature or nurture. "Nature versus nurture" is a phrase used widely to
express the long–standing scientific debate about whether we are mainly "made" by our genes or
whether influences from the environment are more important in our construction (Englbrecht n.d.).
Nature refers to inheritance or genetic. If intelligence is determined by nature, it means that the
intelligence is caused by some traits in human that is affected by parents' genes. Meanwhile, nurture
stands for environmental and social influence for example experience, culture or community. So, if
someone believes that intelligence is affected more by nurture, it means that ... Show more content
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Human's intelligence is being shaped, challenged, and expressed every day by experiences by
people, objects, and events – especially when someone's an active participant. Those experiences are
the raw ingredients of intelligence (Ramey and Ramey n.d.) which can develop various skills such
as creativity skill, musical skill, socializing skill, and other skills that isn't require measurement in
IQ because as we know, intelligence isn't always about how high the number you get based on the
test, but can be also other intelligence (multiple intelligence theory). Nurture shows how someone's
intelligence isn't just about IQ but also other skills. Nurture also states that intelligence is also
caused by the way you're raised and your childhood days. For example, nature says that twins will
be likely have similar IQ, but how about if it's affected by nurture, one of the twins is going to
school while the other one isn't. The result of their IQ will be different. The one who is going to
school definitely has a higher IQ that the one who isn't. Therefore, it shows that schools (and how
you're raised) as nurture representative also have influence on intelligence. And also, the difference
of IQ level between the Blacks and Whites is not merely affected by the difference of their genes,
but also environmental factors. Blacks hardly go to school and mostly work as slaves. So, how can
someone who doesn't go to school have higher IQ than
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What Is The Stranger In The Nest Essay
What is that makes us who really we are ? There is no doubt that identity defines who we are. All
over the world, all scientist and people want to understand that things affect our identity. There are
two main reasons that affect us. These are our family and friends (nurture) and our genetics (nature).
However some people think that there is another more complicated answer. People think about this
situation because they wonder why their children become strangers. David Cohen who is a
psychologist and also writer of 'Stranger in the Nest' he claims genetics (nature) is the most effective
impact in our identity. I agree with Cohen about genetics have big influence on identity and for
making children strangers to their families because of the evidence in the twin studies. In the
Stranger in the Nest, David Cohen says that genetic factors have the most important role on why
children become strangers to their families. He explains genetics factors' importance and tries to
confute parental effect. He shows a study about why genetics have most important affect. For
instance, he thinks that most mental illness is not caused by parental impacts or abusive ... Show
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Cohen uses nurture side reasons in his article Stranger in the Nest and he tries to confuse them.
Supporters of nurture side claim that ''Most mental illness is caused by dysfunctional parenting or by
stressful social conditions'' (Cohen 3). According to Twins studies, when one identical twin is
diagnosed with autism, we can find there is about a 70 percent chance the other will be too. If we
seriously research genetic factor's effect on our identity, also we can find the same answer. It means
many of our habits come from our family genetics. At the end of the this research, it helps to
understand why our children become stranger to their family, answer of this question is that genetics
factors have a big responsibility on our
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Nature Vs. Nurture : Addiction
Nature vs. Nurture: Addiction Introduction Psychology is a developing science which studies the
mental functions, processes, and behaviors of an individual. In the science of psychology, many
debates arise; nature vs. nurture is one of the most popular ones. These psychological debates are
followed by research, backing up either nature or nurture or both. Nature suggest heredity impacts
human psychological development; nurture suggests the environment impacts our psychological
development. Addiction plays a large role in nature vs. nurture. Addiction is defined as a person
being attached to a certain activity or item; an addict is one who has a dependency on particular
substances or activity. There are many debates on whether addiction is caused by genes or the
environment. Many researchers believe if they had the answer of addiction being a genetic condition
or an environmental factor, they would be able to resolve the problem of addicts, or so they believe.
Nature Aspect on Addiction Addiction has been proven to be in the genes of humans. "Addiction is a
notorious treatment–resistant psychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment of self–
monitoring, loss of interest in other targets of pleasure, and uncorrectable impulsive/compulsive
drug–seeking behaviors"(Todo, 2012,para.1).
Susan Ferguson stated that the basal ganglia system and the striatum are thought to create positive
and negative
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Essay On NASA Twin Study
NASA Using Analytic to Analyze its Twin Study
The recent NASA Twin Study could be categorized as your typically Nature vs. Nurture studies that
observe twins in different environments to determine which one the two factors supersede the
other...genetics or environment (Powell, 2015)? The Nature vs. Nurture debate has been traced back
to 13th Century France. The answer to this historical debate has yet to be discovered; nevertheless,
most scientists can agree that both of these factors do a play a part in growth–even though that
specific part is unidentified (Powell, 2015).
In NASA's twin study, the two chosen environments to separate the twins were earth and space. Yes,
outer space! That once unreachable environment before July 20, 1969, when Astronaut Neil Alden
Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon (Williams, 2005). Since 1969 and with the
advancement of technologies, NASA continues to study space to understand its mystery
characteristics because society is even more fascinated about the world beyond its reached. I believe
that some people are even more intrigued about the idea of inhabiting and/or traveling in/to space in
the future; however, before ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Mark and Scott Kelly are the twins who volunteered to partake in this study. Scott Kelly (an active–
duty astronaut) is the twin who will be spending one–year in space, while Mark Kelly (a retired
astronaut) will remain on earth (Brief, 2015). After their one–year separation, the twin subjects will
have their DNA collected and physical attributes recorded. Even after the one–year experimentation,
Scientist will continue to observe physical changes and examine samples from the twins'
biogenetics. This experiment is continuous because researchers are also analyzing if the spaceflight
affected Scott's aging process. The twin's samples will continuously be tested until the findings are
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Nature And Nurture
Mental illness has been a mystery seemingly unsolvable for thousands of years. Mental illness only
became known as new brain imaging technologies were invented in the 20th century. In the present
day depression and anxiety are commonplace, and they run rampant in our schools as adolescents
face the challenges of becoming adults, working men and women put a smile on for innocent
children while they internally panic at the thought of this week's deadline, and the rich and famous
can often be seen turning to drugs and alcohol only for the report to come out a week later, they
have depression and anxiety, no one is surprised. We know what these illnesses do furthermore we
know how to treat them but no answer has been put forward or accepted ... Show more content on
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The rats which were depressed were lethargic and lacked survival instincts when tested however
with therapy in the form of a rat sized playground they began to show signs of recovery within a
month despite their genes. This experiment was also reversed to try to cause depression and was
successful "the stressed control rats displayed depressed behaviors when placed in a tank of water.
They simply floated– despair behavior– and didn't try to escape"(3). The science is improving
nevertheless humans are complex creatures and hard to study; the experiments conducted on rats
cannot be replicated in humans therefore the research has to take a path of observation and
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Essay on Nature vs Nurture: Twin Studies and Adoption
The nature– nurture debate has many different case studies, which often questions environmental
and hereditary aspects of the nature– nurture debate. A tangent which is focused on in this essay is
how the case studies of schizophrenia and IQ, specifically affect twin and adoption studies. This
essay will firstly, give a brief outline of the nature–nurture debate and the definitions of twin and
adoption studies. Secondly, it will illustrate two main case studies, which are IQ and Schizophrenia
studies. Thirdly, will contrast and compare the two and research's impact on the case studies in
regards to nature vs. nurture and finally, will conclude with the impact of the nature–nurture debate
and twin and adoption studies. "The term "nature ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Extending on from these, factors in each layer are influenced by elements within and outside of their
layers. For example what a child is exposed to as a result of his/her parent's beliefs. (Social Issues
Referencing, 2007) Due to these factors, the nature– nurture theory has impacted and influenced
many studies, one of these being the twin and adoption case. Twins, share a bond that no parent,
child or sibling relationship can ever compare. There are two main types of twins, and these include:
monozygotic (identical) twins and dizygotic (fraternal) twins, and they are compared by their
emotional, behavioural, and cognitive similarities. (Robert Plomin, 1997). According to Social
Issues Referencing, 2007, whereas Identical twins are formed from a single (mono) zygote and are
genetic "carbon copies", fraternal twins develop from two (di) separate zygotes, as a result of two
eggs being fertilized by two sperms independently. (Social Issues Referencing, 2007, para. 8)
Ultimately adoption is "the legal process which permanently transfers all the legal rights and
responsibilities of being a parent from the child's birth parents to the adoptive parents", (Human
Services, Community Services, 2009 p. 1) so parents who are not related to the child in any form are
adopting the child. In a sense, Twin studies relates to nature, as
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A Population-Based Twin Study of Alcoholism in Women
Describe the purpose and at least four major points of the article. The purpose of the article was to
see whether or not alcoholism in women is genetic–based. Researchers were interested in seeing the
extent to which alcoholism in females may be environmentally or genetically induced. Only one
study, and that different to this, has been produced on the matter. Psychiatric structured interviews
were held on a sample of 1030 female–female pairs extracted from the famous population–based
Virginia Twin Registry. All were zygotic (i.e. Identical), and the interviews were conducted by
researchers who were blinded to the status of the twin. Criteria of alcoholism were taken from the
DSM (III). These were: (a) alcoholism with tolerance or dependence, (b) alcoholism with/ without
tolerance or dependence and (c) alcoholism with/ without tolerance or dependence or problem
drinking. Researchers found that propensity for alcoholism was far greater in monozygotic (i.e.
fraternal) than in dizygotic (i.e. identical twins), with the heritability of alcoholism in women being
as high as 50% to 60%. Researchers, therefore, concluded that genetic factors seem to play a
significant role in the etiology of alcoholism in females. 2. Discuss the generalizability and validity
of the study. For example, will findings of this study generalize to other people and/or situations,
can we generalize from the study participants to the general population, and do the methods
employed have validity?
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Benefits And Dilemmas Of Human Twin Studies
Name: Alimotu Tomiwa Sodiq
Write an essay evaluating the benefits and dilemmas in the use of human twin studies to investigate
the causes of variation.
Twin studies are a mainstay of the nature verse nurture debate because they allow researchers to
conduct "natural experiments" on human beings. When researchers try to determine the relative
importance of genetics and environment with regard to a certain condition, they have a hard time
because they cannot generally get people with the same genes. This is where twin studies come in.
Twins studies are part of the method used in behaviour genetics, which includes all data that are
genetically informative. E.g. siblings, adoptees, pedigree data etc. Researchers use this method to
estimate the heritability of traits and to quantify the effect of a person 's shared environment (family)
and unique environment (the individual events that shape a life) on a trait.
Basically, we have two types of twins.
1) Monozygotic twins: Monozygotic twins are also known as identical twins. These twins start their
life as one egg which is fertilized by one sperm and latter splits into two eggs much earlier in the
gestational period. These are very rare and have no link to heredity. But studies reveal that only one
of four conceptions of twins is identical. Therefore, it seems likely that any differences between
twins will have to be caused by environment rather than by genetics.
2) Dizygotic twins: Dizygotic twins are also known as fraternal
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The Genetics And Environment On The Intelligenece Through...
Navdeep Kalia
General Psychology (064)
03/01/2015
Assesment of The Genetics and Environment on the Intelligenece Through Twin Studies
The primary source scientific experiment to be analyzed for this paper is the "A Twin Study into the
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in nine–year–old Boys
and Girls" (Haworth, Claire M.A., Philip Dale, and Robert Plomin. "A Twin Study into the Genetic
and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in Nine–Year–Old Boys and
Girls." International journal of science education 30.8 (2008): 1003. PMC. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.).
There are many different variables one can look at in order to answer the question of how identical
are the identical twins. In this study intelligence is selected as a variable to be analyzed. The study
explores the impact of environment, genetics and sex on intelligence. What influences intelligence
has been studied as part of health and development for a long period of time? This study provides
with data on genetic factor and environment effect on development. Also it will help us understand
how identical twins can or cannot be different regardless of their similar genetic makeup.
With the introduction of the theory of evolution came the debate of nature vs nurture or genes vs
environment. According to theory of evolution, organisms adapt to the changes in their environment.
Indicating that the environment causes genetic changes ultimately changes in phenotype
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Life Span Perspective Paper
Life Spain Perspective Paper
Teresa Haumschild
PSY/375
August 12, 2013
Kay Rubin, MA
Life Spain Perspective Paper
When it comes to life span development you have to understand what it is and where it comes from
or even how it got its name. As it was said by Boyd and Bee that life span development is the name
that psychologists have given to the physical and cognitive changes that occur throughout a person's
life (Boyd & Bee, 2009). So I will be first explaining the life span of development, along with
summarizing two different theories of life span development, and then the last one is just explaining
how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual difference in the development.
So what is life span ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Then take both theories but Piaget and Fred they both seem to play a role of nature and nurture in
the development stage too.
Hereditary along with environment is a personality development that is a heated debated in the area
for several of years. So when it comes to nature versus nurture the personal experience that a person
goes through is basically determining what is causing the individual the differences in their physical
and behavioral traits as well. Then the frequent personality that is of the heritable trait that has been
researched just in twins along with adoptions as well. Then for a bit of a twist when identical twins
were studied they found out that they were far more similar when it came to their personalities and
then when they looked at just random people that were just selected in pairs of two.
So in conclusion the life span of development is simply psychological studies that form the very
conception of the theory which is until the death of humans. It also has an insight of the relationship
development as well that can be seen with in different stages of one's development along with the
five characteristics stages too. Even though Piaget and Freud did have very different theories on the
different
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Nature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture
As mentioned briefly in my self–introduction post, the nature–nurture portion of our textbook is the
one part of this course I stated I looked forward to the most. I have always found myself engaged in
a constant internal battle regarding nature versus nurture. Adding to this internal battle is the fact
that I am married to an identical twin...a twin who drastically differs from his brother in several
ways. These differences between my husband and his twin have resulted in my questioning if the
gene + environment additive or the gene + environment interaction was at play. Thus, I find myself
stuck in the middle of this often–heated debate, going back and forth between both nature and
nurture. I firmly believe that both nature AND nurture play a significant role in development. While
reading Chapter 3 last week and mulling over twin studies, trying to decide whether these studies
support g + e or g x e was more difficult than I anticipated. My first instinct was to state that these
studies support both and although I do believe that is true, I will attempt to lean towards one more
than the other for the purpose of not only contributing to this discussion but also for the purpose of
hopefully gaining a deeper understanding. In my opinion, twin studies better support the interaction
of genetics and environment. Heredity, to me, is like the musical blueprint of a song, while
experiences such as love, heartbreak, fear, etc...provide a solid foundation from which lyrics
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Nature vs Nurture: Do Genes Or Environment Matter More? Essay
Nature versus nurture has emerged as one of the most heated debates in the 21st century. It is more
aligned towards the internal and external factors that comprise human beings behavior. The internal
factors are innate and perceived to be genetically revolved as opposed to the external factors that are
influenced by the environment and individuals' experiences. However, scholars in different fields
have researched on the relationship between nature and nurture without due success and this has
created gaps for further research on this topic. This context will review academic sources to
scrutinize their bone of contention on this matter as well as criticize them for their shortcomings in
addressing this topic. In Bryner Jeanna (2006) in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Talent for instance in athletics, has a major bearing in genes but the environment plays an important
role in promoting or discouraging it. It was found that, some people have genes that facilitate muscle
contraction in motion (Bryner). The same was observed for risk predisposing factors for diseases.
Genes expose individuals to higher risks of contracting some disease. A good example of such
diseases is Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion and with respect to Bryner's (2006) article, talents,
addiction and diseases among others do not entirely depend on genes rather on the environment. It is
thus sufficient to assert that environmental factors enhance genes influence on behavior and
diseases. In Andrew (1998) in "Nature vs nurture: Are leaders born or made? A behavior genetic
investigation of leadership style" a publication by the Australian Academic Press, leadership is
inherited. Their focus was based on trait theories to explain leadership. A look at the personality of
individuals and relying on the premise posed in this context, personality traits are correlated with
leadership. The author is quick to mention that, there is no sufficient modern research in this field.
Through the use MQL which is an abbreviation of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as well as
self–report psychometric inventories, it was found out that transformational leadership was due to
genetic influence (Andrew 219). In
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Nature Vs Nurture : Is The Nature Or Nurture?
AoS 3: Student Directed Research Investigation Unit 1 Psychology – Megan Rodrigues
RESEARCH QUESTION How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the
mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or
experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased
participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes
also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refers to a genetic vulnerability, which is known as
the first hit, triggered by something in the environment, which is known as the second hit The first
hit is proposed to involve disruption of some sort of brain mechanism that is susceptible to ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Aim: The aim of this experiment was to explore the synergistic effects of heritability and
environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Procedure: The procedure was a case
study, and the researcher interviewed two brothers, which are both diagnosed with the mental
disorder, schizophrenia. While being interviewed, they spoke about their past experiences during
their childhood, and how their mother had the carrier gene, which one twin inherited. Conclusions /
Results: Conclusions suggest that the nature vs nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking
at the interaction between these two forces. It was discovered that while one's genetic heritage
creates a predisposition towards schizophrenia, other factors such as the home environment, the
parental environment, dietary factors and others may determine whether the disease is manifested.
Source 2: Schizophrenia as a complex trait Sullivan, P.F, Kendler, K.S, & Neale, M.C. (2003)
Schizophrenia as a complex trait. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60, 1187–1192. Aim: To calculate meta–
analytic estimates of heritability in liability and shared an individual – specific environmental effects
from the pooled twin data. Procedure: To identify all relevant primary studies, computerized
PubMed searches for an inclusive list of descriptors were performed and searched the reference lists
of prior reviews of schizophrenia to identify any reports not retrieved in the PubMed search. 14
published
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Teasing Nature Vs Nurture : The Case Of Autism
Homework 1
Teasing nature versus nurture effects:
The case of Autism
Autism, what is autism? What are the causes and if its nature or nurture based? I am here to shed
light on Autism. According to Autismspeaks.org, "Autism is known as a complex disorder of brain
development. These disorders are characterized into different degrees by difficulties in social
interaction, verbal and non–verbal communication and repetitive behaviors". Autism appears to
emerge with in 2 to 3 years of age. According to klass, "Recent research has taught us more about
the complexity of the genetics of autism, but the evidence also has suggested an important role for
environmental exposures. It has become a very complicated picture: Genes matter, but we usually
can't tell how. Environmental exposures matter, but we usually don't know which" (Klass 2011).
This means causes of autism could be nature base or nurture base. What is nature base vs nurture
base? The answer to this question is autism could be nature base because of his/her heretics and
genetics, means born with autism or autism runs in the family like slow growth of motor skill in
individual or abnormal size of brain. Nurture base is environmental means how life can alter the
individual expressions like inability to recognize social cues or interest in people. "The causal links
most strongly supported by research include rubella infection during pregnancy and prenatal
exposure to medications like thalidomide and Valproic acid, an
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What Is Nature Or Nurture Debate
The notion of the nature nurture debate is an ongoing argument that deliberates the views of
development and their influences. This debate questions whether genetics or the environment
surrounding a child has greater influence on their development. It is necessary to highlight a variety
of current and popular opinions in regard to the debate to determine whether the concept of nature or
nurture has a greater impact in child development.
The reasoning for individual's unique characteristics is derived from the nature versus nurture
debate. Throughout the development of a child, a variety of characteristics such as weight, height,
personality, skills and interests will develop. The concept of nature is referring to the combination of
inherited genes from a child's parents which are believed to influence a child's interests and abilities.
An example of how genetics influence development for a child academically includes, where
parents of a child are excelled in subject of mathematics, the child is believed to also be skilled in
the same ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The nature nurture debate through research is now viewed as a collaborative relationship between an
individual's genes and environment through the process of development. This perception reveals
gaps between perception and research to a certain extent as many people believe that development is
a solely the responsibility of nature or nurture and not a combination. In regard to the relationship
between nature and nurture, "the environment is very similar for many individuals, and that the
genes, in effect, rely on the existence of that environment for their expressions" (Slee & Shute,
2015). This therefore stresses the idea that in order for an individual to thrive during development,
their surrounding environment must be
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Nature Vs. Nurture In Epigenetic Research
The "new genetics" research in molecular biology, as this month's invited Presidential Column by
Frances Champagne illustrates, has important implications for psychological science (so important,
in fact, that it will be the topic for the Presidential Symposium at our upcoming annual APS
convention this May in San Francisco). Professor Champagne's analysis shows how recent findings
in epigenetics speak to basic and enduring questions not just within psychology, but in virtually all
discussions about human character and individual differences, from philosophical symposia to
dinner conversations. How much is nature? How much is nurture? Champagne takes us elegantly
and at high speed from that old question toward a new understanding of the "gene ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The classic approach to calculating heritability involves the comparison of the stability of a trait in
monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, with an increase in MZ concordance in contrast to DZ
twins indicating increased heritability. But our new appreciation of the science of epigenetics has
something very important to offer the interpretation of similarity or differences in MZ and DZ twins.
Recent evidence suggests that some aspects of the epigenetic characteristics of a cell are heritable.
In our library analogy, we can think of an inheritance of the rows upon rows of books, but also of
the shelves, furniture, and meticulous ordering of those books that leave some volumes readily
accessible and others hidden in obscurity. Our MZ twins share the same library, whereas our DZ
twins may have different libraries, containing a few different books but also potentially having a
completely different architecture. Importantly, the shelves, furniture, and layout of a library can be
changed dynamically. Despite having the same books, a library can undergo very dramatic changes.
At a molecular level, those changes to the "epigenetic" characteristics of a cell can be induced by the
environment and
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Summary: The Minnesota Study Of Twins Reared Apart
In the summary and selected experts from "Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The
Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart" (Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal and Tellegen) there
were various research methods used in the study. The study focused on whether nature or nurture
had an affect on twins behavior. To start, I believe this study was a cross–selection research where
analyzation takes place at a single point in time rather than longitudinal research where research is
collected over time.The reason for this is because it would be extremely difficult and time
consuming to keep a close eye on over 200 children throughout their lifetime. This would also cause
in affect if the study method would have been just plain observation
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Nature Vs. Nurture : An Individual 's Criminal Behavior Essay
The objective of this study is to examine whether it is nature or nurture who plays the most vital role
in a human's behavior, specifically an individual's criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is defined as
an act or failure to act in a way that violates public law. Some believe that criminal behavior can be
identified as early as conception, meaning that criminal behavior is because of your genes. While
others believe that one's upbringing and social learning environment directly contributes to the
individual's criminal behavior. This paper will provide the history on the ongoing debate of nature
vs. nurture and answer the question of whether it is
Review of the Literature This controversial debate has existed since 1869, when the phrase "Nature
Versus Nurture" was coined by the English polymath, Francis Galton. Nature refers to what we are
born with and includes our biology, genetics, and similar characteristics. In contrast, nurture refers
to what is learned, through our cultural community and other individuals. For anthropologists, this
debate often centers on the influences of nature and nurture in different cultural elements. Both
nature and nurture influences affect the human beings and their culture. The book On the Origin of
Species written by Charles Darwin had a significant impact on Francis Galton. In Galton's two
publication, Hereditary Genius (1869) and English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture
(1874), he explored the world of inheritance and
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Adoption : Nature Vs Nurture
Eric Fraley 4th hour English 3 Mrs. Laluzerne Jan, 12, 2016 Adoption Nature vs Nurture What
makes someone an unique individual? Centuries of ancestors, genetics, evolution and heredity, or is
what makes someone who they are based simply on how they were raised and what sort of
environment they were raised in? The idea of Nature vs Nurture was created in 1869 in a book
called Hereditary Genius by Francis Galton. In his book, he explains his findings on his exploration
of the inheritance and evolution of human traits. The issue and debate of and over Nature vs Nurture
has been prevalent to this day. It has also been a extremely prevalent in the social debate of
Adoption. The basis for nature vs nurture is the idea that people are affected either more by nature,
which would be an individual 's genetic makeup and heredity, or by nurture, how an individual is
raised and the environment in which they grew up. Both sides of the argument are strongly backed
and supported with facts and research. There is no "One or the other", both nature and nurture are
what makes human beings who they are, but the question is not which. It is which of the two effects
who an individual is the most?.... Nature is what we are born with. Every person is born preset with
different/unique natural abilities and capabilities because of their DNA, adopted or not. Nature plays
a bigger role than Nurture when it comes to what makes an individual unique . Weather it seems
unbelievable or not,
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Nature Vs. Nurture Essay
Nature vs. Nurture Essay Throughout many years, scientists have been debating about whether
nature or nurture is the driving force that shapes a person's cognitive abilities and personal traits.
Before the ongoing debate can be explained, it is necessary to understand what nature and nurture
actually are. Nature is loosely defined as the genetics one inherits and tendencies that influence
development. Many things in an individual are hereditary, for instance; gender, disease, height, eye
color, natural talent for an activity, and many more. Nurture can be defined as various environmental
factors that a person is exposed to, which can influence how a person develops. Nurture affects an
individual's growth through multiple ways such as: stressors, activities, intellect and experiences,
physically, emotionally, and socially through peers. Progressively, many are realizing that asking to
what extent environment or genetics influence a person's traits is not necessarily the correct way to
approach the debate. In all actuality there is not an easy way to sort through the multiple forces that
exist in these situations. However, numerous researchers are now looking at how the two factors
intertwine and influence one another because only one of them could not simply exist alone without
the other very well. Nature and nurture coexist and work together to help shape a person, whether
that is from the two working equally or one being slightly more predominant over the other,
however
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Nature Vs. Nurture Case Study
In this case there are many factors that one would classify as nature and others as nurture. For
instance, one of the twins believed they were the same person because they had similar personalities
and had the same taste in music In this case she believed that hereditary and genes had played a role.
Yet they felt they were different. In an article by NPR titled, 'Identical Strangers' Explore Nature vs
Nurture,Bernstein(a twin) states "It's not just our taste in music or books; it goes beyond that. In her,
I see the same basic personality. And yet, eventually we had to realize that we're different people
with different life histories." They were each a different person despite being twins. Both believed in
different values and were presently at a different point in their lives. The way they were raised were
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
As the textbook states(pg53) "How do scientists explain the impact of hereditary and environment
when they seem to work in so many different ways?" The researchers who had conducted this
research on the twins were curious on how these twins were alike and different,how much the nature
vs.nurture role had played in them since they had been adopted by different families. The
researchers in this project really believed that raising twins together interfered in their development
in independence. Lawrence Perlman, a researcher assistant who participated in this research states
the Viola Bernard(psychiatrist) believed, "That twins were often dressed the same and treated
exactly the same, she felt, interfered with their independent psychological development." This
project showed us that there was NO yes or no answer when it came to nature vs nurture. It also
illustrated to us that there was environmental factors that contributed to who they were today but yet
there was also hereditary role playing in this which was hard to conclude which factor played a
bigger role.This topic is
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Nature And Nurture On Child Development: Chapter Analysis
The overall focus of Chapter 2 is the effect of the relationship between nature and nurture, on a
child's development. The three main important ideas of this chapter to me, a mother of young
children, are the early perspectives that one factor, either nature or nurture has on development, the
importance of context in a child's development and finally the interaction among nature and nurture
and its effects on development. The early perspectives on development was that it is only affected
by on factor, either nature or nurture. The first perspective of the scientific and philosophical
community, was that development is only impacted by nature. Nature includes everything that the
child is born with, especially their set of genes. Genes are segments ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
This is explained by taking an ecological perspective on development, which takes into account the
environment's impacts. An important contributor to this perspective was Bronfenbrenner who sets
up an outline to organize the environment of development, separating the child's environment into
four systems. One system, the microsystem from Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective is the
environment a child directly interacts in, like their family or classroom. Another system is the
mesosystem, which is established from the interactions of the microsystems. For example, my child
will not only develop from within our family nor her school separately, but when she learns
something in our household that is reinforced in the classroom, the connection between school and
family or other area of her microsystem builds a network for her development, which is the
mesosystem. Then comes the ecosystem which is the environment that the children does not have
direct contact with, but can still be affected by. For example, my workplace, which is a place I do
not bring my daughters to can have an impact on them. This is because if I am stressed from work, I
may channel that negative energy towards my children, not intentionally, but through my
exhaustion. This may give my daughters an impression of my workplace as a place that drains me
because I am not able to give them enough attention, even though my kids have never been to my
job, an effect on my children is present. Lastly, the macrosystem is the environment that contains the
larger forces like culture, media, and current events. These systems can be interconnected and can
have a chain of impacts on the child. For example, my culture values a healthy body shape for
women and I teach that to my girls at home, however the media is a larger force that promotes
unhealthy
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Nature vs Nurture
Nature vs. Nurture
The Nature versus Nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities
versus personal experiences in determining or causing differences in physical and behavioral traits.
(Ridley, Matt. "What Makes You Who You Are." Time Magazine. 25 May 2003).
Almost everyone in any related field has an opinion as to which is truly more important, nature or
nurture. The director of a group called the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, Thomas
Bouchard, believes that 70 percent of a person's personality is genetic and 30 percent is due to
environment. The director of the Lewisville Twin Study, Adam Matheny, however, says it is 50–50.
In my opinion, both nature and nurture are very important. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
One twin might get cancer while the other is not susceptible, for example. Many identical twins
clearly behave differently as they grow older, and some even grow to look less alike. Such
differences don't have anything to do with the twins' identical DNA, which is like the software of
life, but in how genes express themselves. The differences stem from chemical modifications in the
genes over the years. These effects are the result of chemical exposure, dietary habits, and other
environmental factors, scientists believe. Other studies have shown that the brains of identical twins
look different upon close inspection of the wiring.
Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and
adoptions. Identical twins reared apart are more similar in personality than randomly selected pairs
of people. Likewise, identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins. Also, biological siblings
are more similar in personality than adoptive siblings. Each suggests that personality is a heritable
trait.
At the same time, the influences on a child's development of the environment in which he or she
grows up is also well substantiated, both scientifically and by common sense. For example, children
raised in orphanages can turn out just fine, in fact many of them marry and have children. It seems
not important whether or not they have families or children, but how those families are
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Galton 's Legacy : The Battle Of Nature Versus Nurture Essay
Galton's Legacy: The Battle of Nature versus Nurture Sir Francis Galton was, by in large part, a
product of his environment. Through his family, Galton was well connected––he came from a
wealthy, upper–class, lineage of academics. Having inherited a large sum of money, Galton was able
to explore a variety of endeavours before making his mark on modern day psychology (Goodwin,
2012, p.151). Galton excelled in the fields of geography, exploration, meteorology, and science; it
was not until Galton's half–cousin Darwin wrote his 1859 book on evolution that inspired his
interest in psychology (pp.151–152). Darwin was, unequivocally, Galton's most notable relative and
someone from whom he drew large inspiration. Darwin became influenced by economist Thomas
Malthus, who recognized, "that life is a constant "struggle for existence" and only those best suited
for survival will do so" (Goodwin, 2012, p. 135). Malthus' aforementioned belief was one that
Darwin observed during his expedition on the Beagle––Darwin's ship. Darwin recognizes that the
finches he had studied during his voyage to the Galapagos islands varied from each other depending
on island location and available food sources; he also notes that these variations assist the finches in
survival (i.e. different beak shape to forage a specific food, stronger beaks) (p. 136). The concept
that grew from Darwin's initial findings was the concept of natural selection. Natural selection is
defined as the natural process in
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Nature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture
Nature and Nurture:
How They Interact in Human Development
Nature or Nurture, which of these are the most important in shaping who we are? "Are genetics or
environmental factors more important?" (Berk, 2014, p. 5) Researchers have been arguing whether
nature or nurture is the most influential force in shaping human beings for a long time. The answer
seems to be a complex combination of both nature and nurture. One thing that everybody can agree
on is that human beings are more than the sum of our parts
Nature is defined in our textbooks as "the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the
time of conception." (Berk, 2014, p. 5) Nurture is defined as "the complex forces of the physical and
social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after
birth." (Berk, 2014, p. 5) In other words nature links to our biology and nurture is all the other
influences. Of course it is never as simple as that, our genetics can influence our behavior and our
environment can influence our genetics. Trying to figure out where one influence starts and another
begins will keep modern researchers busy for a very long time.
Nature can also be defined as our genetics. Genetics are the blueprints that shape us, they unfold
across our lifespan and also interact with our environment. We are all made up of cells which
contain chromosomes. Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information, we have 23 pairs of
chromosomes called autosomes, with one
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To What Extent Is Alzheimer 's Disease Hereditary?
Abstract: This investigation studies the question: To what extent is Alzheimer's disease hereditary?
To come to a conclusion, seven pieces of research were analyzed regarding their implications on the
genetic and environmental factors impacting the etiology of Alzheimer's. Specifically, four genetic
factors were evaluated: the influence of Beta Amyloid Plaques, alcohol dehydrogenase in relation to
mitochondrial function, specific Loci, and a twin study to determine relative heritability. The results
of these studies indicate a high degree of heritability and genetic factors in Alzheimer's disease with
recognition, to a certain extent, of the relative influence of environmental factors. Thus, the impact
of environmental factors was also explored. The influence of epigenetic factors, physical activity,
and environmental enrichment were evaluated through analysis of correlational studies and a lab
experiment. The results of this research generally indicated that environmental factors can play a
role as a preventative measure of developing the disease. There is suggestion that the genetic risk of
developing Alzheimer's can be lessened through environmental enrichment or physical activity.
However, the research lacks definitive evidence that environmental factors can completely diminish
the heritability of the disease across populations. On the other hand, the investigation of the
apolipoprotein genome, the identification of specific loci, the role of alcohol dehydrogenase
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Twin Studies Essay

  • 1. twin studies Essay ARTICLE REVIEW Separated Twins and the Genetics of Personality Differences: A Critique Author(s): Jay Joseph EDP 1002 : THEORIES OF PERSONALITIES Introduction Throughout history, across all cultures, people have been fascinated with twins. In addition to interest in the close emotional ties and biological similarities that twins may share, reports of special twin languages and twin extrasensory perception (ESP) help people to explore ideas of what it means to be human. How similar or different are they to each other? How important are genes and environment for development? Because identical twins share all of their genes, it is the environment–rather than genetics–that accounts for any differences between them. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... and Shields studies, MISTRA twins were discovered on the basis of similarity and their knowledge of each other's existence. Also, Minnesota study also lack of case histories and the failure to share data. Although most of the earlier researchers were viewing twins through a hereditary lens, their descriptions provided a wealth of information. Method of research and Findings In this study, they are used several type of method, one of the technique is used two or more test instrument to ensure the adequate coverage, for example the participants were given a battery of personality and mental ability tests, interest and value inventories and psychomotor tests. In addition, separate of examiners administer the IQ test, life history interview, psychiatric interview and sexual life history interview. The twin also complete questionnaire independently under the constant supervision of the staff members. Twin studies are valuable to researchers because identical twins share 100% of their genes and fraternal twins share, on average, 50% of their genes. Both identical and fraternal twins share certain aspects of their environment (e.g. religious practices in the home). This allows researchers to estimate the heritability of certain traits. Participants are asked about academic ability, personality, and interests; family and social relationships; mental and physical health; physiological measurements. Of interest to researchers are prevalence of psychopathology, substance ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Twin Studies In Behavior Genetics Twin Studies Twin studies are part of the methods used in behavior genetics, which includes all data that are genetically informative – siblings, adoptees, pedigree data etc. Monozygotic (identical) have all of the same genes and dizygotic (fraternal) have 50% of the same genes. Twin studies are very unique. One set of twins sisters are being raised 275 miles apart by a kind of accidental science experiment. Two sets of couples traveled together to Chenzhou, a city in China's Hunan Province. When they saw the babies they were adopting, the couples had their first twin moment. When the kids come off the elevator the couples said that they were shocked that the fact that they were getting twins and didn't know it. They said they laughed the same and cried the same... and they couldn't tell one kid from the other. Before ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The infants were six months old at them time and the couples wondered if they were sisters. They asked the people at the orphanage to see if they were and they said they were not even related even though they were listed as having the same birthday. The couples feared that if they did not continue with them adoption that the girls would get separated far away from each other. So the couples took the girls back to Canada with them. They wanted to do what was the best for the babies, even if it they had to raise the twins apart from each other. The family's now are trying to get together as much as possible, so that their kids can bond with each other. One of the twins after she got a little older said I don't hate it. I don't love it. Both of the girls took their first steps on the same. They both ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Darwin's Influence On Sir Francis Galton Sir Francis Galton was, by in large part, a product of his environment. Through his family, Galton was well connected––he came from a wealthy, upper–class, lineage of academics. Having inherited a large sum of money, Galton was able to explore a variety of endeavours before making his mark on modern day psychology (Goodwin, 2012, p.151). Galton excelled in the fields of geography, exploration, meteorology, and science; it was not until Galton's half–cousin Darwin wrote his 1859 book on evolution that inspired his interest in psychology (pp.151–152). Darwin was, unequivocally, Galton's most notable relative and someone from whom he drew large inspiration. Darwin became influenced by economist Thomas Malthus who recognized, "that life is a constant "struggle for existence" and only those best suited for survival will do so" (Goodwin, 2012, p. 135). Malthus' aforementioned belief was one that Darwin observed during his expedition on the Beagle––Darwin's ship. Darwin recognizes that the finches he had studied during his voyage to the Galapagos islands varied from each other depending on island location and available food sources; he also notes that these variations assist the finches in survival (i.e. different beak shape to forage a specific food, stronger beaks) (p. 136). The concept that grew from Darwin's initial findings was the concept of natural selection. Natural selection is defined as the natural process in which those that are better adapted to their environment ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Twin Early Development Study: Nature versus Nurture Since people began to wonder about our history and making, there has been the question of why. Why do people do the things they do? Are these traits inherited by a person's ancestors, or are they simply following what they observe? To begin, you must give credit to the two philosophers who initially sparked different opinions about these two ideas. Aristotle theorized, that humans are born into the world with a blank slate and their behavior and thoughts are due solely to experience (Ashcraft, 1998). That theory would suggest that humans learn their phobias, sexuality, gender association, and all other traits through the world that surrounds them. Plato, thought quite the opposite. He believed that believed that behaviors and knowledge were due to inborn factors. Although the view of Plato are heavily opposed today, there must be some connection in the way we as humans turn out. There is so much that is unknown that we come "prewired" with at birth. Who's to say that a person is not born with a predisposition of their sexual preference, or in more recent years, the role of gender? I believe that both nature and nurture are responsible for the way one matures. You cannot overlook the fact that some people carry the traits of their ancestors, or the fact that in many situations, people are victims of circumstance. I think the more important question is which side has a larger role in the way people turn out. When assessing the character roles that nurture creates, you must ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Examining Genetic Influence On Intelligence Identical twin studies are most useful in determining genetic influence on intelligence. Since the identical twins share the same exact genes, the straightforward comparison of intelligence can display if this human trait is truly heritable. Similarity of intelligence scores between identical twins supports the genetic influence on intelligence. According to Myers (2007), Across studies of 10,000 twins, the intelligence test scores of identical twins reared together are virtually as similar as those of the same person taking the same test twice...Likewise, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead twin researcher Thomas Bouchard (1996) to estimate that 'about 70 percent' of intelligence score variation 'can be attributed to genetic variation. (p. 455) As stated by Myers (2007), in the above quote, adopted twins studies also play a role in determining levels of intelligence and its heritability. However, like in all other psychological testing, correlation does not always mean causation and atypical findings may find their way into the data poll. It must also be noted that in order to successfully foster an identical twin study, all the twins should be adopted. This provides for a better chance for the twins to grow up in a different environment from their biological parents. If this is not the cases, how can professionals determine that environmental influences are not the cause of the intellectual levels? In addition, if separated, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Twin Family Studies Researchers that have investigated social phobia has also suggested that family factors may be responsible for social phobia, but in a biological way. Twin and family studies on social phobia has suggested that genetic factors play an important role in the development of social phobia at any stage of a human life. As twin studies are designed to specifically differentiate the two twin's behaviour. Comparisons between twins has resulted in the conclusion that there is a concordance rate between twins and that genetic factors plays a limited role in the chances of developing social phobia. An example of a twin study (Kendler et al. 1992) constructed using only female participants produced a set of statistical data for the concordance rate between ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, Daniels & Plomin (1985) investigated infant shyness, although the shyness of infants do not directly suggest that the infants suffer from social phobia as they cannot verbally express anything, it is only fair to argue that since infants rarely interact with any outside factors because of their weak immune systems they are the least influenced by environmental factors and therefore should provide the more reliable results than individuals at other ages. The results of the research showed that infant shyness was found to be significantly correlated with shyness in biological mothers but was not as correlated with shyness in adopted mothers. Other twin studies such as Rose and Ditto (1983) also submitted evidence of the concurrence rate in fear between monozygotic and dizygotic twins during adolescence. The results suggested that the concurrence rate of fear was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins, also the researchers revealed that a twin's fearfulness could be predicted from the cotwin's ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Twin Cancer Studies Cancer has been around for longer than people expect, with the first documented case dating back to 1500 bc. Because of the complexity of tumors, the origin of the disease was unknown until the late 19th century and the search for treatment or a cure came even later. The 20th century saw the greatest progression of cancer research, with twins being crucial to such studies. Twin studies were used as an important method in the field of cancer study. Scientists and researchers did not pay particular attention to twins and zygosity before the 20th century. One of the earliest and the simplest of assessments was based on the question, "Were you as children as alike as two peas in a pod?" When both twins answered affirmatively, they were defined ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... By comparing multiple types of cancer, not just lung cancer, results of over 14 studies indicated that zygosity of twins play a minimal role in the causation of most types of cancer (3). This further indicates that if zygosity, that is, the percentage of DNA shared between two people does not affect the development of cancer, than the genetic makeup of humans does not affect the development of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Nature Vs Nurture Debate How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refers to a genetic vulnerability, which is known as the first hit, triggered by something in the environment, which is known as the second hit The first hit is proposed to involve disruption of some sort of brain mechanism that is susceptible to numerous genetic and environmental agitations, and capable of producing long–term significant changes. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Procedure: The procedure was a case study, and the researcher interviewed two brothers, which are both diagnosed with the mental disorder, schizophrenia. While being interviewed, they spoke about their past experiences during their childhood, and how their mother had the carrier gene, which one twin inherited. Conclusions / Results: Conclusions suggest that the nature vs nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces. It was discovered that while one's genetic heritage creates a predisposition towards schizophrenia, other factors such as the home environment, the parental environment, dietary factors and others may determine whether the disease is manifested. Source 2: Schizophrenia as a complex trait Sullivan, P.F, Kendler, K.S, & Neale, M.C. (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60, 1187–1192. Aim: To calculate meta–analytic estimates of heritability in liability and shared an individual – specific environmental effects from the pooled twin data. Procedure: To identify all relevant primary studies, computerized PubMed searches for an inclusive list of descriptors were performed and searched the reference lists of prior reviews of schizophrenia to identify any reports not retrieved in the PubMed search. 14 published studies were identified of schizophrenia from independent samples in 6 European countries, Japan and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Developing A Unique Personality Is A Process By... Developing a unique personality is a process by temperament, environment, and character. Some characteristics are already pre–determined by genetics. On the other hand, some characteristics are the result of how a child is brought up in his or her environment. Finally, the third aspect is character. Character is how a child thinks and grows morally. The forming of personality has long been a main argument of the nature versus nurture debate. Multiple of today's psychologists and sociologists have said that neither nature or nurture can be the sole answer of how a person is the way they are. It is the balance between nature and nurture. According to psychologist Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, there are eight main stages a person will go through in developing their unique personality. Five of these happen through childhood while the other three happen later on in adulthood. His study has both nature and nurture qualities. The psychosocial development is a good basis for how an average personality will develop. These eight stages were put in to place to see how a child will react and respond to their developing needs. An article from simplypsychology.org on Erik Erikson says, "According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues."(McLeod). If a child does not properly succeed through a stage it will make it harder for them to go through the next stages. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Personality Is Developed From Genes ( Nature ) Or... This paper explores the notion on whether a person's personality is developed from genes (nature) or influenced by environment (nurture). Personality is something every human has and is an essential element in their social world. This research is important to know if, how, and why personalities change. Different scholarly–based material was used to support either stance on the issue. The articles and research helped to decipher the roles of parents, genes, biology, the environment, experiences, and culture in a person's personality. Personality theories were inputted to come to a conclusion on the subject of interest that is derived from actions, emotions, and attitudes. Many contemporary psychologists have distinguished five clusters of personality traits called the Big Five. The results of the research from the paper identify the answer to the question about personality. The conclusion recognized that everybody has a different personality developed by different components that includes both inherited traits and learned traits. Plus, how those traits modify personalities. The Origin of Personality: Nature or Nurture? Personality is debated over what factors influence and shape it the most. Is it a person's nature including genes and temperament or nurture with the environment and culture? Do they both have an effect in the development of a personality? The main purpose of this research paper will address these questions and examine how these factors impact personalities. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Nature Vs. Nurture Essay Violence take multiple forms, many of which are covered in the nightly news. Murder, rape, familial abuse, bullying, workplace hostility, armed robbery–all of these are societal problems with far– reaching repercussions. There have long debates and discussions regarding whether nature or nurture influences individual violent behavior. People are concerned about what makes an individual to engage in violent behavior such murder or burglary among other types of crimes. They are also concerned about what makes people stop such behavior. However, there is no precise conception whether nature, nurture or both influence violence. Some people assume that, violent behavior results from individual's life experiences or upbringing also known as nurture. Others feel that violent behavior is more complex and results from individual's genetic character or nature. In other words, it is not clear whether violent behavior is inborn or occurs at some point in persons' lives, but even it's hard, emphasizing one and ignoring other influences is always an unwise way to go. "Trying to separate out nature and nurture as explanations for behavior, as in classic genetic studies of twins and families, is now said to be both impossible and unproductive" (Levitt, 1). Social scientists have declared the nature–nurture debate to be unnecessary. Similarly, scientists feel that such debate is not only unhelpful, but also outdated. From geneticists' perspective, nurture and nature interact to influence ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Arthur Shawcross Killer People move all the time. Whether the relocation is due to personal or professional reasons, most often is it to start a new, and better, life. The community doesn't usually know that new members are present and they go about their daily lives. In April of 1987, Rochester, NY gained two new members of the community and they were none the wiser until women, mainly prostitutes, began to disappear and then would turn up murdered starting in early 1988. Arthur Shawcross, relocated to Rochester after being paroled and having his criminal record sealed, was given the ability to start a new life, but he returned to his old habits of mutilation and murder by killing 11 women over two years. There are numerous categories and classifications of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... First attributed to Aristotle was the concept of the tabula rasa, or blank slate. He believed that a person was born pure and their interactions with the world shaped their persona. From the moment we are born, we observe the world around us and, for good or bad, retain bits and pieces that collectively make up our personalities. In the video Inside the Killer's Mind, neurologist Dr. Jonathan Pincus posited that brain damage coupled with a history of abuse could result in aggressive behavior. "The violent ones were all neurologically impaired on examination." He discussed a cyst found on Shawcross' MRI in the temporal lobe that by itself wouldn't necessarily be significant, but coupled with an EEG spike in the same area it indicated an abnormality. Also in the film, Dr. Dorothy Lewis stated that in her exams of violent children she "found that these kids had more accidents, injuries, illnesses and hospitalizations than other kids." I believe that brain injuries and abnormalities could account for elements of personality that are attributed to empathy, inhibition and moral concepts; characteristics sometimes lacking or poorly displayed in those with criminal behaviors. Shawcross had other physical conditions noted in the textbook: he had kryptopyrroluria, was hospitalized for an inflammation of the brain and had ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Twin Studies: How Twins And Their Differences It is true that twins are the same, but they still have their differences. Like Brenda and Bonnie were both different. They may have looked alike and wore the same clothes,but they were not really twins. Bonnie changed genders and became a male and Brenda and Bonnie were no longer sisters they were brother and sister because Bonnie became trans genders and turned into a guy and at first Brenda was not too thrilled to hear that her sister became a man. So nurture was the reason that Bonnie became a male. My personality has changed a little bit since I was little, but I am still the same person that I was when I was little. My personality type is an ENFP so I am 22% Extravert, 9% intuitive, 41% feeling, and 44% perceiving, and it has been proven that you only change a little bit as you grow up. That is why Nurture plays a bigger role in our life. It is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With the conclusion of the twin studies, I know that nurture has a lot to do with their personalities. The genes we get from our parents tell us whether we are optimistic or pessimistic. It is rare for twins to weight the same even at birth but heavier twins seem to dominate the lighter one.It is not likily for twins to act differently do to illness.Twins have the exact same DNA. When you take two of the same twins and break them apart one will act like the parents and the other will act the same as it had before they were separated from each other. Have you ever thought about how you got your personality? Was it from your parents or was it from how you were raised? The nature versus nurture debate is always happening around us. Some believe it's nature and some believe it's nurture. Identical twins are different in many ways, and this is because of nurture. Nurture is from how you were raised by your parents. Nature is from how you were born. Have you ever wondered why you do the things you do? it might have been from your parents and how the raised ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Is Nuture Nature Or Nurture "IS INTELLIGENCE NATURE OR NURTURE?" Now days, people are still debating whether intelligence is determined by nature or nurture. "Nature versus nurture" is a phrase used widely to express the long–standing scientific debate about whether we are mainly "made" by our genes or whether influences from the environment are more important in our construction (Englbrecht n.d.). Nature refers to inheritance or genetic. If intelligence is determined by nature, it means that the intelligence is caused by some traits in human that is affected by parents' genes. Meanwhile, nurture stands for environmental and social influence for example experience, culture or community. So, if someone believes that intelligence is affected more by nurture, it means that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Human's intelligence is being shaped, challenged, and expressed every day by experiences by people, objects, and events – especially when someone's an active participant. Those experiences are the raw ingredients of intelligence (Ramey and Ramey n.d.) which can develop various skills such as creativity skill, musical skill, socializing skill, and other skills that isn't require measurement in IQ because as we know, intelligence isn't always about how high the number you get based on the test, but can be also other intelligence (multiple intelligence theory). Nurture shows how someone's intelligence isn't just about IQ but also other skills. Nurture also states that intelligence is also caused by the way you're raised and your childhood days. For example, nature says that twins will be likely have similar IQ, but how about if it's affected by nurture, one of the twins is going to school while the other one isn't. The result of their IQ will be different. The one who is going to school definitely has a higher IQ that the one who isn't. Therefore, it shows that schools (and how you're raised) as nurture representative also have influence on intelligence. And also, the difference of IQ level between the Blacks and Whites is not merely affected by the difference of their genes, but also environmental factors. Blacks hardly go to school and mostly work as slaves. So, how can someone who doesn't go to school have higher IQ than ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. What Is The Stranger In The Nest Essay What is that makes us who really we are ? There is no doubt that identity defines who we are. All over the world, all scientist and people want to understand that things affect our identity. There are two main reasons that affect us. These are our family and friends (nurture) and our genetics (nature). However some people think that there is another more complicated answer. People think about this situation because they wonder why their children become strangers. David Cohen who is a psychologist and also writer of 'Stranger in the Nest' he claims genetics (nature) is the most effective impact in our identity. I agree with Cohen about genetics have big influence on identity and for making children strangers to their families because of the evidence in the twin studies. In the Stranger in the Nest, David Cohen says that genetic factors have the most important role on why children become strangers to their families. He explains genetics factors' importance and tries to confute parental effect. He shows a study about why genetics have most important affect. For instance, he thinks that most mental illness is not caused by parental impacts or abusive ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Cohen uses nurture side reasons in his article Stranger in the Nest and he tries to confuse them. Supporters of nurture side claim that ''Most mental illness is caused by dysfunctional parenting or by stressful social conditions'' (Cohen 3). According to Twins studies, when one identical twin is diagnosed with autism, we can find there is about a 70 percent chance the other will be too. If we seriously research genetic factor's effect on our identity, also we can find the same answer. It means many of our habits come from our family genetics. At the end of the this research, it helps to understand why our children become stranger to their family, answer of this question is that genetics factors have a big responsibility on our ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Nature Vs. Nurture : Addiction Nature vs. Nurture: Addiction Introduction Psychology is a developing science which studies the mental functions, processes, and behaviors of an individual. In the science of psychology, many debates arise; nature vs. nurture is one of the most popular ones. These psychological debates are followed by research, backing up either nature or nurture or both. Nature suggest heredity impacts human psychological development; nurture suggests the environment impacts our psychological development. Addiction plays a large role in nature vs. nurture. Addiction is defined as a person being attached to a certain activity or item; an addict is one who has a dependency on particular substances or activity. There are many debates on whether addiction is caused by genes or the environment. Many researchers believe if they had the answer of addiction being a genetic condition or an environmental factor, they would be able to resolve the problem of addicts, or so they believe. Nature Aspect on Addiction Addiction has been proven to be in the genes of humans. "Addiction is a notorious treatment–resistant psychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment of self– monitoring, loss of interest in other targets of pleasure, and uncorrectable impulsive/compulsive drug–seeking behaviors"(Todo, 2012,para.1). Susan Ferguson stated that the basal ganglia system and the striatum are thought to create positive and negative ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Essay On NASA Twin Study NASA Using Analytic to Analyze its Twin Study The recent NASA Twin Study could be categorized as your typically Nature vs. Nurture studies that observe twins in different environments to determine which one the two factors supersede the other...genetics or environment (Powell, 2015)? The Nature vs. Nurture debate has been traced back to 13th Century France. The answer to this historical debate has yet to be discovered; nevertheless, most scientists can agree that both of these factors do a play a part in growth–even though that specific part is unidentified (Powell, 2015). In NASA's twin study, the two chosen environments to separate the twins were earth and space. Yes, outer space! That once unreachable environment before July 20, 1969, when Astronaut Neil Alden Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon (Williams, 2005). Since 1969 and with the advancement of technologies, NASA continues to study space to understand its mystery characteristics because society is even more fascinated about the world beyond its reached. I believe that some people are even more intrigued about the idea of inhabiting and/or traveling in/to space in the future; however, before ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Mark and Scott Kelly are the twins who volunteered to partake in this study. Scott Kelly (an active– duty astronaut) is the twin who will be spending one–year in space, while Mark Kelly (a retired astronaut) will remain on earth (Brief, 2015). After their one–year separation, the twin subjects will have their DNA collected and physical attributes recorded. Even after the one–year experimentation, Scientist will continue to observe physical changes and examine samples from the twins' biogenetics. This experiment is continuous because researchers are also analyzing if the spaceflight affected Scott's aging process. The twin's samples will continuously be tested until the findings are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Nature And Nurture Mental illness has been a mystery seemingly unsolvable for thousands of years. Mental illness only became known as new brain imaging technologies were invented in the 20th century. In the present day depression and anxiety are commonplace, and they run rampant in our schools as adolescents face the challenges of becoming adults, working men and women put a smile on for innocent children while they internally panic at the thought of this week's deadline, and the rich and famous can often be seen turning to drugs and alcohol only for the report to come out a week later, they have depression and anxiety, no one is surprised. We know what these illnesses do furthermore we know how to treat them but no answer has been put forward or accepted ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The rats which were depressed were lethargic and lacked survival instincts when tested however with therapy in the form of a rat sized playground they began to show signs of recovery within a month despite their genes. This experiment was also reversed to try to cause depression and was successful "the stressed control rats displayed depressed behaviors when placed in a tank of water. They simply floated– despair behavior– and didn't try to escape"(3). The science is improving nevertheless humans are complex creatures and hard to study; the experiments conducted on rats cannot be replicated in humans therefore the research has to take a path of observation and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Essay on Nature vs Nurture: Twin Studies and Adoption The nature– nurture debate has many different case studies, which often questions environmental and hereditary aspects of the nature– nurture debate. A tangent which is focused on in this essay is how the case studies of schizophrenia and IQ, specifically affect twin and adoption studies. This essay will firstly, give a brief outline of the nature–nurture debate and the definitions of twin and adoption studies. Secondly, it will illustrate two main case studies, which are IQ and Schizophrenia studies. Thirdly, will contrast and compare the two and research's impact on the case studies in regards to nature vs. nurture and finally, will conclude with the impact of the nature–nurture debate and twin and adoption studies. "The term "nature ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Extending on from these, factors in each layer are influenced by elements within and outside of their layers. For example what a child is exposed to as a result of his/her parent's beliefs. (Social Issues Referencing, 2007) Due to these factors, the nature– nurture theory has impacted and influenced many studies, one of these being the twin and adoption case. Twins, share a bond that no parent, child or sibling relationship can ever compare. There are two main types of twins, and these include: monozygotic (identical) twins and dizygotic (fraternal) twins, and they are compared by their emotional, behavioural, and cognitive similarities. (Robert Plomin, 1997). According to Social Issues Referencing, 2007, whereas Identical twins are formed from a single (mono) zygote and are genetic "carbon copies", fraternal twins develop from two (di) separate zygotes, as a result of two eggs being fertilized by two sperms independently. (Social Issues Referencing, 2007, para. 8) Ultimately adoption is "the legal process which permanently transfers all the legal rights and responsibilities of being a parent from the child's birth parents to the adoptive parents", (Human Services, Community Services, 2009 p. 1) so parents who are not related to the child in any form are adopting the child. In a sense, Twin studies relates to nature, as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. A Population-Based Twin Study of Alcoholism in Women Describe the purpose and at least four major points of the article. The purpose of the article was to see whether or not alcoholism in women is genetic–based. Researchers were interested in seeing the extent to which alcoholism in females may be environmentally or genetically induced. Only one study, and that different to this, has been produced on the matter. Psychiatric structured interviews were held on a sample of 1030 female–female pairs extracted from the famous population–based Virginia Twin Registry. All were zygotic (i.e. Identical), and the interviews were conducted by researchers who were blinded to the status of the twin. Criteria of alcoholism were taken from the DSM (III). These were: (a) alcoholism with tolerance or dependence, (b) alcoholism with/ without tolerance or dependence and (c) alcoholism with/ without tolerance or dependence or problem drinking. Researchers found that propensity for alcoholism was far greater in monozygotic (i.e. fraternal) than in dizygotic (i.e. identical twins), with the heritability of alcoholism in women being as high as 50% to 60%. Researchers, therefore, concluded that genetic factors seem to play a significant role in the etiology of alcoholism in females. 2. Discuss the generalizability and validity of the study. For example, will findings of this study generalize to other people and/or situations, can we generalize from the study participants to the general population, and do the methods employed have validity? ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Benefits And Dilemmas Of Human Twin Studies Name: Alimotu Tomiwa Sodiq Write an essay evaluating the benefits and dilemmas in the use of human twin studies to investigate the causes of variation. Twin studies are a mainstay of the nature verse nurture debate because they allow researchers to conduct "natural experiments" on human beings. When researchers try to determine the relative importance of genetics and environment with regard to a certain condition, they have a hard time because they cannot generally get people with the same genes. This is where twin studies come in. Twins studies are part of the method used in behaviour genetics, which includes all data that are genetically informative. E.g. siblings, adoptees, pedigree data etc. Researchers use this method to estimate the heritability of traits and to quantify the effect of a person 's shared environment (family) and unique environment (the individual events that shape a life) on a trait. Basically, we have two types of twins. 1) Monozygotic twins: Monozygotic twins are also known as identical twins. These twins start their life as one egg which is fertilized by one sperm and latter splits into two eggs much earlier in the gestational period. These are very rare and have no link to heredity. But studies reveal that only one of four conceptions of twins is identical. Therefore, it seems likely that any differences between twins will have to be caused by environment rather than by genetics. 2) Dizygotic twins: Dizygotic twins are also known as fraternal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. The Genetics And Environment On The Intelligenece Through... Navdeep Kalia General Psychology (064) 03/01/2015 Assesment of The Genetics and Environment on the Intelligenece Through Twin Studies The primary source scientific experiment to be analyzed for this paper is the "A Twin Study into the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in nine–year–old Boys and Girls" (Haworth, Claire M.A., Philip Dale, and Robert Plomin. "A Twin Study into the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Academic Performance in Science in Nine–Year–Old Boys and Girls." International journal of science education 30.8 (2008): 1003. PMC. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.). There are many different variables one can look at in order to answer the question of how identical are the identical twins. In this study intelligence is selected as a variable to be analyzed. The study explores the impact of environment, genetics and sex on intelligence. What influences intelligence has been studied as part of health and development for a long period of time? This study provides with data on genetic factor and environment effect on development. Also it will help us understand how identical twins can or cannot be different regardless of their similar genetic makeup. With the introduction of the theory of evolution came the debate of nature vs nurture or genes vs environment. According to theory of evolution, organisms adapt to the changes in their environment. Indicating that the environment causes genetic changes ultimately changes in phenotype ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Life Span Perspective Paper Life Spain Perspective Paper Teresa Haumschild PSY/375 August 12, 2013 Kay Rubin, MA Life Spain Perspective Paper When it comes to life span development you have to understand what it is and where it comes from or even how it got its name. As it was said by Boyd and Bee that life span development is the name that psychologists have given to the physical and cognitive changes that occur throughout a person's life (Boyd & Bee, 2009). So I will be first explaining the life span of development, along with summarizing two different theories of life span development, and then the last one is just explaining how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual difference in the development. So what is life span ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Then take both theories but Piaget and Fred they both seem to play a role of nature and nurture in the development stage too. Hereditary along with environment is a personality development that is a heated debated in the area for several of years. So when it comes to nature versus nurture the personal experience that a person goes through is basically determining what is causing the individual the differences in their physical and behavioral traits as well. Then the frequent personality that is of the heritable trait that has been researched just in twins along with adoptions as well. Then for a bit of a twist when identical twins were studied they found out that they were far more similar when it came to their personalities and then when they looked at just random people that were just selected in pairs of two. So in conclusion the life span of development is simply psychological studies that form the very conception of the theory which is until the death of humans. It also has an insight of the relationship development as well that can be seen with in different stages of one's development along with the five characteristics stages too. Even though Piaget and Freud did have very different theories on the different ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Nature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture As mentioned briefly in my self–introduction post, the nature–nurture portion of our textbook is the one part of this course I stated I looked forward to the most. I have always found myself engaged in a constant internal battle regarding nature versus nurture. Adding to this internal battle is the fact that I am married to an identical twin...a twin who drastically differs from his brother in several ways. These differences between my husband and his twin have resulted in my questioning if the gene + environment additive or the gene + environment interaction was at play. Thus, I find myself stuck in the middle of this often–heated debate, going back and forth between both nature and nurture. I firmly believe that both nature AND nurture play a significant role in development. While reading Chapter 3 last week and mulling over twin studies, trying to decide whether these studies support g + e or g x e was more difficult than I anticipated. My first instinct was to state that these studies support both and although I do believe that is true, I will attempt to lean towards one more than the other for the purpose of not only contributing to this discussion but also for the purpose of hopefully gaining a deeper understanding. In my opinion, twin studies better support the interaction of genetics and environment. Heredity, to me, is like the musical blueprint of a song, while experiences such as love, heartbreak, fear, etc...provide a solid foundation from which lyrics ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Nature vs Nurture: Do Genes Or Environment Matter More? Essay Nature versus nurture has emerged as one of the most heated debates in the 21st century. It is more aligned towards the internal and external factors that comprise human beings behavior. The internal factors are innate and perceived to be genetically revolved as opposed to the external factors that are influenced by the environment and individuals' experiences. However, scholars in different fields have researched on the relationship between nature and nurture without due success and this has created gaps for further research on this topic. This context will review academic sources to scrutinize their bone of contention on this matter as well as criticize them for their shortcomings in addressing this topic. In Bryner Jeanna (2006) in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Talent for instance in athletics, has a major bearing in genes but the environment plays an important role in promoting or discouraging it. It was found that, some people have genes that facilitate muscle contraction in motion (Bryner). The same was observed for risk predisposing factors for diseases. Genes expose individuals to higher risks of contracting some disease. A good example of such diseases is Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion and with respect to Bryner's (2006) article, talents, addiction and diseases among others do not entirely depend on genes rather on the environment. It is thus sufficient to assert that environmental factors enhance genes influence on behavior and diseases. In Andrew (1998) in "Nature vs nurture: Are leaders born or made? A behavior genetic investigation of leadership style" a publication by the Australian Academic Press, leadership is inherited. Their focus was based on trait theories to explain leadership. A look at the personality of individuals and relying on the premise posed in this context, personality traits are correlated with leadership. The author is quick to mention that, there is no sufficient modern research in this field. Through the use MQL which is an abbreviation of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as well as self–report psychometric inventories, it was found out that transformational leadership was due to genetic influence (Andrew 219). In ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Nature Vs Nurture : Is The Nature Or Nurture? AoS 3: Student Directed Research Investigation Unit 1 Psychology – Megan Rodrigues RESEARCH QUESTION How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refers to a genetic vulnerability, which is known as the first hit, triggered by something in the environment, which is known as the second hit The first hit is proposed to involve disruption of some sort of brain mechanism that is susceptible to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Aim: The aim of this experiment was to explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Procedure: The procedure was a case study, and the researcher interviewed two brothers, which are both diagnosed with the mental disorder, schizophrenia. While being interviewed, they spoke about their past experiences during their childhood, and how their mother had the carrier gene, which one twin inherited. Conclusions / Results: Conclusions suggest that the nature vs nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces. It was discovered that while one's genetic heritage creates a predisposition towards schizophrenia, other factors such as the home environment, the parental environment, dietary factors and others may determine whether the disease is manifested. Source 2: Schizophrenia as a complex trait Sullivan, P.F, Kendler, K.S, & Neale, M.C. (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60, 1187–1192. Aim: To calculate meta– analytic estimates of heritability in liability and shared an individual – specific environmental effects from the pooled twin data. Procedure: To identify all relevant primary studies, computerized PubMed searches for an inclusive list of descriptors were performed and searched the reference lists of prior reviews of schizophrenia to identify any reports not retrieved in the PubMed search. 14 published ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Teasing Nature Vs Nurture : The Case Of Autism Homework 1 Teasing nature versus nurture effects: The case of Autism Autism, what is autism? What are the causes and if its nature or nurture based? I am here to shed light on Autism. According to Autismspeaks.org, "Autism is known as a complex disorder of brain development. These disorders are characterized into different degrees by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and non–verbal communication and repetitive behaviors". Autism appears to emerge with in 2 to 3 years of age. According to klass, "Recent research has taught us more about the complexity of the genetics of autism, but the evidence also has suggested an important role for environmental exposures. It has become a very complicated picture: Genes matter, but we usually can't tell how. Environmental exposures matter, but we usually don't know which" (Klass 2011). This means causes of autism could be nature base or nurture base. What is nature base vs nurture base? The answer to this question is autism could be nature base because of his/her heretics and genetics, means born with autism or autism runs in the family like slow growth of motor skill in individual or abnormal size of brain. Nurture base is environmental means how life can alter the individual expressions like inability to recognize social cues or interest in people. "The causal links most strongly supported by research include rubella infection during pregnancy and prenatal exposure to medications like thalidomide and Valproic acid, an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. What Is Nature Or Nurture Debate The notion of the nature nurture debate is an ongoing argument that deliberates the views of development and their influences. This debate questions whether genetics or the environment surrounding a child has greater influence on their development. It is necessary to highlight a variety of current and popular opinions in regard to the debate to determine whether the concept of nature or nurture has a greater impact in child development. The reasoning for individual's unique characteristics is derived from the nature versus nurture debate. Throughout the development of a child, a variety of characteristics such as weight, height, personality, skills and interests will develop. The concept of nature is referring to the combination of inherited genes from a child's parents which are believed to influence a child's interests and abilities. An example of how genetics influence development for a child academically includes, where parents of a child are excelled in subject of mathematics, the child is believed to also be skilled in the same ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The nature nurture debate through research is now viewed as a collaborative relationship between an individual's genes and environment through the process of development. This perception reveals gaps between perception and research to a certain extent as many people believe that development is a solely the responsibility of nature or nurture and not a combination. In regard to the relationship between nature and nurture, "the environment is very similar for many individuals, and that the genes, in effect, rely on the existence of that environment for their expressions" (Slee & Shute, 2015). This therefore stresses the idea that in order for an individual to thrive during development, their surrounding environment must be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Nature Vs. Nurture In Epigenetic Research The "new genetics" research in molecular biology, as this month's invited Presidential Column by Frances Champagne illustrates, has important implications for psychological science (so important, in fact, that it will be the topic for the Presidential Symposium at our upcoming annual APS convention this May in San Francisco). Professor Champagne's analysis shows how recent findings in epigenetics speak to basic and enduring questions not just within psychology, but in virtually all discussions about human character and individual differences, from philosophical symposia to dinner conversations. How much is nature? How much is nurture? Champagne takes us elegantly and at high speed from that old question toward a new understanding of the "gene ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The classic approach to calculating heritability involves the comparison of the stability of a trait in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, with an increase in MZ concordance in contrast to DZ twins indicating increased heritability. But our new appreciation of the science of epigenetics has something very important to offer the interpretation of similarity or differences in MZ and DZ twins. Recent evidence suggests that some aspects of the epigenetic characteristics of a cell are heritable. In our library analogy, we can think of an inheritance of the rows upon rows of books, but also of the shelves, furniture, and meticulous ordering of those books that leave some volumes readily accessible and others hidden in obscurity. Our MZ twins share the same library, whereas our DZ twins may have different libraries, containing a few different books but also potentially having a completely different architecture. Importantly, the shelves, furniture, and layout of a library can be changed dynamically. Despite having the same books, a library can undergo very dramatic changes. At a molecular level, those changes to the "epigenetic" characteristics of a cell can be induced by the environment and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Summary: The Minnesota Study Of Twins Reared Apart In the summary and selected experts from "Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart" (Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal and Tellegen) there were various research methods used in the study. The study focused on whether nature or nurture had an affect on twins behavior. To start, I believe this study was a cross–selection research where analyzation takes place at a single point in time rather than longitudinal research where research is collected over time.The reason for this is because it would be extremely difficult and time consuming to keep a close eye on over 200 children throughout their lifetime. This would also cause in affect if the study method would have been just plain observation ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Nature Vs. Nurture : An Individual 's Criminal Behavior Essay The objective of this study is to examine whether it is nature or nurture who plays the most vital role in a human's behavior, specifically an individual's criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is defined as an act or failure to act in a way that violates public law. Some believe that criminal behavior can be identified as early as conception, meaning that criminal behavior is because of your genes. While others believe that one's upbringing and social learning environment directly contributes to the individual's criminal behavior. This paper will provide the history on the ongoing debate of nature vs. nurture and answer the question of whether it is Review of the Literature This controversial debate has existed since 1869, when the phrase "Nature Versus Nurture" was coined by the English polymath, Francis Galton. Nature refers to what we are born with and includes our biology, genetics, and similar characteristics. In contrast, nurture refers to what is learned, through our cultural community and other individuals. For anthropologists, this debate often centers on the influences of nature and nurture in different cultural elements. Both nature and nurture influences affect the human beings and their culture. The book On the Origin of Species written by Charles Darwin had a significant impact on Francis Galton. In Galton's two publication, Hereditary Genius (1869) and English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture (1874), he explored the world of inheritance and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 63. Adoption : Nature Vs Nurture Eric Fraley 4th hour English 3 Mrs. Laluzerne Jan, 12, 2016 Adoption Nature vs Nurture What makes someone an unique individual? Centuries of ancestors, genetics, evolution and heredity, or is what makes someone who they are based simply on how they were raised and what sort of environment they were raised in? The idea of Nature vs Nurture was created in 1869 in a book called Hereditary Genius by Francis Galton. In his book, he explains his findings on his exploration of the inheritance and evolution of human traits. The issue and debate of and over Nature vs Nurture has been prevalent to this day. It has also been a extremely prevalent in the social debate of Adoption. The basis for nature vs nurture is the idea that people are affected either more by nature, which would be an individual 's genetic makeup and heredity, or by nurture, how an individual is raised and the environment in which they grew up. Both sides of the argument are strongly backed and supported with facts and research. There is no "One or the other", both nature and nurture are what makes human beings who they are, but the question is not which. It is which of the two effects who an individual is the most?.... Nature is what we are born with. Every person is born preset with different/unique natural abilities and capabilities because of their DNA, adopted or not. Nature plays a bigger role than Nurture when it comes to what makes an individual unique . Weather it seems unbelievable or not, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 65. Nature Vs. Nurture Essay Nature vs. Nurture Essay Throughout many years, scientists have been debating about whether nature or nurture is the driving force that shapes a person's cognitive abilities and personal traits. Before the ongoing debate can be explained, it is necessary to understand what nature and nurture actually are. Nature is loosely defined as the genetics one inherits and tendencies that influence development. Many things in an individual are hereditary, for instance; gender, disease, height, eye color, natural talent for an activity, and many more. Nurture can be defined as various environmental factors that a person is exposed to, which can influence how a person develops. Nurture affects an individual's growth through multiple ways such as: stressors, activities, intellect and experiences, physically, emotionally, and socially through peers. Progressively, many are realizing that asking to what extent environment or genetics influence a person's traits is not necessarily the correct way to approach the debate. In all actuality there is not an easy way to sort through the multiple forces that exist in these situations. However, numerous researchers are now looking at how the two factors intertwine and influence one another because only one of them could not simply exist alone without the other very well. Nature and nurture coexist and work together to help shape a person, whether that is from the two working equally or one being slightly more predominant over the other, however ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 67. Nature Vs. Nurture Case Study In this case there are many factors that one would classify as nature and others as nurture. For instance, one of the twins believed they were the same person because they had similar personalities and had the same taste in music In this case she believed that hereditary and genes had played a role. Yet they felt they were different. In an article by NPR titled, 'Identical Strangers' Explore Nature vs Nurture,Bernstein(a twin) states "It's not just our taste in music or books; it goes beyond that. In her, I see the same basic personality. And yet, eventually we had to realize that we're different people with different life histories." They were each a different person despite being twins. Both believed in different values and were presently at a different point in their lives. The way they were raised were ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As the textbook states(pg53) "How do scientists explain the impact of hereditary and environment when they seem to work in so many different ways?" The researchers who had conducted this research on the twins were curious on how these twins were alike and different,how much the nature vs.nurture role had played in them since they had been adopted by different families. The researchers in this project really believed that raising twins together interfered in their development in independence. Lawrence Perlman, a researcher assistant who participated in this research states the Viola Bernard(psychiatrist) believed, "That twins were often dressed the same and treated exactly the same, she felt, interfered with their independent psychological development." This project showed us that there was NO yes or no answer when it came to nature vs nurture. It also illustrated to us that there was environmental factors that contributed to who they were today but yet there was also hereditary role playing in this which was hard to conclude which factor played a bigger role.This topic is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 69. Nature And Nurture On Child Development: Chapter Analysis The overall focus of Chapter 2 is the effect of the relationship between nature and nurture, on a child's development. The three main important ideas of this chapter to me, a mother of young children, are the early perspectives that one factor, either nature or nurture has on development, the importance of context in a child's development and finally the interaction among nature and nurture and its effects on development. The early perspectives on development was that it is only affected by on factor, either nature or nurture. The first perspective of the scientific and philosophical community, was that development is only impacted by nature. Nature includes everything that the child is born with, especially their set of genes. Genes are segments ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is explained by taking an ecological perspective on development, which takes into account the environment's impacts. An important contributor to this perspective was Bronfenbrenner who sets up an outline to organize the environment of development, separating the child's environment into four systems. One system, the microsystem from Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective is the environment a child directly interacts in, like their family or classroom. Another system is the mesosystem, which is established from the interactions of the microsystems. For example, my child will not only develop from within our family nor her school separately, but when she learns something in our household that is reinforced in the classroom, the connection between school and family or other area of her microsystem builds a network for her development, which is the mesosystem. Then comes the ecosystem which is the environment that the children does not have direct contact with, but can still be affected by. For example, my workplace, which is a place I do not bring my daughters to can have an impact on them. This is because if I am stressed from work, I may channel that negative energy towards my children, not intentionally, but through my exhaustion. This may give my daughters an impression of my workplace as a place that drains me because I am not able to give them enough attention, even though my kids have never been to my job, an effect on my children is present. Lastly, the macrosystem is the environment that contains the larger forces like culture, media, and current events. These systems can be interconnected and can have a chain of impacts on the child. For example, my culture values a healthy body shape for women and I teach that to my girls at home, however the media is a larger force that promotes unhealthy ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 71. Nature vs Nurture Nature vs. Nurture The Nature versus Nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing differences in physical and behavioral traits. (Ridley, Matt. "What Makes You Who You Are." Time Magazine. 25 May 2003). Almost everyone in any related field has an opinion as to which is truly more important, nature or nurture. The director of a group called the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, Thomas Bouchard, believes that 70 percent of a person's personality is genetic and 30 percent is due to environment. The director of the Lewisville Twin Study, Adam Matheny, however, says it is 50–50. In my opinion, both nature and nurture are very important. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One twin might get cancer while the other is not susceptible, for example. Many identical twins clearly behave differently as they grow older, and some even grow to look less alike. Such differences don't have anything to do with the twins' identical DNA, which is like the software of life, but in how genes express themselves. The differences stem from chemical modifications in the genes over the years. These effects are the result of chemical exposure, dietary habits, and other environmental factors, scientists believe. Other studies have shown that the brains of identical twins look different upon close inspection of the wiring. Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptions. Identical twins reared apart are more similar in personality than randomly selected pairs of people. Likewise, identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins. Also, biological siblings are more similar in personality than adoptive siblings. Each suggests that personality is a heritable trait. At the same time, the influences on a child's development of the environment in which he or she grows up is also well substantiated, both scientifically and by common sense. For example, children raised in orphanages can turn out just fine, in fact many of them marry and have children. It seems not important whether or not they have families or children, but how those families are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 73. Galton 's Legacy : The Battle Of Nature Versus Nurture Essay Galton's Legacy: The Battle of Nature versus Nurture Sir Francis Galton was, by in large part, a product of his environment. Through his family, Galton was well connected––he came from a wealthy, upper–class, lineage of academics. Having inherited a large sum of money, Galton was able to explore a variety of endeavours before making his mark on modern day psychology (Goodwin, 2012, p.151). Galton excelled in the fields of geography, exploration, meteorology, and science; it was not until Galton's half–cousin Darwin wrote his 1859 book on evolution that inspired his interest in psychology (pp.151–152). Darwin was, unequivocally, Galton's most notable relative and someone from whom he drew large inspiration. Darwin became influenced by economist Thomas Malthus, who recognized, "that life is a constant "struggle for existence" and only those best suited for survival will do so" (Goodwin, 2012, p. 135). Malthus' aforementioned belief was one that Darwin observed during his expedition on the Beagle––Darwin's ship. Darwin recognizes that the finches he had studied during his voyage to the Galapagos islands varied from each other depending on island location and available food sources; he also notes that these variations assist the finches in survival (i.e. different beak shape to forage a specific food, stronger beaks) (p. 136). The concept that grew from Darwin's initial findings was the concept of natural selection. Natural selection is defined as the natural process in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 75. Nature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture Nature and Nurture: How They Interact in Human Development Nature or Nurture, which of these are the most important in shaping who we are? "Are genetics or environmental factors more important?" (Berk, 2014, p. 5) Researchers have been arguing whether nature or nurture is the most influential force in shaping human beings for a long time. The answer seems to be a complex combination of both nature and nurture. One thing that everybody can agree on is that human beings are more than the sum of our parts Nature is defined in our textbooks as "the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the time of conception." (Berk, 2014, p. 5) Nurture is defined as "the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth." (Berk, 2014, p. 5) In other words nature links to our biology and nurture is all the other influences. Of course it is never as simple as that, our genetics can influence our behavior and our environment can influence our genetics. Trying to figure out where one influence starts and another begins will keep modern researchers busy for a very long time. Nature can also be defined as our genetics. Genetics are the blueprints that shape us, they unfold across our lifespan and also interact with our environment. We are all made up of cells which contain chromosomes. Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information, we have 23 pairs of chromosomes called autosomes, with one ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 77. To What Extent Is Alzheimer 's Disease Hereditary? Abstract: This investigation studies the question: To what extent is Alzheimer's disease hereditary? To come to a conclusion, seven pieces of research were analyzed regarding their implications on the genetic and environmental factors impacting the etiology of Alzheimer's. Specifically, four genetic factors were evaluated: the influence of Beta Amyloid Plaques, alcohol dehydrogenase in relation to mitochondrial function, specific Loci, and a twin study to determine relative heritability. The results of these studies indicate a high degree of heritability and genetic factors in Alzheimer's disease with recognition, to a certain extent, of the relative influence of environmental factors. Thus, the impact of environmental factors was also explored. The influence of epigenetic factors, physical activity, and environmental enrichment were evaluated through analysis of correlational studies and a lab experiment. The results of this research generally indicated that environmental factors can play a role as a preventative measure of developing the disease. There is suggestion that the genetic risk of developing Alzheimer's can be lessened through environmental enrichment or physical activity. However, the research lacks definitive evidence that environmental factors can completely diminish the heritability of the disease across populations. On the other hand, the investigation of the apolipoprotein genome, the identification of specific loci, the role of alcohol dehydrogenase ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...