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Contemporary Linux Networking
Confessions of a Professional Freifunker
DENOG9
Maximilian Wilhelm
<max@sdn.clinic>
@BarbarossaTM
2
Who am I?
● Maximilian Wilhelm
– @BarbarossaTM
● Senior Infrastructure Architect, Uni Paderborn
● Infrastructure Archmage, Freifunk Hochstift
● Fanboy of
– (Debian) Linux
– ifupdown2
● Networker
● OpenSource Hacker
Agenda
● The Old Gods and the New
● ifupdown2
● VRFs
● VXLAN
● VLAN-aware bridges
● MPLS
● DIY-SDN
root@Stretch:~$ ifconfig
-bash: ifconfig: command not found
root@Stretch:~$ route
-bash: route: command not found
root@Stretch:~$ arp
-bash: arp: command not found
● vconfig
● ifenslave
● iproute2 – Swiss Army knife for networkers
● Functions cleanly separated into subcommands
● ip link – L2: MTU, VLANs, LAGs, bridges, ...
● ip addr – L3 addresses
● ip neigh – ARP/ND
● ip route – Routing + MPLS
Old vs. New
vconfig add eth0 42
→ ip link add vlan42 link eth0
type vlan id 42
ifenslave bond0 eth0
→ ip link add bond0 type bond mode 4
ip link set master bond0 dev eth0→
arp
→ ip -4 neigh
Old vs. New - Bridges
brctl addbr br0
➔ ip link add br0 type bridge
[ forward_delay FORWARD_DELAY ]
...
[ vlan_filtering VLAN_FILTERING ]
[ vlan_default_pvid VLAN_D_PVID ]
...
[ nf_call_iptables NF_CALL_IPT ]
...
brctl addif br0 eth0
➔ ip link set eth0 master br0
8
Network interface configuration
● Classic ifupdown not easily automated
● Generating /etc/network/interfaces simple
● How to reload?
– »service networking restart« disruptive
– No tool for “reload” present
– Isn't trivial to build
➔ CumulusNetworks Ifupdown2
– Rewrite of ifupdown in Python
– https://github.com/CumulusNetworks/ifupdown2
9
ifupdown2
● No full feature parity with ifupdown (yet?)
● Shipped with batteries included
– dependency resolution
– ifreload
– VRFs
– VXLAN
– VLAN-aware bridges
● Not (yet) supportedmerged:
– ppp
10
ifupdown2 Patches
● Easy to extend, thanks to Python
● Upstream open for ideas (Hi Julien & Roopa)
● Added support for
– B.A.T.M.A.N. interfaces
– Tunnel (GRE, SIT, IPIP, GRETAP)
● Open Pull-Requests for
– Condoning bridge interfaces for configuration
– Setting phys-dev for VXLAN
– Setting vEth peer name
11
VRFs
● Independent routing instances
– L3-VPNs
– Usually in combination with MPLS
● Related features
– Policy-Routing (since Kernel 2.2)
● Old and busted
● Management headache
– Network Namespaces (Kernel 2.6.24++)
● Sometimes “too much” separation
12
VRFs on Linux
● Separation for Layer3 communication
● VRF interface is master for “real” interfaces
– Defines routing table for VRF
● Since Kernel 4.[345] (use >= 4.9)
https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/to
rvalds/linux.git/tree/Documentation/networking/
vrf.txt
https://cumulusnetworks.com/blog/vrf-for-linux/
https://de.slideshare.net/CumulusNetworks/opera
tionalizing-vrf-in-the-data-center
13
VRFs on Linux
ip link add VRF_DEVICE type vrf
table ID
ip link set dev DEVICE
master VRF_DEVICE
Note:
● Device routes move from table main and local
to table $ID
14
VRFs with ifupdown2
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 185.46.137.163/25
address 2a00:13c8:1000:2::163/64
gateway 185.46.137.129
gateway 2a00:13c8:1000:2::1
vrf vrf_external
auto vrf_external
iface vrf_external
vrf-table 1023
15
inter VRF Communication
● Requires vEth pair
– Like a virtual network cable within the box
● A end in main VRF, Z end in VRF “foo”
● Usual routing
– Static
– Bird talking BGP to itself
– ...
16
vEth interfaces w/o + w/ ifupdown2
ip link add VETH_END1 type veth
peer name VETH_END2
iface veth_ext2int
link-type veth
veth-peer-name veth_int2ext
vrf vrf_external
iface veth_int2ext
link-type veth
veth-peer-name veth_ext2int
17
VXLAN
● “Ethernet over UDP”
– Or: “Poor mans approach to MPLS”
● Designed as Layer2 overlay for DCs
– Multi-tenant Overlay over IP-Fabric
– 24Bit VNI => 16M Instances
– Unicast/Multicast communication
● Read: VLL / VPLS
– Endpoints = VTEP (VXLAN Tunnel End Point)
● RFC7348
18
VTEPs on Linux
ip link add DEVICE type vxlan id ID
[ dev PHYS_DEV ]
[ { group | remote } IPADDR ]
[ local { IPADDR | any } ]
[ … ]
bridge fdb show [ brport DEVICE ]
19
VTEPs with ifupdown2
# vx_v2001_padcty
auto vx_v2001_padcty
iface vx_v2001_padcty
vxlan-id 1310977
vxlan-physdev vlan2001
vxlan-svcnodeip 225.20.1.1
#
hwaddress f2:00:c1:01:20:01
mtu 1560
VLAN-aware bridges
● VLANs and bridges have been a challenge
● That ain't true no more
– echo 1 > /sys/class/net/br0/bridge/
vlan_filtering
– Now it's a “regular switch”
● Configured with bridge utility from iproute
● Simple KVM/Qemu hook for VLAN assignment
– https://github.com/FreifunkHochstift/ffho-salt-
public/blob/master/kvm/qemu-hook
Bridge utility
bridge vlan { add | del }
vid VLAN_ID dev DEV
[ pvid ] [ untagged ]
[ self ] [ master ]
bridge vlan show [ dev DEV ]
[ vid VLAN_ID ]
● Related:
bridge fdb [...]
VLAN-aware bridges w/ ifupdown2
iface br0
bridge-ports bond0
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-vids 1013 4002
iface bond0
bridge-vids 100 101 200 201 1013 2000 [..]
iface cr02_eth1
bridge-vids 1013 2000 2004 2006 3002
iface br0.1013
address 10.132.252.22/28
[…]
MPLS
● Forwarding path available in vanilla kernel
– Use >= 4.9
● Requires iproute >= 4.3
ip -f mpls or ip -M
● Enable use of labels up to n
sysctl -w net.mpls.platform_labels=n
● Enable MPLS decap on $iface
sysctl -w net.mpls.conf.$iface.input=1
MPLS
● Push
ip route add 10.23.42.0/24 encap
mpls 100 via inet 192.168.42.23
● Swap (100 → 200)
ip -f mpls route add 100 as 200 via
inet 192.168.47.11
● Pop
ip -f mpls route add 300 dev lo
25
The SDN part
#SDN
Disclaimer: Font on special request of AbraXXL
26
Wireless Backbone (planned)
27
Cyber Supply Chain
SDN ingredients
ifupdown2
28
Pillar Example
bbr-vega.in.ffho.net:
id: 198
sysLocation: Vega
roles:
- router
- batman
- bbr
sites:
- pad-cty
Quelle für Loopback-IP
Bird config (OSPF + iBGP)
Source for Loopback-IP
Generate Batman interfaces
Batman instances
29
Pillar Example contd.
ifaces:
bond0:
bond-slaves: "eth0 eth1 eth2"
vlan1002:
desc: "<-> gw04"
vlan-raw-device: bond0
prefixes:
- 10.132.253.58/31
- 2a03:2260:2342:fe1c::1/126
batman_connect_sites: pad-cty
[...]
Source for /etc/network/interfaces
Generate VXLAN
overlay
30
IPoBATMANoVXLANoIPoVLANoRF
● Wait, what?
Ethernet (RF / Kabel)
Vlan
IP
VXLAN
B.A.T.M.A.N. Adv.
VXLAN
IP
31
Lessons Learned
32
Offloading
● Difference between 4KB/s and 40MB/s...
for iface in eth0 eth1; do
for feature in sg gro gso tso; do
ethtool --offload ${iface}
${feature} off
done
done
https://downloadmirror.intel.com/22919/eng/README.txt
33
OpenVPN vs. VRFs
● Lots of OpenVPN tunnels
● OpenVPN tunnel should use VRF “external”
● Needed a small patch
setsockopt (sd, SOL_SOCKET,
SO_BINDTODEVICE, dev, strlen(dev)
+1);
● https://github.com/OpenVPN/openvpn/pull/65
– Hi Gert, are you here?
34
Systemd + OpenVPN vs. ifup
● Lots of OpenVPN instances
● up /etc/openvpn/ifup
– ifup “$1”
● Thanks to systemd all starting in parallel
– Some ifup calls in parallel
– Nearly no IPs configured anywhere
– Damn
➔ flock –exclusive –wait 30
35
Further Reading
● Salt-Orchestrated Software Defined (Freifunk)
Network (german)
– https://www.slideshare.net/BarbarossaTM/software
-defined-freifunk-backbones-78288014
● Blog series DIY-SDN with OSS
– https://blog.sdn.clinic/2017/09/building-your-own-
software-defined-network-with-linux-and-open-
source-tools/
● #routingdays – Learn to build the Internet
– https://blog.sdn.clinic/2017/09/ffrl-routingdays-
learn-to-build-the-internet/
36
Questions? Remarks?
Tell me:
Maximilian Wilhelm
<max@elitepeer.de>
@BarbarossaTM
37
Freifunkromantik

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Contemporary Linux Networking

  • 1. Contemporary Linux Networking Confessions of a Professional Freifunker DENOG9 Maximilian Wilhelm <max@sdn.clinic> @BarbarossaTM
  • 2. 2 Who am I? ● Maximilian Wilhelm – @BarbarossaTM ● Senior Infrastructure Architect, Uni Paderborn ● Infrastructure Archmage, Freifunk Hochstift ● Fanboy of – (Debian) Linux – ifupdown2 ● Networker ● OpenSource Hacker
  • 3. Agenda ● The Old Gods and the New ● ifupdown2 ● VRFs ● VXLAN ● VLAN-aware bridges ● MPLS ● DIY-SDN
  • 4. root@Stretch:~$ ifconfig -bash: ifconfig: command not found root@Stretch:~$ route -bash: route: command not found root@Stretch:~$ arp -bash: arp: command not found ● vconfig ● ifenslave
  • 5. ● iproute2 – Swiss Army knife for networkers ● Functions cleanly separated into subcommands ● ip link – L2: MTU, VLANs, LAGs, bridges, ... ● ip addr – L3 addresses ● ip neigh – ARP/ND ● ip route – Routing + MPLS
  • 6. Old vs. New vconfig add eth0 42 → ip link add vlan42 link eth0 type vlan id 42 ifenslave bond0 eth0 → ip link add bond0 type bond mode 4 ip link set master bond0 dev eth0→ arp → ip -4 neigh
  • 7. Old vs. New - Bridges brctl addbr br0 ➔ ip link add br0 type bridge [ forward_delay FORWARD_DELAY ] ... [ vlan_filtering VLAN_FILTERING ] [ vlan_default_pvid VLAN_D_PVID ] ... [ nf_call_iptables NF_CALL_IPT ] ... brctl addif br0 eth0 ➔ ip link set eth0 master br0
  • 8. 8 Network interface configuration ● Classic ifupdown not easily automated ● Generating /etc/network/interfaces simple ● How to reload? – »service networking restart« disruptive – No tool for “reload” present – Isn't trivial to build ➔ CumulusNetworks Ifupdown2 – Rewrite of ifupdown in Python – https://github.com/CumulusNetworks/ifupdown2
  • 9. 9 ifupdown2 ● No full feature parity with ifupdown (yet?) ● Shipped with batteries included – dependency resolution – ifreload – VRFs – VXLAN – VLAN-aware bridges ● Not (yet) supportedmerged: – ppp
  • 10. 10 ifupdown2 Patches ● Easy to extend, thanks to Python ● Upstream open for ideas (Hi Julien & Roopa) ● Added support for – B.A.T.M.A.N. interfaces – Tunnel (GRE, SIT, IPIP, GRETAP) ● Open Pull-Requests for – Condoning bridge interfaces for configuration – Setting phys-dev for VXLAN – Setting vEth peer name
  • 11. 11 VRFs ● Independent routing instances – L3-VPNs – Usually in combination with MPLS ● Related features – Policy-Routing (since Kernel 2.2) ● Old and busted ● Management headache – Network Namespaces (Kernel 2.6.24++) ● Sometimes “too much” separation
  • 12. 12 VRFs on Linux ● Separation for Layer3 communication ● VRF interface is master for “real” interfaces – Defines routing table for VRF ● Since Kernel 4.[345] (use >= 4.9) https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/to rvalds/linux.git/tree/Documentation/networking/ vrf.txt https://cumulusnetworks.com/blog/vrf-for-linux/ https://de.slideshare.net/CumulusNetworks/opera tionalizing-vrf-in-the-data-center
  • 13. 13 VRFs on Linux ip link add VRF_DEVICE type vrf table ID ip link set dev DEVICE master VRF_DEVICE Note: ● Device routes move from table main and local to table $ID
  • 14. 14 VRFs with ifupdown2 auto eth0 iface eth0 address 185.46.137.163/25 address 2a00:13c8:1000:2::163/64 gateway 185.46.137.129 gateway 2a00:13c8:1000:2::1 vrf vrf_external auto vrf_external iface vrf_external vrf-table 1023
  • 15. 15 inter VRF Communication ● Requires vEth pair – Like a virtual network cable within the box ● A end in main VRF, Z end in VRF “foo” ● Usual routing – Static – Bird talking BGP to itself – ...
  • 16. 16 vEth interfaces w/o + w/ ifupdown2 ip link add VETH_END1 type veth peer name VETH_END2 iface veth_ext2int link-type veth veth-peer-name veth_int2ext vrf vrf_external iface veth_int2ext link-type veth veth-peer-name veth_ext2int
  • 17. 17 VXLAN ● “Ethernet over UDP” – Or: “Poor mans approach to MPLS” ● Designed as Layer2 overlay for DCs – Multi-tenant Overlay over IP-Fabric – 24Bit VNI => 16M Instances – Unicast/Multicast communication ● Read: VLL / VPLS – Endpoints = VTEP (VXLAN Tunnel End Point) ● RFC7348
  • 18. 18 VTEPs on Linux ip link add DEVICE type vxlan id ID [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ { group | remote } IPADDR ] [ local { IPADDR | any } ] [ … ] bridge fdb show [ brport DEVICE ]
  • 19. 19 VTEPs with ifupdown2 # vx_v2001_padcty auto vx_v2001_padcty iface vx_v2001_padcty vxlan-id 1310977 vxlan-physdev vlan2001 vxlan-svcnodeip 225.20.1.1 # hwaddress f2:00:c1:01:20:01 mtu 1560
  • 20. VLAN-aware bridges ● VLANs and bridges have been a challenge ● That ain't true no more – echo 1 > /sys/class/net/br0/bridge/ vlan_filtering – Now it's a “regular switch” ● Configured with bridge utility from iproute ● Simple KVM/Qemu hook for VLAN assignment – https://github.com/FreifunkHochstift/ffho-salt- public/blob/master/kvm/qemu-hook
  • 21. Bridge utility bridge vlan { add | del } vid VLAN_ID dev DEV [ pvid ] [ untagged ] [ self ] [ master ] bridge vlan show [ dev DEV ] [ vid VLAN_ID ] ● Related: bridge fdb [...]
  • 22. VLAN-aware bridges w/ ifupdown2 iface br0 bridge-ports bond0 bridge-vlan-aware yes bridge-vids 1013 4002 iface bond0 bridge-vids 100 101 200 201 1013 2000 [..] iface cr02_eth1 bridge-vids 1013 2000 2004 2006 3002 iface br0.1013 address 10.132.252.22/28 […]
  • 23. MPLS ● Forwarding path available in vanilla kernel – Use >= 4.9 ● Requires iproute >= 4.3 ip -f mpls or ip -M ● Enable use of labels up to n sysctl -w net.mpls.platform_labels=n ● Enable MPLS decap on $iface sysctl -w net.mpls.conf.$iface.input=1
  • 24. MPLS ● Push ip route add 10.23.42.0/24 encap mpls 100 via inet 192.168.42.23 ● Swap (100 → 200) ip -f mpls route add 100 as 200 via inet 192.168.47.11 ● Pop ip -f mpls route add 300 dev lo
  • 25. 25 The SDN part #SDN Disclaimer: Font on special request of AbraXXL
  • 27. 27 Cyber Supply Chain SDN ingredients ifupdown2
  • 28. 28 Pillar Example bbr-vega.in.ffho.net: id: 198 sysLocation: Vega roles: - router - batman - bbr sites: - pad-cty Quelle für Loopback-IP Bird config (OSPF + iBGP) Source for Loopback-IP Generate Batman interfaces Batman instances
  • 29. 29 Pillar Example contd. ifaces: bond0: bond-slaves: "eth0 eth1 eth2" vlan1002: desc: "<-> gw04" vlan-raw-device: bond0 prefixes: - 10.132.253.58/31 - 2a03:2260:2342:fe1c::1/126 batman_connect_sites: pad-cty [...] Source for /etc/network/interfaces Generate VXLAN overlay
  • 30. 30 IPoBATMANoVXLANoIPoVLANoRF ● Wait, what? Ethernet (RF / Kabel) Vlan IP VXLAN B.A.T.M.A.N. Adv. VXLAN IP
  • 32. 32 Offloading ● Difference between 4KB/s and 40MB/s... for iface in eth0 eth1; do for feature in sg gro gso tso; do ethtool --offload ${iface} ${feature} off done done https://downloadmirror.intel.com/22919/eng/README.txt
  • 33. 33 OpenVPN vs. VRFs ● Lots of OpenVPN tunnels ● OpenVPN tunnel should use VRF “external” ● Needed a small patch setsockopt (sd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_BINDTODEVICE, dev, strlen(dev) +1); ● https://github.com/OpenVPN/openvpn/pull/65 – Hi Gert, are you here?
  • 34. 34 Systemd + OpenVPN vs. ifup ● Lots of OpenVPN instances ● up /etc/openvpn/ifup – ifup “$1” ● Thanks to systemd all starting in parallel – Some ifup calls in parallel – Nearly no IPs configured anywhere – Damn ➔ flock –exclusive –wait 30
  • 35. 35 Further Reading ● Salt-Orchestrated Software Defined (Freifunk) Network (german) – https://www.slideshare.net/BarbarossaTM/software -defined-freifunk-backbones-78288014 ● Blog series DIY-SDN with OSS – https://blog.sdn.clinic/2017/09/building-your-own- software-defined-network-with-linux-and-open- source-tools/ ● #routingdays – Learn to build the Internet – https://blog.sdn.clinic/2017/09/ffrl-routingdays- learn-to-build-the-internet/
  • 36. 36 Questions? Remarks? Tell me: Maximilian Wilhelm <max@elitepeer.de> @BarbarossaTM