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### Diode & its Approximation

• 1.
• 2. Group members:  Kashaf Ejaz 15331553-092  Pakeeza Zainab 15331556-087
• 4. Introduction: Diode:  A nonlinear device.  The graph of current vs.voltage is not a straight line.  The diode voltage must exceed the barrier voltage to conduct.
• 5. The diode symbol looks like an arrow that points from the p side to the n side.
• 6. Knee voltage:  The voltage at which the current starts to increase rapidly is called the knee voltage of the diode  The knee voltage is equal to the barrier potential  Vk=0.7v(aproximately equal)  For silicon diode barrier potential is 0.7v.And for germanium diode barrier potential is 0.3v
• 7. Bulk resistance:  The sum of ohmic resistances is called Bulk resistance RB=RP+RN  It depends on the size of the p and n regions  The bulk resistance is less than 1(ohm)
• 9. APPROXIMATION:  We use approximations all the time in every day life.If someone ask you how old you are,you might answer 21(ideal).Or you might say 21 going on 22(2nd approximation).Or may be 21 year and 9 months(3rd approximation).Or if you want to be more accurate,21 year 9 months 3 days 30 minutes and 40 sec(exacts)
• 12. First approximation:  This represent the diode as being ideal.  The first approximation ignores leakage current,barrier potential and bulk resistance  When an ideal diode is forward biased,the model is a closed switch  When an ideal diode is reverse biased, the model is an open switch
• 13.
• 14. Example:  An ordinary switch has zero resistance when closed and infinite resistance when open.(Therefore an ideal diode acts like a switch)
• 16. 2nd approximation:  This model assumes that no diode current flows until the forward bias across the diode reaches 0.7 volts  This model ignores the exact shape of knee  This model ignores the bulk resistance
• 17.
• 19. 3rd approximation:  This model assumes that no diode current flows until the forward bias across the diode reaches 0.7v  This model ignores the exact shape of knee  This model does account for the diode bulk resistance  However,the bulk resistance that is less than 1(ohm) can be ignored)
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