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TheComplexitiesofSustainabilityandDesign:
Howsustainableareoursystemsdesigns?
Canwedesignsystemsforsustainability?
Jan Recker
QUT Business School, Queensland University of Technology
Can we design
Information Systems
that help greening the
planet?
Energy + Informatics < Energy
Watson, R.T., Boudreau, M.-C., and Chen, A.J. "Information Systems and Environmentally Sustainable Development:
Energy Informatics and New Directions for the IS Community," MIS Quarterly (34:1) 2010, pp 23-38.
Why prescriptive knowledge/ 
design can help.
▪ The research paradigm is 
about problem solving; 
it is about presenting 
solutions through 
systems and IT 
artifacts, broadly 
defined as constructs, 
models, methods, and 
instantiations.
▪ […]
▪ Design science is at the 
center of innovation 
creation and solution 
building.
▪ Goes 2014 MISQ Editorial 
Comments 
▪ design‐science research 
can produce both 
knowledge and change 
(Simon 1996)
Why I believe
Technology and Systems Design can help.
Paulo Goes, 2014: 
MISQ Editorial 
Comments
Herbert Simon, 
1996
The research paradigm is about problem 
solving; it is about presenting solutions 
through systems and IT artifacts, 
broadly defined as constructs, models, 
methods, and instantiations. […] Design 
science is at the center of innovation 
creation and solution building.
Design‐science 
research can 
produce both 
knowledge and 
change.
Design Science is a creative 
research paradigm that 
informs multiple audiences:
‐ Researchers: principles 
and mid‐range theories
‐ Practitioners: (product 
and process) instantiations
Gregor and Hevner, 
2013
Malhotra, A., Melville,
N.P., and Watson, R.T.
"Spurring Impactful
Research on
Information Systems
for Environmental
Sustainability," MIS
Quarterly (37:4) 2013,
pp 1265-1274.
The Void of
Ir-relevance…
Gholami, R., Watson, R.T., Hasan, 
H., Molla, A., and Bjørn‐Andersen, 
N. "Information Systems Solutions 
for Environmental Sustainability: 
How Can We Do More?," Journal of 
the Association for Information 
Systems (17:8) 2016, pp 521‐536.
…looks still
pretty void to me…
“… too few information systems (IS) academics 
engage in impactful research that offers 
solutions to global warming despite the fact 
that climate change is one of the most critical 
challenges facing this generation. […]
Unfortunately, from submissions of our call for 
papers presenting IS solutions for environmental 
sustainability, we found only one paper worthy 
of publication. […] Too few people are working 
on green IS given its importance, and fewer 
still are publishing papers about IS solutions
that could contribute to dealing with climate 
change.“
Gholami, R., Watson, R.T., Hasan, 
H., Molla, A., and Bjørn‐Andersen, 
N. "Information Systems Solutions 
for Environmental Sustainability: 
How Can We Do More?," Journal of 
the Association for Information 
Systems (17:8) 2016, pp 521‐536.
Do “Sustainable
(aka Green) Systems”
exist?
What always puzzled me
Seidel, S., Recker, J., and vom Brocke, J. "Sensemaking and Sustainable Practicing: Functional Affordances of Information 
Systems in Green Transformations," MIS Quarterly (37:4) 2013, pp 1275‐1299.
What is “Sustainable
Systems Design”?
Behavior [of individuals/systems/processes] that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future stakeholders to
meet their own needs
Stakeholders in #Dieselgate
▪ EPA:
– We must reduce the outlet of NOx from cars for 
health‐reasons.
▪ Society‐at‐large:
– We must avoid global warming.
▪ VW:
– We must sell cars.
▪ Buyers:
– We want cars that are… cheap. Good. Well‐
branded. Efficient. Green. 
▪ IFIP:
– We must foster an ethical and professional 
systems development profession.
#01
The volume and magnitude of stakeholders is much 
larger in sustainable design.
Sustainability requirements might span goals or 
interests of not only certain designers, end users, or 
organizations but also policy‐makers, society or the 
planet as a whole. Moreover, across these different 
stakeholders, sustainability goals may also conflict.
Complexity
Who are our relevant
Stakeholders?
#02
In systems design, the concept of an environment is not 
necessarily related to natural environments – systems 
have an inner and outer environment. Moreover, a 
system’s complexity must match the complexity of the 
environment in which it operates.
Artifacts must also adapt or cope with variations in the 
outer environment.
Complexity
What is the relevant
Environment?
#03
Sustainability is the capacity to meet the needs of the 
present without compromising the needs of the future. 
This implies a consideration of the relationship between 
people and nature as it evolves over time. This leads to 
staggered design objectives, e.g., creating information 
systems that (1) not worsen, (2) reduce, or (3) reverse 
environmental ill‐effects.
Complexity
How do we design
for the Future?
Present
Need
Future
Need
Fit with INNER 
environment
Allow for changing role
of stakeholders
Provide affordances 
for current 
stakeholders 
Provide 
affordances for 
future 
stakeholders 
Fit with OUTER 
environment
Promote sustainability fit: 
Conservation (will not consume or compromise) 
&
Restoration (allow return to equilibrium)
&
Resilience (be able to withstand and recover …)
DESIGN
Baskerville, R., Pries-Heje, J., and Recker, J. "Principles for Re-Designing Information Systems for Environmental Sustainability," in: ICT for
Promoting Human Development and Protecting the Environment: WITFOR 2016, F.J. Mata and A. Pont (eds.), Springer, San Jose, Costa Rica, 2016, pp.
14-25.
#01
A new, prescriptive, abstract‐level theory that informs 
designs principles for the development of a class of 
information systems, which can be called Green IS, as 
encompassing those kinds of information systems that 
assist individuals and/or organizations to perform 
environmentally sustainable work practices and make 
environmentally sustainable decisions.
Suggestion
Create a Grand Design Theory
to guide technology design
efforts.
OutcomeassessmentActionformationBeliefformation
Recker, J. "Toward A Design Theory for Green Information Systems," in: 49th Hawaiian International Conference on Systems Sciences, IEEE, 
Kuaui, Hawaii, 2016, pp. 4474‐4483.
Situating & Improving 
existing solutions
Hilpert, H., M. Schumann, and J. Kranz (2013) "Leveraging Green IS in 
Logistics: Developing an Artifact for Greenhouse Gas Emission Tracking", 
Business & Information Systems Engineering (5)5, pp. 315‐325
Reflecting on the state of 
knowledge
▪ We searched all papers on “sustainable 
systems”, across all sorts of 
publication databases
▪ We found 416 in total since 2010; 74 
that presented some sort of artefact.
– 36 of these were able to measure and report 
environmental data.
– Only 6 of these can be used to change 
people’s attitudes and beliefs.
– Only 11 of these allowed the users to 
actually make green actions or decisions.
Of course it’s possible.
Seidel, S. et al. "Design Principles for Sensemaking Support Systems in Environmental Sustainability Transformations," European
Journal of Information Systems (In Press) 2017, doi: 10.1057/s41303-017-0039-0.
Degirmenci, K., and Recker, J. "Boosting Green Behaviors through Information Systems that Enable Environmental Sensemaking," 37th 
International Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, Dublin, Ireland, 2016.
#02
Overcome limitations of single‐project, single‐objective 
and mono‐method research by embarking on larger‐
scale research that combines design and evaluation, 
that combines knowledge for action and knowledge for 
explanation & prediction.
Suggestion
Plan and execute
programmatic, pluralistic
research on Sustainable
Systems.
Theorize, Build, & Evaluate
The 
knowledge 
contribution
Theorizing the 
transformative role of 
IS for environmental 
sustainability.
The design 
contribution
Demonstrating how 
IS‐enabled solutions 
can be engineered.
The impact 
contribution
Evaluating scope, 
volume and also 
boundaries of 
consequences.
Experiential outcomesGamified information system Instrumental
outcomes
Gamification
design elements
• Objects
• Mechanics
Extrinsic
motivation
Perceived
usefulness
Intrinsic
motivation
Perceived
enjoyment
Intention to
use gamified
information
system
Energy
reduction
through actual
system use
Target system
• User
• Task
• Technology
User-system
interaction
Perceived
ease of use
Instrumental 
outcomes
Group Mean Std. error N 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Energy consumption
visual on 18.28 0.38 20 17.52 19.04
visual off 18.17 0.35 22 17.47 18.88
w/ audio 16.89* 0.39 21 16.11 17.68
Experiental outcomes Group Mean Std. Deviation N
Perceived usefulness
visual on 3.70 1.31 20
w/ audio 3.04 1.17 21
Perceived ease of use
visual on 4.25 1.45 20
w/ audio 4.11 0.91 21
Perceived enjoyment
visual on 4.48 1.15 20
w/ audio 3.38 1.30 21
Intention to use
visual on 3.79 1.22 20
w/ audio 2.51 1.38 21
#03
Develop, build and describe information systems 
solution that address core challenges of environmental 
sustainability – such as conservation, restoration and 
resilience – rather than measuring or minimizing some 
ecological footprint of some function by some users. 
Overcome situatedness and limited impact.
Suggestion
Develop dedicated IS solutions for
Grand Sustainability
Challenges.
• The community interested in System and Technology
Design is challenged even more than other streams to
produce impactful research on grand challenges.
– Do we live up to our own ambitions?
• Building “smart” information systems could be a powerful
solution-oriented approach to environmental sustainability.
– Are we doing this well (enough)?
• We need to agree on key concepts, problem space,
solution space and relevant metrics!
– What can we learn from other fields?
Main Takeaways
Prof. Jan Recker, PhD
QUT Business School
Digital Innovation Research Group
Queensland University of Technology
email j.recker@qut.edu.au
web www.janrecker.com
twitter @janrecker
Bibliography
▪ Baskerville, R., J. Pries‐Heje, and J. Recker (2016) “Principles for Re‐Designing Information 
Systems for Environmental Sustainability”, in Mata, F. J. and A. Pont (eds.) ICT for Promoting 
Human Development and Protecting the Environment: WITFOR 2016, San Jose, Costa Rica: Springer, pp. 
14‐25
▪ Degirmenci, K. and J. Recker (2016) “Winning the Environmental Challenge: Using Gamified 
Information Systems to Reduce Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles”, in  SIG Green Pre‐ICIS 
Workshop: Digital Innovation for Sustainability: Directions for Policy and Practice, Dublin, 
Ireland: Sprouts
▪ Degirmenci, K. and J. Recker (2016) “Boosting Green Behaviors through Information Systems that 
Enable Environmental Sensemaking”, in  37th International Conference on Information Systems, 
Dublin, Ireland: Association for Information Systems
▪ Loeser, F., J. Recker, J. vom Brocke, A. Molla, and R. Zarnekow (2017) "How IT Executives Create 
Organizational Benefits by Translating Environmental Strategies into Green IS Initiatives", 
Information Systems Journal (27)
▪ Loos, P., W. Nebel, J. M. Gomez, H. Hasan, R. T. Watson, J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, and J. Recker 
(2011) "Green IT: A Matter of Business and Information Systems Engineering?", Business & 
Information Systems Engineering (11)4, pp. 245‐252
▪ Recker, J. (2016) “Toward A Design Theory for Green Information Systems”, in 49th Hawaiian 
International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kuaui, Hawaii: IEEE, pp. 4474‐4483
▪ Seidel, S., J. Recker, and J. vom Brocke (2013) "Sensemaking and Sustainable Practicing: Functional 
Affordances of Information Systems in Green Transformations", MIS Quarterly (37)4, pp. 1275‐1299
▪ vom Brocke, J., S. Seidel, and J. Recker (2012) Green Business Process Management: Towards the 
Sustainable Enterprise, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer

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