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Dynamische Routingprotokolle Aufzucht und Pflege - OSPF

Herzlichen Glückwunsch! Sie dürfen ein Netzwerk mit mehr als 2 Routern administrieren. Dieser Vortrag erläutert, warum statisches Routing keine Lösung ist und schneller als einem lieb ist zum Problem werden kann. Als Einführung in dynamisches Routing und OSPF, erklärt dieser Vortrag wie sich Router gegenseitig finden, Routen austauschen, was eine Area ist und wie die Link-State Datenbank funktioniert. OSPF wird praktisch am Beispiel des Bird Internet Routing Daemons und in Zusammenspiel mit klassischen Herstellern gezeigt.

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Open Shortest Path First
FrOSCon 13 Network Track
Falk Stern, Maximilian Wilhelm
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Agenda
1. Who's who
2. Static Routing
3. Dynamic Routing
1. RIP - Distance Vector
2. OSPF - Link State Routing
4. OSPF on Linux (Bird)
5. OSPF on Vendor Hardware
6. Summary
2 / 39
Who's who Falk Stern
Full Stack Infrastructure Engineer
IPv6 fanboy
Runs his own Kubernetes cluster in his basement
Consultant @ Profi Engineering Systems AG
Contact
@wrf42
falk@fourecks.de
3 / 39
Who's who Maximilian Wilhelm
Networker
OpenSource Hacker
Fanboy of
(Debian) Linux
ifupdown2
Occupation:
By day: Senior Infrastructure Architect, Uni Paderborn
By night: Infrastructure Archmage, Freifunk Hochstift
In between: Freelance Solution Architect for hire
Contact
@BarbarossaTM
max@sdn.clinic
4 / 39
Who's who
Theory
Problem statement
Consider the following network
AS39225
CoreBorder
Internet
br-01 cr-E cr-A
cr-D cr-B
cr-C
dr-02
5 / 39
Who's who
Theory
Static Routing
Every host on the network has to be told how to reach different subnets
Everything has to be configured by hand
Work scales exponentially
If you miss a system, it doesn't work
Don't do this
6 / 39
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Dynamische Routingprotokolle Aufzucht und Pflege - OSPF

  • 1. Open Shortest Path First FrOSCon 13 Network Track Falk Stern, Maximilian Wilhelm 1 / 39
  • 2. Agenda 1. Who's who 2. Static Routing 3. Dynamic Routing 1. RIP - Distance Vector 2. OSPF - Link State Routing 4. OSPF on Linux (Bird) 5. OSPF on Vendor Hardware 6. Summary 2 / 39
  • 3. Who's who Falk Stern Full Stack Infrastructure Engineer IPv6 fanboy Runs his own Kubernetes cluster in his basement Consultant @ Profi Engineering Systems AG Contact @wrf42 falk@fourecks.de 3 / 39
  • 4. Who's who Maximilian Wilhelm Networker OpenSource Hacker Fanboy of (Debian) Linux ifupdown2 Occupation: By day: Senior Infrastructure Architect, Uni Paderborn By night: Infrastructure Archmage, Freifunk Hochstift In between: Freelance Solution Architect for hire Contact @BarbarossaTM max@sdn.clinic 4 / 39
  • 5. Who's who Theory Problem statement Consider the following network AS39225 CoreBorder Internet br-01 cr-E cr-A cr-D cr-B cr-C dr-02 5 / 39
  • 6. Who's who Theory Static Routing Every host on the network has to be told how to reach different subnets Everything has to be configured by hand Work scales exponentially If you miss a system, it doesn't work Don't do this 6 / 39
  • 7. Who's who Theory Dynamic Routing Systems propagate their routing information to other systems Paths to new networks are added automatically Only initial configuration required when adding a router Two types of routing protocols Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) RIP OSPF IS-IS EIGRP Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP) BGP 7 / 39
  • 8. Who's who Theory Distance Vector Routers always send their complete routing table with increased metrics Metrics are counted to infinity where infinity = 15 Example: Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 8 / 39
  • 9. Who's who Theory Link State Routing In a hierarchical area, routers only send their linkstates Between areas, linkstates are summarized Every router calculates its own routing table, based on received LSAs* LSAs include metrics, bandwidth or other information Metrics are calculated based on interface costs Examples: Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Paths are calculated with the Dijkstra algorithm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dijkstra%27s_algorithm *Link State Advertisments 9 / 39
  • 11. Who's who Theory OSPF What is OSPF? Open Source implementation of a Link State Routing Protocol OSPF v2 Defined in RFC1247 Supports only IPv4 OSPF v3 Defined in RFC5838 and RFC6969 Supports IPv4 and IPv6 but requires IPv6 to work Implemented in all major routing suites and vendors Interoperable Uses fixed multicast addresses 224.0.0.5 (ospf-all.mcast.net) 224.0.0.6 (ospf-dsig.mcast.net) 11 / 39
  • 13. Who's who Theory OSPF Roles Designated Router (DR) / Backup Designated Router (BDR) The DR synchronizes all LSAs in a broadcast network, the BDR is it's backup BDR takes over when DR fails and a new BDR is elected Originates LSAs to other areas on behalf of the network 13 / 39
  • 14. Who's who Theory OSPF Roles Area Border Router (ABR) Has interfaces in at least 2 areas Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) Has interfaces outside the AS 14 / 39
  • 15. Who's who Theory OSPF Link State Advertisements Type 1 - Represents a router Type 2 - Represents the pseudonode (designated router) for a multiaccess link Type 3 - A network link summary (internal route) Type 4 - Represents an ASBR Type 5 - A route external to the OSPF domain Type 7 - Used in NSSA in place of a type 5 LSA 15 / 39
  • 16. Who's who Theory OSPF Areas OSPF Networks can be split into multiple areas Area 0 defined as backbone area Each area has to be connected to area 0 If it can't be connected to area 0, you have to define virtual links Traffic between areas always traverses area 0 Keep it simple: no need for multiple areas with less than 60 routers Area 0 CoreBorder Internet br-01 cr-E cr-A cr-D cr-B cr-C ASBR dr-02 16 / 39
  • 17. Who's who Theory OSPF Standard area Image stolen from http://packetlife.net with permission 17 / 39
  • 18. Who's who Theory OSPF Stub area Image stolen from http://packetlife.net with permission 18 / 39
  • 19. Who's who Theory OSPF Not so stubby area Image stolen from http://packetlife.net with permission 19 / 39
  • 20. Who's who Theory OSPF Totally stubby area Image stolen from http://packetlife.net with permission 20 / 39
  • 21. Who's who Theory OSPF Route Types 1. Intra-Area (O) 2. Inter-Area (O IA) 3. External Type 1 (E1) 4. NSSA External Type 1 (N1) 5. External Type 2 (E2) 6. NSSA External Type 2 (N2) Routes are preferred in this order as of RFC3101 21 / 39
  • 23. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Reminder: Our topology Area 0 CoreBorder Internet br-01 cr-E cr-A cr-D cr-B cr-C ASBR dr-02 23 / 39
  • 24. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux OSPF on Linux / Bird Some Routing Daemon required We'll use Bird Internet Routing Daemon (Bird) Implements OSPF & BGP One daemon for IPv4, one for IPv6 Configured via /etc/bird/bird{,6}.conf Controlled by birdc / birdc6 CLI tool http://bird.network.cz/ Use version >= 1.6.3 24 / 39
  • 25. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration (common) # /etc/bird/bird6.conf # ID of this router (32bit value) - usually it's the loopback Legacy-IP router id 194.107.207.0; # This pseudo-protocol watches all interface up/down events. protocol device { scan time 10; # Scan interfaces every 10 seconds } protocol kernel { # learn; # Learn all alien routes from the kernel # persist; # Don't remove routes on bird shutdown import none; # Don't import any route from the kernel into bird export all; # Export all routers from bird into kernel routing table # kernel table 5; # Kernel table to synchronize with (default: main) } # Read further config snippets for IPv6 daemon include "/etc/bird/bird6.d/*.conf"; 25 / 39
  • 26. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration (OSPF IPv4) # # /etc/bird/bird.d/ospf.conf # protocol ospf IGP { import all; export none; # Backbone Area area 0 { # Use Loopback as passive interface interface "lo" { stub yes; }; # X-Link cr-E interface "eth1"; }; } 26 / 39
  • 27. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration (OSPF IPv6/simple) # # /etc/bird/bird6.d/ospf.conf # protocol direct lo_v6 { interface "lo"; } protocol ospf IGP { import all; export where proto = "lo_v6"; area 0 { interface "lo" { stub yes; }; # X-Link cr-E interface "eth1"; }; } 27 / 39
  • 28. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration (OSPF IPv6/Adv.) # # /etc/bird/bird6.d/ospf.conf # protocol direct lo_v6 { interface "lo"; } protocol ospf IGP { import all; export filter { if proto = "lo_v6" then { ospf_metric1 = 100; accept; } }; area 0 { interface "lo" { stub yes; }; # X-Link cr-E interface "eth1"; }; } 28 / 39
  • 29. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration management Bird daemon can be controlled by birdc6 (or birdc respectivly) br-01.in.fc13.sdn.clinic:~# birdc6 BIRD 1.6.3 ready. bird> Interactive shell allows shortcuts and TAB completion Use ? for help Commands can be given on shell command line, too br-01.in.fc13.sdn.clinic:~# birdc6 "show route ::/0" BIRD 1.6.3 ready. bird> show route ::/0 ::/0 via 2a03:2260:0:1aa::1 on ... [as201701_a 2018-08-17] * (100) [AS201701i] via 2a03:2260:0:1ab::1 on ... [as201701_b 2018-08-19] (100) [AS201701i] 29 / 39
  • 30. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration management Useful commands # Reload configuration from disk configure # Show interfaces configured for OSPF show ospf interfaces # Show OSPF neighbors and their state show ospf neighbors # Show OSPF link state database show ospf lsadb 30 / 39
  • 31. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Bird con guration management # Display route(s) show route [all] [primary] show route for <prefix> all # Show configured protocols with their state (OSPF, direct, static, kernel...) show protocols # Show routes of a specific protocol show route protocol <protocol> # Count number of prefixes show route [protocol <protocol>] count [primary] 31 / 39
  • 32. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Let's do this live! Area 0 CoreBorder Internet br-01 cr-E cr-A cr-D cr-B cr-C ASBR dr-02 32 / 39
  • 33. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Vendors And now about vendor OSPF con g (Cisco IOS) ! Legacy-IP router ospf 1 ! Log if things happen log-adjacency-changes ! By default we don't talk OSPF to neighbors passive-interface default ! On these interfaces we do no passive-interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1 no passive-interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2 ! IP ! Explicitly enable IPv6 routing ipv6 unicast-routing ipv6 router ospf 1 log-adjacency-changes passive-interface default no passive-interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1 no passive-interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2 33 / 39
  • 34. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Vendors And now about vendor OSPF con g (Cisco IOS) interface Loopback0 ip address 194.107.207.7 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 1 area 0 ipv6 enable ipv6 address 2A07:ED07:FC13:FFFF::7/128 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1 description -> cr-A no switchport ip address 194.107.207.37 255.255.255.254 ip ospf 1 area 0 ipv6 enable ipv6 address 2A07:ED07:FC13:FE05::2/126 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 ! interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2 description cr-B no switchport ip address 194.107.207.35 255.255.255.254 ip ospf 1 area 0 ipv6 enable ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 34 / 39
  • 35. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Vendors And now about vendor OSPF con g (Cisco IOS) IPv6, the second class citizen... dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config)#sdm prefer dual-ipv4-and-ipv6 routing Changes to the running SDM preferences have been stored, but cannot take effect until the next reload. Use 'show sdm prefer' to see what SDM preference is currently active. dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 % IPv6 routing not enabled dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config-rtr)# dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 OSPFv3: No IPV6 enabled on this interface dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config-if)#ipv6 enable dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 dr-02.in.fc13.sdn.cl(config-if)# 35 / 39
  • 37. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Takeaways Key takeaways Don't do static routing OSPF is a go-to IGP It's interoperable and platform independent Use only Area 0 unless you REALLY need more Bird is a versatile multi platform routing daemon 37 / 39
  • 38. Who's who Theory OSPF Linux Takeaways Links Further Reading https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPtr43KHBGk Routing TCP/IP Volume I - Jeff Doyle & Jennifer DeHaven Carroll, 2005 https://packetlife.net/ 38 / 39