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This presentation gives information about DIODE(a semiconductor device with two terminals, typically allowing the flow of current in one direction only). And also its Approximation

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Poisson's equation 2nd 4

This document discusses Poisson's and Laplace's equations which relate electric potential to charge density. Poisson's equation applies to regions with charge density, while Laplace's equation applies to charge-free regions. The equations are derived and their applications are demonstrated, including calculating electric fields and potentials. Examples are provided of solving Laplace's equation for different boundary conditions. The document also covers capacitance of parallel plate capacitors, with and without a dielectric, as well as resistance and combinations of resistors in series and parallel.

Network theorem part 1

This document provides an overview of network theorems, including the Thevenin and Norton theorems. It defines key network analysis terms like component, node, mesh, port and circuit.
The Thevenin theorem states that any linear network can be reduced to an equivalent circuit with one voltage source (Thevenin voltage) in series with one resistance (Thevenin resistance). The Norton theorem is the dual, representing a network as a current source in parallel with an internal resistance.
Worked examples are provided to demonstrate calculating the Thevenin voltage and resistance of a sample network, and the Norton current and resistance by opening, shorting and measuring in different configurations.

Zener diode 212

This document provides information about Zener diodes. It begins by listing the group members and then describes the key differences between regular diodes and Zener diodes. Zener diodes allow current to flow in both directions, unlike regular diodes, and can regulate voltage. The document discusses Clarence Zener, the physicist who discovered the property that Zener diodes exploit. It provides details on Zener diode symbols, how they operate under forward and reverse bias, their voltage regulation applications, and characteristics like breakdown voltage.

Kirchhoff's laws With Examples

Kirchhoff's Laws
Kirchhoff's laws quantify how current flows through a circuit and how voltage varies around a loop in a circuit
There are two laws
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) or First Law
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or Second Law
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) or First Law
The total current entering a junction or a node is equal to the charge leaving the node as no charge is lost
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or Second Law
According to Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law,
The voltage around ya loop equals to the sum of every voltage drop in the same loop for any closed network and also equals to zero.
Put differently, the algebraic sum of every voltage in the loop has to be equal to zero and this property of Kirchhoff’s law is called as conservation of energ.

Full wave bridge rectifier

This document describes the operation of a full wave bridge rectifier circuit. It explains that two diodes conduct during the positive half cycle and the other two conduct during the negative half cycle, allowing current to flow through the load in only one direction. This produces a full wave rectified output with both half cycles used. The input AC waveform is shown along with the rectified DC output waveform. Advantages of the bridge rectifier are listed as not requiring a center-tapped transformer and producing twice the output of a center-tap circuit for the same secondary voltage. Disadvantages include requiring four diodes and having double the voltage drop across the diodes compared to a center-tap rectifier.

Analysis of Phasor Diagram

This document discusses phasor analysis of RC, RL, and RLC circuits.
For an RC circuit, the voltage across the capacitor lags behind the current by 90 degrees. For an RL circuit, the voltage across the inductor leads the current by 90 degrees.
For an RLC circuit, the behavior depends on whether the reactance of the inductor or capacitor is higher. If the inductor reactance is higher, it behaves like an RL circuit. If the capacitor reactance is higher, it behaves like an RC circuit. If the reactances are equal, it behaves like a resistive circuit.

Kirchoff's Law

The document discusses Kirchhoff's laws, which are two fundamental laws of circuit analysis:
1) Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) states that the sum of the voltages around any closed loop is equal to zero.
2) Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving any node in a circuit is equal to zero.
The document provides examples of applying KVL and KCL to analyze circuits and solve for unknown voltages and currents. It also includes a quiz on Kirchhoff's laws.

ZENER DIODE

A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as “Zener knee voltage” or “Zener voltage”.
The device is named after American physicist Clarence Melvin Zener, who first described the ZENER EFFECT in1934. Later his work led to the BELL LABS implantation of the effect in form of an electronic device, the ZENER DIODE.
Zener diodes are a modified form of PN silicon diode used extensively for voltage regulation. The P type and N type silicon used is doped more heavily than a standard PN diode.
This causes a very thin depletion region. The zener diodes breakdown characteristics are determined by the doping process
Zeners are commercially available with voltage breakdowns of 1.8 V to 200 V.
When a Zener diode is forward biased, it operates as a normal diode.
In forward biased P side connected to positive and N side connected to negative terminal of battery. In this case the electrons and holes are swept across the junction and large current flow through it.
In case of reverse biased current practically zero and at certain voltage which called Zener voltage the current increases sharply.
Each Zener diode has breakdown rating which specifies the max voltage that can be dropped across it.
Zener diodes are designed to operate in reverse breakdown. Two types of reverse breakdown in a zener diode are AVALANCHE and ZENER. The avalanche break down occurs in both rectifier and zener diodes at a sufficiently high reverse voltage. Zener breakdown occurs in a zener diode at low reverse voltages.
A Zener allows current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "Zener knee voltage", "Zener voltage", “Avalanche point", or “Peak inverse voltage”
Breakdown Characteristics : Figure 2 shows the reverse portion of a zener diode’s characteristic curve. As the reverse voltage (푉_푅 ) is increased, the reverse current (퐼_푅 ) remains extremely small up to the “knee” of the curve. The reverse current is also called the zener current, 퐼_푍 . At this point, the breakdown effect begins; the internal zener resistance, also called zener impedance (푍_푍), begins to decrease as reverse current increases rapidly.Voltage Regulator :In a DC circuit, Zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator to regulate the voltage across small circuits.
Waveform Clipper :Zener diode can be used to make a Waveform Clipper. Two Zener diodes facing each other in series will act to clip both halves of an input signal.
Voltage Shifter :A Zener diode can be applied to a circuit with a resistor to act as a voltage shifter. This circuit lowers the output voltage by a quantity that is equal to the Zener diode's breakdown voltage.

Poisson's equation 2nd 4

This document discusses Poisson's and Laplace's equations which relate electric potential to charge density. Poisson's equation applies to regions with charge density, while Laplace's equation applies to charge-free regions. The equations are derived and their applications are demonstrated, including calculating electric fields and potentials. Examples are provided of solving Laplace's equation for different boundary conditions. The document also covers capacitance of parallel plate capacitors, with and without a dielectric, as well as resistance and combinations of resistors in series and parallel.

Network theorem part 1

This document provides an overview of network theorems, including the Thevenin and Norton theorems. It defines key network analysis terms like component, node, mesh, port and circuit.
The Thevenin theorem states that any linear network can be reduced to an equivalent circuit with one voltage source (Thevenin voltage) in series with one resistance (Thevenin resistance). The Norton theorem is the dual, representing a network as a current source in parallel with an internal resistance.
Worked examples are provided to demonstrate calculating the Thevenin voltage and resistance of a sample network, and the Norton current and resistance by opening, shorting and measuring in different configurations.

Zener diode 212

This document provides information about Zener diodes. It begins by listing the group members and then describes the key differences between regular diodes and Zener diodes. Zener diodes allow current to flow in both directions, unlike regular diodes, and can regulate voltage. The document discusses Clarence Zener, the physicist who discovered the property that Zener diodes exploit. It provides details on Zener diode symbols, how they operate under forward and reverse bias, their voltage regulation applications, and characteristics like breakdown voltage.

Kirchhoff's laws With Examples

Kirchhoff's Laws
Kirchhoff's laws quantify how current flows through a circuit and how voltage varies around a loop in a circuit
There are two laws
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) or First Law
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or Second Law
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) or First Law
The total current entering a junction or a node is equal to the charge leaving the node as no charge is lost
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or Second Law
According to Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law,
The voltage around ya loop equals to the sum of every voltage drop in the same loop for any closed network and also equals to zero.
Put differently, the algebraic sum of every voltage in the loop has to be equal to zero and this property of Kirchhoff’s law is called as conservation of energ.

Full wave bridge rectifier

This document describes the operation of a full wave bridge rectifier circuit. It explains that two diodes conduct during the positive half cycle and the other two conduct during the negative half cycle, allowing current to flow through the load in only one direction. This produces a full wave rectified output with both half cycles used. The input AC waveform is shown along with the rectified DC output waveform. Advantages of the bridge rectifier are listed as not requiring a center-tapped transformer and producing twice the output of a center-tap circuit for the same secondary voltage. Disadvantages include requiring four diodes and having double the voltage drop across the diodes compared to a center-tap rectifier.

Analysis of Phasor Diagram

This document discusses phasor analysis of RC, RL, and RLC circuits.
For an RC circuit, the voltage across the capacitor lags behind the current by 90 degrees. For an RL circuit, the voltage across the inductor leads the current by 90 degrees.
For an RLC circuit, the behavior depends on whether the reactance of the inductor or capacitor is higher. If the inductor reactance is higher, it behaves like an RL circuit. If the capacitor reactance is higher, it behaves like an RC circuit. If the reactances are equal, it behaves like a resistive circuit.

Kirchoff's Law

The document discusses Kirchhoff's laws, which are two fundamental laws of circuit analysis:
1) Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) states that the sum of the voltages around any closed loop is equal to zero.
2) Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving any node in a circuit is equal to zero.
The document provides examples of applying KVL and KCL to analyze circuits and solve for unknown voltages and currents. It also includes a quiz on Kirchhoff's laws.

ZENER DIODE

A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as “Zener knee voltage” or “Zener voltage”.
The device is named after American physicist Clarence Melvin Zener, who first described the ZENER EFFECT in1934. Later his work led to the BELL LABS implantation of the effect in form of an electronic device, the ZENER DIODE.
Zener diodes are a modified form of PN silicon diode used extensively for voltage regulation. The P type and N type silicon used is doped more heavily than a standard PN diode.
This causes a very thin depletion region. The zener diodes breakdown characteristics are determined by the doping process
Zeners are commercially available with voltage breakdowns of 1.8 V to 200 V.
When a Zener diode is forward biased, it operates as a normal diode.
In forward biased P side connected to positive and N side connected to negative terminal of battery. In this case the electrons and holes are swept across the junction and large current flow through it.
In case of reverse biased current practically zero and at certain voltage which called Zener voltage the current increases sharply.
Each Zener diode has breakdown rating which specifies the max voltage that can be dropped across it.
Zener diodes are designed to operate in reverse breakdown. Two types of reverse breakdown in a zener diode are AVALANCHE and ZENER. The avalanche break down occurs in both rectifier and zener diodes at a sufficiently high reverse voltage. Zener breakdown occurs in a zener diode at low reverse voltages.
A Zener allows current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "Zener knee voltage", "Zener voltage", “Avalanche point", or “Peak inverse voltage”
Breakdown Characteristics : Figure 2 shows the reverse portion of a zener diode’s characteristic curve. As the reverse voltage (푉_푅 ) is increased, the reverse current (퐼_푅 ) remains extremely small up to the “knee” of the curve. The reverse current is also called the zener current, 퐼_푍 . At this point, the breakdown effect begins; the internal zener resistance, also called zener impedance (푍_푍), begins to decrease as reverse current increases rapidly.Voltage Regulator :In a DC circuit, Zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator to regulate the voltage across small circuits.
Waveform Clipper :Zener diode can be used to make a Waveform Clipper. Two Zener diodes facing each other in series will act to clip both halves of an input signal.
Voltage Shifter :A Zener diode can be applied to a circuit with a resistor to act as a voltage shifter. This circuit lowers the output voltage by a quantity that is equal to the Zener diode's breakdown voltage.

STRUCTURE OF SODIUM D LINE

The document discusses the structure of the sodium D line spectrum. It explains that sodium has 11 electrons with one valence electron in the third shell. The state of the sodium atom is defined by the state of this valence electron. It also discusses that alkali metal atoms like sodium have one valence electron and diagrams the energy levels of sodium as the P, S, D levels with J values. It introduces the concept of screening constants which account for the number of closed shell electrons that screen the nucleus from the valence electron. Finally, it discusses the quantum defect value which depends on the orbital quantum number and is positive for sodium.

Voltage and Current Source foe Circuits and Networks

This document discusses voltage and current sources. It defines voltage as potential difference between two points in an electrical field and current as the flow of electric charge. Energy sources are categorized as either voltage sources or current sources. Voltage sources produce an electromotive force that causes current to flow independently of current. Current sources have infinite output resistance so current flow is independent of voltage. Ohm's law relates voltage, current, and resistance. Resistors oppose current flow. Kirchhoff's laws state that the sum of currents at a node is zero and the sum of voltages around a loop is zero.

Mosfet short channel effects

Short channel effects arise when the channel length of a MOSFET becomes comparable to the depletion layer width. This causes unwanted effects such as drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), where the drain voltage lowers the channel potential barrier; surface scattering, where carriers collide with the surface increasing; and velocity saturation, where the electric field saturates the carrier drift velocity. Other effects are impact ionization, where high-energy carriers generate electron-hole pairs, and hot carrier injection (HCI). Short channel effects degrade performance and reliability in smaller transistors.

Rlc circuits and differential equations1

The document describes deriving a differential equation to model the behavior of an RLC circuit. It provides the component values for an RLC circuit that was designed and built. Through applying Kirchhoff's voltage law and differentiating the equation, a second order differential equation is derived. The parameters are then substituted into the equation to solve for the natural response of the underdamped circuit. The derived differential equation solution is compared to simulations and measurements from an oscilloscope.

Superposition theorem

The superposition theorem allows the analysis of circuits with multiple sources by considering each source independently and adding their effects. It can be applied when circuit elements are linear and bilateral. To use it, all ideal voltage sources except one are short circuited and all ideal current sources except one are open circuited. Dependent sources are left intact. This allows the circuit to be solved for each source individually and the results combined through superposition. Examples demonstrate finding currents through specific elements in circuits with multiple independent and dependent sources. A limitation is that superposition cannot be used to determine total power due to power being related to current squared.

Diode Equivalent Circuits.ppt

This document discusses diode equivalent circuit models, which are used to approximate the nonlinear behavior of real diodes for circuit analysis purposes. It describes three common diode models: the ideal diode model, which represents a diode as a simple switch; the practical (or simplified) model, which includes a 0.7V voltage drop; and the piecewise linear model, which approximates the diode curve as a series of linear segments. The document explains that diode models allow the use of conventional linear circuit analysis by replacing the nonlinear diode with an equivalent linear circuit representation.

Mesh Analysis.pptx

Mesh analysis is a technique for analyzing electrical circuits by applying Kirchhoff's voltage law around loops of meshes. It reduces the number of equations needed to the number of meshes. The steps are to identify meshes, assign currents to each mesh, apply KVL to each mesh to generate equations, and solve the system of linear equations. Supermeshes can form when two meshes share a common current source, in which case that branch is removed.

nortons theorem.ppt

Norton's theorem states that any linear DC network containing voltage sources, current sources, and resistances can be replaced by an equivalent circuit with a single current source (IN) in parallel with a single resistance (RN). The Norton equivalent current (IN) is equal to the short circuit current through the terminals, and the Norton equivalent resistance (RN) is equal to the resistance looking into the network from the terminals with independent sources replaced. To find the Norton equivalent circuit, first the short circuit current is calculated, then independent sources are replaced to find the equivalent resistance. Once IN and RN are determined, the original network can be replaced in all calculations by this equivalent Norton circuit connected across the terminals.

Chap6 laplaces and-poissons-equations

This document discusses Laplace's equation, Poisson's equation, and the uniqueness theorem. It begins by introducing Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation, which are derived from Gauss's law. Poisson's equation applies to problems with a non-zero charge density, while Laplace's equation applies when the charge density is zero. The uniqueness theorem states that for the potential solution to be unique, it must satisfy Laplace's equation and the known boundary conditions. Several examples are then provided to demonstrate solving Laplace's and Poisson's equations for different boundary value problems.

4 direct current circuits

1) Kirchhoff's rules, based on conservation of energy and charge, can be used to analyze more complex circuits that cannot be reduced to a single equivalent resistor. The junction rule states that the sum of currents at a junction is zero, while the loop rule states that the sum of potential differences around a closed loop is zero.
2) To solve circuit problems using Kirchhoff's rules, the problem solver draws the circuit, assigns variables to unknowns, chooses current directions, writes equations using the junction and loop rules, and solves the equations simultaneously.
3) Circuits containing capacitors require analysis of how the current changes over time as the capacitor charges and discharges.

Resistor and its types

This document discusses resistors, including what they are, their types, connections, color codes, and power ratings. Resistors are passive components that implement electrical resistance and obey Ohm's law. There are fixed and variable types, and variable types include rheostats, potentiometers, and resistors whose value changes with temperature, humidity, light exposure or voltage. Resistors can be connected in series or parallel, and their values are indicated by color bands following a standard code. Power ratings specify the maximum power a resistor can safely dissipate.

Basics of semiconductor, current equation, continuity equation, injected mino...

This document provides an introduction to semiconductors. It discusses topics such as the crystal structure of germanium and silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, carrier mobility, and diffusion currents. Equations are presented for carrier concentrations, mass action law, drift current density, and the continuity equation. Generation and recombination of charge carriers is explained. Minority carrier injection, potential variation in graded semiconductors, and the contact potential of a step graded junction are also summarized.

Lecture 5 energy bands and charge carriers

Energy bands and charge carriers in semiconductors describes how bonding forces in solids lead to the formation of energy bands. In intrinsic semiconductors, there is a small band gap between the valence and conduction bands, allowing a small number of electrons to be thermally excited across the gap. Extrinsic semiconductors are doped with impurities to introduce additional mobile charge carriers, making them either n-type or p-type and allowing electrical conductivity to be controlled. Doping introduces shallow impurity energy levels near the bands which donate or accept electrons.

Introduction to Thevenin's theorem

Explaining about one of the popular theorems in electrical engineering, Thevenin's theorem. it gives direct idea about the theorem and its different cases of applicability. Some of easy tricks and facts are also included for convenience.

Wye delta transformations

This document describes how to transform resistor networks between wye (Y) and delta (Δ) configurations. It states that wye networks are sometimes called T networks, while delta networks can be called Π networks. The document provides equations to transform between the two configurations when the resistances are equal or unequal. It gives an example of transforming a wye network into an equivalent delta network.

Thevenin’s theorem (East West University)

The document discusses Thevenin's theorem, which states that any linear circuit can be simplified to an equivalent circuit with one voltage source and one resistor. It provides the procedure for using Thevenin's theorem, which involves removing the load, calculating the Thevenin voltage (Vth) and resistance (Rth), and replacing the original circuit with a voltage source and resistor. As an example, it shows how to use the theorem to find the load current and voltage in a sample circuit. It also reviews conventions for determining voltage drops and applying Kirchhoff's voltage law.

Zener diode as a voltage Regulator

The document discusses the use of Zener diodes as voltage regulators. It begins by describing how Zener diodes allow current to flow in the reverse direction above a certain breakdown voltage. It then discusses different types of Zener diodes categorized by voltage, current, and power ratings. The document explains that Zener diodes can regulate an unsteady input voltage to provide a steady output voltage. It provides an example circuit diagram of a Zener diode regulating a 12V supply down to a steady 8V for a 100mA load. Measurements and component selections are described to illustrate how the Zener diode maintains a constant voltage across varying loads and minor input fluctuations.

Zener and avalanche diode

What is meant by ZENER and AVALANCHE breakdown>How are they different from each other. Based on KTU Engineerin(Basic ELECTRONiCS engineering).Umay get the video explanation in the link below
https://youtu.be/VzGs0WEZbW4

Fundamentals of-electric-circuit

This document provides an introduction to fundamental concepts of electric circuits. It defines key elements like sources, resistors, capacitors and switches. It explains concepts such as voltage, current, Kirchhoff's laws, and Ohm's law. It also describes different types of circuits including series, parallel and combinations. Divider rules for voltage and current are introduced to analyze circuits.

Ampere's circuital law

This document contains lecture notes on Ampere's circuital law from an Electromagnetic Theory course taught by Arpan Deyasi. It includes the integral and differential forms of Ampere's law, examples of using the law to determine magnetic fields and currents, and a case study of the magnetic field due to an infinite sheet of current. The key points covered are that the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed path equals the total current enclosed, and the curl of the magnetic field equals the current density.

Diode theory

This document discusses diode theory and characteristics. It explains that a diode is a non-linear device because its current-voltage graph is not a straight line due to the barrier potential. It describes how a diode can be forward or reverse biased depending on how it is connected in a circuit. The knee voltage, ideal diode characteristics, and approximations that account for the barrier potential and bulk resistance are also covered. Load lines and how they are used to determine operating points are summarized.

Notes on diodes and rectifiers

Diodes and rectifiers allow current to flow in only one direction. While diodes and rectifiers are functionally the same, diodes are typically rated for less than 0.5A of current while rectifiers are rated for more than 0.5A. Both diodes and rectifiers exhibit a constant voltage drop when conducting in the forward direction. Zener diodes additionally conduct in the reverse direction above a breakdown voltage. To calculate voltage drops in circuits containing diodes and rectifiers, one counts the number of diode voltage drops along each DC conduction path.

STRUCTURE OF SODIUM D LINE

The document discusses the structure of the sodium D line spectrum. It explains that sodium has 11 electrons with one valence electron in the third shell. The state of the sodium atom is defined by the state of this valence electron. It also discusses that alkali metal atoms like sodium have one valence electron and diagrams the energy levels of sodium as the P, S, D levels with J values. It introduces the concept of screening constants which account for the number of closed shell electrons that screen the nucleus from the valence electron. Finally, it discusses the quantum defect value which depends on the orbital quantum number and is positive for sodium.

Voltage and Current Source foe Circuits and Networks

This document discusses voltage and current sources. It defines voltage as potential difference between two points in an electrical field and current as the flow of electric charge. Energy sources are categorized as either voltage sources or current sources. Voltage sources produce an electromotive force that causes current to flow independently of current. Current sources have infinite output resistance so current flow is independent of voltage. Ohm's law relates voltage, current, and resistance. Resistors oppose current flow. Kirchhoff's laws state that the sum of currents at a node is zero and the sum of voltages around a loop is zero.

Mosfet short channel effects

Short channel effects arise when the channel length of a MOSFET becomes comparable to the depletion layer width. This causes unwanted effects such as drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), where the drain voltage lowers the channel potential barrier; surface scattering, where carriers collide with the surface increasing; and velocity saturation, where the electric field saturates the carrier drift velocity. Other effects are impact ionization, where high-energy carriers generate electron-hole pairs, and hot carrier injection (HCI). Short channel effects degrade performance and reliability in smaller transistors.

Rlc circuits and differential equations1

The document describes deriving a differential equation to model the behavior of an RLC circuit. It provides the component values for an RLC circuit that was designed and built. Through applying Kirchhoff's voltage law and differentiating the equation, a second order differential equation is derived. The parameters are then substituted into the equation to solve for the natural response of the underdamped circuit. The derived differential equation solution is compared to simulations and measurements from an oscilloscope.

Superposition theorem

The superposition theorem allows the analysis of circuits with multiple sources by considering each source independently and adding their effects. It can be applied when circuit elements are linear and bilateral. To use it, all ideal voltage sources except one are short circuited and all ideal current sources except one are open circuited. Dependent sources are left intact. This allows the circuit to be solved for each source individually and the results combined through superposition. Examples demonstrate finding currents through specific elements in circuits with multiple independent and dependent sources. A limitation is that superposition cannot be used to determine total power due to power being related to current squared.

Diode Equivalent Circuits.ppt

This document discusses diode equivalent circuit models, which are used to approximate the nonlinear behavior of real diodes for circuit analysis purposes. It describes three common diode models: the ideal diode model, which represents a diode as a simple switch; the practical (or simplified) model, which includes a 0.7V voltage drop; and the piecewise linear model, which approximates the diode curve as a series of linear segments. The document explains that diode models allow the use of conventional linear circuit analysis by replacing the nonlinear diode with an equivalent linear circuit representation.

Mesh Analysis.pptx

Mesh analysis is a technique for analyzing electrical circuits by applying Kirchhoff's voltage law around loops of meshes. It reduces the number of equations needed to the number of meshes. The steps are to identify meshes, assign currents to each mesh, apply KVL to each mesh to generate equations, and solve the system of linear equations. Supermeshes can form when two meshes share a common current source, in which case that branch is removed.

nortons theorem.ppt

Norton's theorem states that any linear DC network containing voltage sources, current sources, and resistances can be replaced by an equivalent circuit with a single current source (IN) in parallel with a single resistance (RN). The Norton equivalent current (IN) is equal to the short circuit current through the terminals, and the Norton equivalent resistance (RN) is equal to the resistance looking into the network from the terminals with independent sources replaced. To find the Norton equivalent circuit, first the short circuit current is calculated, then independent sources are replaced to find the equivalent resistance. Once IN and RN are determined, the original network can be replaced in all calculations by this equivalent Norton circuit connected across the terminals.

Chap6 laplaces and-poissons-equations

This document discusses Laplace's equation, Poisson's equation, and the uniqueness theorem. It begins by introducing Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation, which are derived from Gauss's law. Poisson's equation applies to problems with a non-zero charge density, while Laplace's equation applies when the charge density is zero. The uniqueness theorem states that for the potential solution to be unique, it must satisfy Laplace's equation and the known boundary conditions. Several examples are then provided to demonstrate solving Laplace's and Poisson's equations for different boundary value problems.

4 direct current circuits

1) Kirchhoff's rules, based on conservation of energy and charge, can be used to analyze more complex circuits that cannot be reduced to a single equivalent resistor. The junction rule states that the sum of currents at a junction is zero, while the loop rule states that the sum of potential differences around a closed loop is zero.
2) To solve circuit problems using Kirchhoff's rules, the problem solver draws the circuit, assigns variables to unknowns, chooses current directions, writes equations using the junction and loop rules, and solves the equations simultaneously.
3) Circuits containing capacitors require analysis of how the current changes over time as the capacitor charges and discharges.

Resistor and its types

This document discusses resistors, including what they are, their types, connections, color codes, and power ratings. Resistors are passive components that implement electrical resistance and obey Ohm's law. There are fixed and variable types, and variable types include rheostats, potentiometers, and resistors whose value changes with temperature, humidity, light exposure or voltage. Resistors can be connected in series or parallel, and their values are indicated by color bands following a standard code. Power ratings specify the maximum power a resistor can safely dissipate.

Basics of semiconductor, current equation, continuity equation, injected mino...

This document provides an introduction to semiconductors. It discusses topics such as the crystal structure of germanium and silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, carrier mobility, and diffusion currents. Equations are presented for carrier concentrations, mass action law, drift current density, and the continuity equation. Generation and recombination of charge carriers is explained. Minority carrier injection, potential variation in graded semiconductors, and the contact potential of a step graded junction are also summarized.

Lecture 5 energy bands and charge carriers

Energy bands and charge carriers in semiconductors describes how bonding forces in solids lead to the formation of energy bands. In intrinsic semiconductors, there is a small band gap between the valence and conduction bands, allowing a small number of electrons to be thermally excited across the gap. Extrinsic semiconductors are doped with impurities to introduce additional mobile charge carriers, making them either n-type or p-type and allowing electrical conductivity to be controlled. Doping introduces shallow impurity energy levels near the bands which donate or accept electrons.

Introduction to Thevenin's theorem

Explaining about one of the popular theorems in electrical engineering, Thevenin's theorem. it gives direct idea about the theorem and its different cases of applicability. Some of easy tricks and facts are also included for convenience.

Wye delta transformations

This document describes how to transform resistor networks between wye (Y) and delta (Δ) configurations. It states that wye networks are sometimes called T networks, while delta networks can be called Π networks. The document provides equations to transform between the two configurations when the resistances are equal or unequal. It gives an example of transforming a wye network into an equivalent delta network.

Thevenin’s theorem (East West University)

The document discusses Thevenin's theorem, which states that any linear circuit can be simplified to an equivalent circuit with one voltage source and one resistor. It provides the procedure for using Thevenin's theorem, which involves removing the load, calculating the Thevenin voltage (Vth) and resistance (Rth), and replacing the original circuit with a voltage source and resistor. As an example, it shows how to use the theorem to find the load current and voltage in a sample circuit. It also reviews conventions for determining voltage drops and applying Kirchhoff's voltage law.

Zener diode as a voltage Regulator

The document discusses the use of Zener diodes as voltage regulators. It begins by describing how Zener diodes allow current to flow in the reverse direction above a certain breakdown voltage. It then discusses different types of Zener diodes categorized by voltage, current, and power ratings. The document explains that Zener diodes can regulate an unsteady input voltage to provide a steady output voltage. It provides an example circuit diagram of a Zener diode regulating a 12V supply down to a steady 8V for a 100mA load. Measurements and component selections are described to illustrate how the Zener diode maintains a constant voltage across varying loads and minor input fluctuations.

Zener and avalanche diode

What is meant by ZENER and AVALANCHE breakdown>How are they different from each other. Based on KTU Engineerin(Basic ELECTRONiCS engineering).Umay get the video explanation in the link below
https://youtu.be/VzGs0WEZbW4

Fundamentals of-electric-circuit

This document provides an introduction to fundamental concepts of electric circuits. It defines key elements like sources, resistors, capacitors and switches. It explains concepts such as voltage, current, Kirchhoff's laws, and Ohm's law. It also describes different types of circuits including series, parallel and combinations. Divider rules for voltage and current are introduced to analyze circuits.

Ampere's circuital law

This document contains lecture notes on Ampere's circuital law from an Electromagnetic Theory course taught by Arpan Deyasi. It includes the integral and differential forms of Ampere's law, examples of using the law to determine magnetic fields and currents, and a case study of the magnetic field due to an infinite sheet of current. The key points covered are that the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed path equals the total current enclosed, and the curl of the magnetic field equals the current density.

STRUCTURE OF SODIUM D LINE

STRUCTURE OF SODIUM D LINE

Voltage and Current Source foe Circuits and Networks

Voltage and Current Source foe Circuits and Networks

Mosfet short channel effects

Mosfet short channel effects

Rlc circuits and differential equations1

Rlc circuits and differential equations1

Superposition theorem

Superposition theorem

Diode Equivalent Circuits.ppt

Diode Equivalent Circuits.ppt

Mesh Analysis.pptx

Mesh Analysis.pptx

nortons theorem.ppt

nortons theorem.ppt

Chap6 laplaces and-poissons-equations

Chap6 laplaces and-poissons-equations

4 direct current circuits

4 direct current circuits

Resistor and its types

Resistor and its types

Basics of semiconductor, current equation, continuity equation, injected mino...

Basics of semiconductor, current equation, continuity equation, injected mino...

Lecture 5 energy bands and charge carriers

Lecture 5 energy bands and charge carriers

Introduction to Thevenin's theorem

Introduction to Thevenin's theorem

Wye delta transformations

Wye delta transformations

Thevenin’s theorem (East West University)

Thevenin’s theorem (East West University)

Zener diode as a voltage Regulator

Zener diode as a voltage Regulator

Zener and avalanche diode

Zener and avalanche diode

Fundamentals of-electric-circuit

Fundamentals of-electric-circuit

Ampere's circuital law

Ampere's circuital law

Diode theory

This document discusses diode theory and characteristics. It explains that a diode is a non-linear device because its current-voltage graph is not a straight line due to the barrier potential. It describes how a diode can be forward or reverse biased depending on how it is connected in a circuit. The knee voltage, ideal diode characteristics, and approximations that account for the barrier potential and bulk resistance are also covered. Load lines and how they are used to determine operating points are summarized.

Notes on diodes and rectifiers

Diodes and rectifiers allow current to flow in only one direction. While diodes and rectifiers are functionally the same, diodes are typically rated for less than 0.5A of current while rectifiers are rated for more than 0.5A. Both diodes and rectifiers exhibit a constant voltage drop when conducting in the forward direction. Zener diodes additionally conduct in the reverse direction above a breakdown voltage. To calculate voltage drops in circuits containing diodes and rectifiers, one counts the number of diode voltage drops along each DC conduction path.

The Complete Diode Model

The document discusses the complete diode model, which consists of three main elements: (1) the barrier potential, or minimum voltage required for current to flow; (2) a small forward dynamic resistance representing voltage drop from current; and (3) a large internal reverse resistance accounting for reverse current. The complete model more accurately represents diode behavior in circuits compared to simpler models, as it takes into account factors like voltage drop and reverse current. Diodes can be visualized as switches that are open or closed depending on forward or reverse bias conditions.

Diodes and semiconductors - an introduction

It's a description of diodes and semiconductors. It has the information about they work in the circuitry and how they are used in the industry.

Eg1108 rectifiers

The document discusses diode rectifiers and power supplies. It describes how diodes allow current to flow in only one direction, and how this property is exploited in rectifier circuits to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Specifically, it examines the half-wave rectifier circuit, which uses a single diode to rectify the positive half of the AC waveform. The output of the half-wave rectifier is pulsed DC with a large ripple. Power supplies often use rectifier circuits to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a lower voltage DC for electronic circuits.

Ch03updated

This document describes diode circuits and their applications. It begins with an overview of ideal, constant voltage, and exponential diode models. It then covers half-wave and full-wave rectification used in applications like phone chargers. The document also discusses limiter circuits, small signal analysis around operating points, and using incremental resistance to simplify nonlinear circuit analysis. Key applications of diodes in rectification, signal strength indicators, and logic gates are presented.

Semiconductor diodes

Semiconductor
If a valence Electron acquires sufficient kinetic energy to break its covalent bond and fills the void created by a hole then a vacancy, or hole will be created in the covalent bond that released the electron
Hence there is a transfer of holes to the left and electrons to the right

8. semiconductors.rr

This document provides an overview of semiconductors and diodes. It discusses how semiconductors conduct electricity through the movement of electrons and holes. It describes intrinsic and extrinsic conduction in semiconductors and how doping with elements like boron and phosphorus creates p-type and n-type materials. The document explains how a PN junction forms a diode and how diodes can be forward or reverse biased to control current flow. It provides details on rectifier diodes, signal diodes, LEDs, and zener diodes.

Basic electronics (p-n Junction)

A p-n junction diode allows current to flow easily in one direction, but blocks it in the other. It is made up of p-type and n-type semiconductor material. In forward bias, current flows when the positive terminal is connected to the p-side and negative to the n-side. In reverse bias, little to no current flows when the connections are reversed. An ideal diode model approximates the diode as having zero resistance in forward bias and infinite resistance in reverse bias.

Tanya makkar (5003)

1. An equivalent circuit uses idealized elements like resistors and batteries to approximate the behavior of a nonlinear device like a diode. This allows analysis techniques like Kirchhoff's laws to be applied.
2. A diode can be modeled as a resistor and battery in parallel under forward bias, and as an open switch under reverse bias. A further simplification is the ideal diode model which has zero voltage drop.
3. A load line shows the operating points where the current-voltage characteristics of a nonlinear device intersect with the response of the rest of the circuit. It allows determining the operating point like DC voltage and current.

Strain gages

The document discusses stress, strain, and strain gages. It defines stress as force per unit area and strain as the ratio of deformation to original length. It describes Hooke's law, which states that stress is proportional to strain for elastic materials. A strain gage works by measuring the increase in electrical resistance of a wire as it is stretched under strain. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to precisely measure the small changes in resistance caused by strain.

Strain_gages.pdf

This document discusses stress, strain, and strain gages. It defines stress as force per unit area and strain as the ratio of deformation to original length. Hooke's law states that for elastic materials, stress is proportional to strain. A strain gage consists of a wire attached to a backing that changes electrical resistance with applied strain. However, the resistance change is very small, so a Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to precisely measure the resistance change, allowing calculation of the applied strain.

Liner Resistive networks for electrical engineers

This chapter discusses linear resistive networks and their analysis. It covers key topics like resistance, basic network configurations including series and parallel resistors, superposition, and equivalent circuits. Methods like Kirchhoff's laws, Ohm's law, and the concepts of equivalent resistance are presented to analyze resistive circuits containing multiple elements and energy sources. Superposition is introduced as a technique to solve for unknowns in linear circuits with multiple independent sources by considering each source individually.

5.2 heating effect of currents

This document provides information about electricity and magnetism, specifically resistance and heating effects of currents. It explains that resistance depends on the material and cross-sectional area of a conductor. It also describes Ohm's law, which states that current is directly proportional to voltage in a conductor. Resistors can be made of nichrome wire or ceramic and carbon. Kirchhoff's laws are introduced to help solve circuit problems using conservation of charge and energy.

5.2 heating effect of currents

The document discusses electricity and magnetism, specifically resistance and heating effects of currents. It explains that resistance depends on the material and structure of a conductor, with tungsten filament lamps having high resistance and copper wires having low resistance. It also covers Ohm's law, defining resistance as the ratio of potential difference to current, and how resistors, circuits, and resistor combinations work based on this relationship. Kirchhoff's laws for analyzing electric circuits are also summarized.

V-i characteris (1).pdf

This fun and visually appealing presentation about the core concept of diodes formation and application is thoroughly researched and concise. It contains fun tit-bits of info that make the concept of depletion layer easy to understand. It has a vibrant color scheme to make a perfect first impression for any project...

Diode and its Applications

The document discusses PN junction diodes and their applications. It describes how a PN junction forms and its electrical characteristics. Different types of diodes are covered, including Zener diodes and light emitting diodes. Circuit applications of diodes such as rectification, voltage regulation, and signal processing are explained through examples. Key diode properties like forward and reverse biasing, turn-on voltage, and dynamic resistance are defined. Diode models from ideal to linear element are also introduced.

VI Characteristics of Diode

The document describes the forward and reverse bias characteristics of a PN junction diode. It explains that a diode acts as a closed switch under forward bias, allowing current to flow, and an open switch under reverse bias, blocking current. The document provides details on the diode's structure, barrier potential, static and dynamic resistances, and leakage current. It describes setting up a circuit to measure the voltage-current relationship of a silicon diode under both forward and reverse bias conditions. Plots of the diode characteristics are generated from the experimental data.

Diode Application

Diode applications can be configured in series or parallel circuits. In series configurations, the diode resistance is small compared to other elements when forward biased, and has high resistance when reverse biased. Parallel and series-parallel configurations determine network resistances. Half-wave rectification only passes one half of the AC cycle. Peak inverse voltage must exceed the peak AC voltage to prevent reverse breakdown. Clippers and clampers use diodes to modify input signals without distortion.

Bsc 1 cbcs e1 unit 2

A half-wave rectifier circuit rectifies only the positive half cycles of the input AC supply. It uses a single diode that conducts during positive half cycles, allowing current to flow through the load resistor and producing a pulsating DC output. The output voltage is only present during positive half cycles and is zero during negative half cycles. Analysis shows the DC output voltage is 0.318 times the peak input voltage and the RMS current is half the peak current.

Diode theory

Diode theory

Notes on diodes and rectifiers

Notes on diodes and rectifiers

The Complete Diode Model

The Complete Diode Model

Diodes and semiconductors - an introduction

Diodes and semiconductors - an introduction

Eg1108 rectifiers

Eg1108 rectifiers

Ch03updated

Ch03updated

Semiconductor diodes

Semiconductor diodes

8. semiconductors.rr

8. semiconductors.rr

Basic electronics (p-n Junction)

Basic electronics (p-n Junction)

Tanya makkar (5003)

Tanya makkar (5003)

Strain gages

Strain gages

Strain_gages.pdf

Strain_gages.pdf

Liner Resistive networks for electrical engineers

Liner Resistive networks for electrical engineers

5.2 heating effect of currents

5.2 heating effect of currents

5.2 heating effect of currents

5.2 heating effect of currents

V-i characteris (1).pdf

V-i characteris (1).pdf

Diode and its Applications

Diode and its Applications

VI Characteristics of Diode

VI Characteristics of Diode

Diode Application

Diode Application

Bsc 1 cbcs e1 unit 2

Bsc 1 cbcs e1 unit 2

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and ReplicabilityUniversity of Rennes, INSA Rennes, Inria/IRISA, CNRS

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability
Abstract: Reproducibility (aka determinism in some cases) constitutes a fundamental aspect in various fields of computer science, such as floating-point computations in numerical analysis and simulation, concurrency models in parallelism, reproducible builds for third parties integration and packaging, and containerization for execution environments. These concepts, while pervasive across diverse concerns, often exhibit intricate inter-dependencies, making it challenging to achieve a comprehensive understanding. In this short and vision paper we delve into the application of software engineering techniques, specifically variability management, to systematically identify and explicit points of variability that may give rise to reproducibility issues (eg language, libraries, compiler, virtual machine, OS, environment variables, etc). The primary objectives are: i) gaining insights into the variability layers and their possible interactions, ii) capturing and documenting configurations for the sake of reproducibility, and iii) exploring diverse configurations to replicate, and hence validate and ensure the robustness of results. By adopting these methodologies, we aim to address the complexities associated with reproducibility and replicability in modern software systems and environments, facilitating a more comprehensive and nuanced perspective on these critical aspects.
https://hal.science/hal-04582287
Reaching the age of Adolescence- Class 8

This is a presentation on understanding the age of adolescence.

一比一原版美国佩斯大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【美国佩斯大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理美国佩斯大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理美国佩斯大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理美国佩斯大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理美国佩斯大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

WEB PROGRAMMING bharathiar university bca unitII

web programming unitII

Call Girls Noida🔥9873777170🔥Gorgeous Escorts in Noida Available 24/7

Call Girls Noida🔥9873777170🔥Gorgeous Escorts in Noida Available 24/7

Holsinger, Bruce W. - Music, body and desire in medieval culture [2001].pdf

Music and Medieval History

Quality assurance B.pharm 6th semester BP606T UNIT 5

Warehousing
Good warehousing practices
Material management

Lattice Defects in ionic solid compound.pptx

lattice of ionic solid

GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 2) Antimicrobial agents

Antimicrobial Agents in Therapy

Nereis Type Study for BSc 1st semester.ppt

Nereis Type Study for BSc 1st semester students

MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...

MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...ABHISHEK SONI NIMT INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL AND PARAMEDCIAL SCIENCES , GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA

Microbial interaction
Microorganisms interacts with each other and can be physically associated with another organisms in a variety of ways.
One organism can be located on the surface of another organism as an ectobiont or located within another organism as endobiont.
Microbial interaction may be positive such as mutualism, proto-cooperation, commensalism or may be negative such as parasitism, predation or competition
Types of microbial interaction
Positive interaction: mutualism, proto-cooperation, commensalism
Negative interaction: Ammensalism (antagonism), parasitism, predation, competition
I. Mutualism:
It is defined as the relationship in which each organism in interaction gets benefits from association. It is an obligatory relationship in which mutualist and host are metabolically dependent on each other.
Mutualistic relationship is very specific where one member of association cannot be replaced by another species.
Mutualism require close physical contact between interacting organisms.
Relationship of mutualism allows organisms to exist in habitat that could not occupied by either species alone.
Mutualistic relationship between organisms allows them to act as a single organism.
Examples of mutualism:
i. Lichens:
Lichens are excellent example of mutualism.
They are the association of specific fungi and certain genus of algae. In lichen, fungal partner is called mycobiont and algal partner is called
II. Syntrophism:
It is an association in which the growth of one organism either depends on or improved by the substrate provided by another organism.
In syntrophism both organism in association gets benefits.
Compound A
Utilized by population 1
Compound B
Utilized by population 2
Compound C
utilized by both Population 1+2
Products
In this theoretical example of syntrophism, population 1 is able to utilize and metabolize compound A, forming compound B but cannot metabolize beyond compound B without co-operation of population 2. Population 2is unable to utilize compound A but it can metabolize compound B forming compound C. Then both population 1 and 2 are able to carry out metabolic reaction which leads to formation of end product that neither population could produce alone.
Examples of syntrophism:
i. Methanogenic ecosystem in sludge digester
Methane produced by methanogenic bacteria depends upon interspecies hydrogen transfer by other fermentative bacteria.
Anaerobic fermentative bacteria generate CO2 and H2 utilizing carbohydrates which is then utilized by methanogenic bacteria (Methanobacter) to produce methane.
ii. Lactobacillus arobinosus and Enterococcus faecalis:
In the minimal media, Lactobacillus arobinosus and Enterococcus faecalis are able to grow together but not alone.
The synergistic relationship between E. faecalis and L. arobinosus occurs in which E. faecalis require folic acid
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...

We present the JWST discovery of SN 2023adsy, a transient object located in a host galaxy JADES-GS
+
53.13485
−
27.82088
with a host spectroscopic redshift of
2.903
±
0.007
. The transient was identified in deep James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)/NIRCam imaging from the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES) program. Photometric and spectroscopic followup with NIRCam and NIRSpec, respectively, confirm the redshift and yield UV-NIR light-curve, NIR color, and spectroscopic information all consistent with a Type Ia classification. Despite its classification as a likely SN Ia, SN 2023adsy is both fairly red (
�
(
�
−
�
)
∼
0.9
) despite a host galaxy with low-extinction and has a high Ca II velocity (
19
,
000
±
2
,
000
km/s) compared to the general population of SNe Ia. While these characteristics are consistent with some Ca-rich SNe Ia, particularly SN 2016hnk, SN 2023adsy is intrinsically brighter than the low-
�
Ca-rich population. Although such an object is too red for any low-
�
cosmological sample, we apply a fiducial standardization approach to SN 2023adsy and find that the SN 2023adsy luminosity distance measurement is in excellent agreement (
≲
1
�
) with
Λ
CDM. Therefore unlike low-
�
Ca-rich SNe Ia, SN 2023adsy is standardizable and gives no indication that SN Ia standardized luminosities change significantly with redshift. A larger sample of distant SNe Ia is required to determine if SN Ia population characteristics at high-
�
truly diverge from their low-
�
counterparts, and to confirm that standardized luminosities nevertheless remain constant with redshift.

JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS

The pathway(s) to seeding the massive black holes (MBHs) that exist at the heart of galaxies in the present and distant Universe remains an unsolved problem. Here we categorise, describe and quantitatively discuss the formation pathways of both light and heavy seeds. We emphasise that the most recent computational models suggest that rather than a bimodal-like mass spectrum between light and heavy seeds with light at one end and heavy at the other that instead a continuum exists. Light seeds being more ubiquitous and the heavier seeds becoming less and less abundant due the rarer environmental conditions required for their formation. We therefore examine the different mechanisms that give rise to different seed mass spectrums. We show how and why the mechanisms that produce the heaviest seeds are also among the rarest events in the Universe and are hence extremely unlikely to be the seeds for the vast majority of the MBH population. We quantify, within the limits of the current large uncertainties in the seeding processes, the expected number densities of the seed mass spectrum. We argue that light seeds must be at least 103 to 105 times more numerous than heavy seeds to explain the MBH population as a whole. Based on our current understanding of the seed population this makes heavy seeds (Mseed > 103 M⊙) a significantly more likely pathway given that heavy seeds have an abundance pattern than is close to and likely in excess of 10−4 compared to light seeds. Finally, we examine the current state-of-the-art in numerical calculations and recent observations and plot a path forward for near-future advances in both domains.

Nutaceuticsls herbal drug technology CVS, cancer.pptx

Herbal drug technology views on nutaceuticsls

Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe

Recent theoretical progress indicates that spacetime and gravity emerge together from the entanglement structure of an underlying microscopic theory. These ideas are best understood in Anti-de Sitter space, where they rely on the area law for entanglement entropy. The extension to de Sitter space requires taking into account the entropy and temperature associated with the cosmological horizon. Using insights from string theory, black hole physics and quantum information theory we argue that the positive dark energy leads to a thermal volume law contribution to the entropy that overtakes the area law precisely at the cosmological horizon. Due to the competition between area and volume law entanglement the microscopic de Sitter states do not thermalise at sub-Hubble scales: they exhibit memory effects in the form of an entropy displacement caused by matter. The emergent laws of gravity contain an additional ‘dark’ gravitational force describing the ‘elastic’ response due to the entropy displacement. We derive an estimate of the strength of this extra force in terms of the baryonic mass, Newton’s constant and the Hubble acceleration scale a0 = cH0, and provide evidence for the fact that this additional ‘dark gravity force’ explains the observed phenomena in galaxies and clusters currently attributed to dark matter.

Firoozeh Kashani-Sabet - An Esteemed Professor

Dr. Firoozeh Kashani-Sabet is an innovator in Middle Eastern Studies and approaches her work, particularly focused on Iran, with a depth and commitment that has resulted in multiple book publications. She is notable for her work with the University of Pennsylvania, where she serves as the Walter H. Annenberg Professor of History.

SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆

Context. The early-type galaxy SDSS J133519.91+072807.4 (hereafter SDSS1335+0728), which had exhibited no prior optical variations during the preceding two decades, began showing significant nuclear variability in the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) alert stream from December 2019 (as ZTF19acnskyy). This variability behaviour, coupled with the host-galaxy properties, suggests that SDSS1335+0728 hosts a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole (BH) that is currently in the process of ‘turning on’. Aims. We present a multi-wavelength photometric analysis and spectroscopic follow-up performed with the aim of better understanding the origin of the nuclear variations detected in SDSS1335+0728. Methods. We used archival photometry (from WISE, 2MASS, SDSS, GALEX, eROSITA) and spectroscopic data (from SDSS and LAMOST) to study the state of SDSS1335+0728 prior to December 2019, and new observations from Swift, SOAR/Goodman, VLT/X-shooter, and Keck/LRIS taken after its turn-on to characterise its current state. We analysed the variability of SDSS1335+0728 in the X-ray/UV/optical/mid-infrared range, modelled its spectral energy distribution prior to and after December 2019, and studied the evolution of its UV/optical spectra. Results. From our multi-wavelength photometric analysis, we find that: (a) since 2021, the UV flux (from Swift/UVOT observations) is four times brighter than the flux reported by GALEX in 2004; (b) since June 2022, the mid-infrared flux has risen more than two times, and the W1−W2 WISE colour has become redder; and (c) since February 2024, the source has begun showing X-ray emission. From our spectroscopic follow-up, we see that (i) the narrow emission line ratios are now consistent with a more energetic ionising continuum; (ii) broad emission lines are not detected; and (iii) the [OIII] line increased its flux ∼ 3.6 years after the first ZTF alert, which implies a relatively compact narrow-line-emitting region. Conclusions. We conclude that the variations observed in SDSS1335+0728 could be either explained by a ∼ 106M⊙ AGN that is just turning on or by an exotic tidal disruption event (TDE). If the former is true, SDSS1335+0728 is one of the strongest cases of an AGNobserved in the process of activating. If the latter were found to be the case, it would correspond to the longest and faintest TDE ever observed (or another class of still unknown nuclear transient). Future observations of SDSS1335+0728 are crucial to further understand its behaviour. Key words. galaxies: active– accretion, accretion discs– galaxies: individual: SDSS J133519.91+072807.4

Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...

Neutralizing antibodies, pivotal in immune defense, specifically bind and inhibit viral pathogens, thereby playing a crucial role in protecting against and mitigating infectious diseases. In this slide, we will introduce what antibodies and neutralizing antibodies are, the production and regulation of neutralizing antibodies, their mechanisms of action, classification and applications, as well as the challenges they face.

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

Embracing Deep Variability For Reproducibility and Replicability

Reaching the age of Adolescence- Class 8

Reaching the age of Adolescence- Class 8

一比一原版美国佩斯大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版美国佩斯大学毕业证如何办理

WEB PROGRAMMING bharathiar university bca unitII

WEB PROGRAMMING bharathiar university bca unitII

Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...

Juaristi, Jon. - El canon espanol. El legado de la cultura española a la civi...

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- 2. Group members: Kashaf Ejaz 15331553-092 Pakeeza Zainab 15331556-087
- 4. Introduction: Diode: A nonlinear device. The graph of current vs.voltage is not a straight line. The diode voltage must exceed the barrier voltage to conduct.
- 5. The diode symbol looks like an arrow that points from the p side to the n side.
- 6. Knee voltage: The voltage at which the current starts to increase rapidly is called the knee voltage of the diode The knee voltage is equal to the barrier potential Vk=0.7v(aproximately equal) For silicon diode barrier potential is 0.7v.And for germanium diode barrier potential is 0.3v
- 7. Bulk resistance: The sum of ohmic resistances is called Bulk resistance RB=RP+RN It depends on the size of the p and n regions The bulk resistance is less than 1(ohm)
- 9. APPROXIMATION: We use approximations all the time in every day life.If someone ask you how old you are,you might answer 21(ideal).Or you might say 21 going on 22(2nd approximation).Or may be 21 year and 9 months(3rd approximation).Or if you want to be more accurate,21 year 9 months 3 days 30 minutes and 40 sec(exacts)
- 10. Ideal diode(1st approximation) Second Approximation Third Approximation
- 12. First approximation: This represent the diode as being ideal. The first approximation ignores leakage current,barrier potential and bulk resistance When an ideal diode is forward biased,the model is a closed switch When an ideal diode is reverse biased, the model is an open switch
- 14. Example: An ordinary switch has zero resistance when closed and infinite resistance when open.(Therefore an ideal diode acts like a switch)
- 16. 2nd approximation: This model assumes that no diode current flows until the forward bias across the diode reaches 0.7 volts This model ignores the exact shape of knee This model ignores the bulk resistance
- 19. 3rd approximation: This model assumes that no diode current flows until the forward bias across the diode reaches 0.7v This model ignores the exact shape of knee This model does account for the diode bulk resistance However,the bulk resistance that is less than 1(ohm) can be ignored)
- 20. the end