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ConímbrigAR: A Prototype
Augmented Mobile
Application for Exploration of
Roman Mosaics
2ªs Jornadas de Documentação e Representação Digital de Bens Culturais,
19-20 Oct, School of Arts, Porto, 2018
André Belo, Jorge C. S. Cardoso
CISUC/DEI, Universidade de Coimbra
Contents
1. “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” project
2. Digital Tools for Exploring Roman Mosaic
3. Prototype AR Application
4. AR Framework Testing
“Mosaico -
Conímbriga e
Sicó” Project
“Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project
● Integrated into the CREATOUR
national project as a pilot
initiative - Creative Tourism
Destination Development in
Small Cities and Rural Areas
● “Mosaico – Conímbriga e Sicó”
is a creative tourism project
based on the Roman Mosaic
heritage
○ Develops educational, cultural, and
creative activities around Roman
Mosaic
“Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project
● Based on the valuable Roman
Mosaic Heritage present in the
geographical axis constituted by
○ the Ruins of the Roman city of
Conímbriga,
○ the Roman Villa of Rabaçal, and
○ the Monumental Complex of
Santiago da Guarda.
● Headquartered in the
“Monographic Museum of
Conímbriga – National Museum”
○ an important center for
archaeological research,
conservation and restoration of
Roman Mosaic in Portugal
“Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project
● Promotes cultural and creative
activities within the museums,
interpretative centers and
archaeological sites included in
its program of action.
● The visitors are invited to be
involved in alternative
experiences of sharing
knowledge about the Roman
Mosaic Heritage
● Mosaic as an expression of
creativity brought into the
present and reinterpreted now
and in the future.
Digital Tools for
Exploring
Roman Mosaic
In the context of the “Mosaico -
Conímbriga e Sicó” project
Various planned digital tools to
support different activities for
exploring roman mosaic
Mosaic Editor
● Support for mosaic workshops
for non-professionals
Mosaic Programming Environment
● Learning computer
programming by creating
mosaic patterns
Innovative Interactive Experiences
● Sandbox early prototype
● Interactive experiences for kids
● Digging mosaics simulations
Augmented
Reality Mobile
Application
An AR application that provides
in-place, contextual information
about the roman mosaics
Augmented Reality Mobile Application
● Technical information about the
mosaics, for example, when they
were uncovered, what was the
latest conservation or
restoration work, etc.
● Provide additional conservation
and restoration information, for
example, display image overlays
of the conservation or
restoration works on mosaics
over time.
Augmented Reality Mobile Application
● Provide a platform for the
visualization of virtual
restoration of the existing
mosaics. The virtual restoration
images could be created by
different audiences with
different purposes. For example,
in the context of a school visit,
students could digitally
manipulate mosaic images and
creatively “restore” missing
parts which could then be
experienced through the AR
application.
Augmented Reality Mobile Application
● Provide visual indication
regarding specific aspects of the
various mosaics.
● For example, mosaics could be
highlighted with graphical
information regarding the
various motifs found in the
mosaics
○ geometric patterns, animals, plants,
compositions, mythological figures,
etc.
Augmented Reality Mobile Application
● Hybrid application (run on
Android, iOS, etc.)
○ Lower development effort
● What AR development
frameworks are most suitable
for detecting mosaics?
Types of Augmented Reality - Location Based
● Based on coordinates (e.g., GPS)
● Imprecise, not enough to overlay mosaic details
Types of Augmented Reality - (Structured) Marker Based
● Based on a pre-defined, structured visual marker image
● Very precise, requires placement of artificial markers on site
Types of Augmented Reality - (Natural Image Features) Marker
Based
● Based on a pre-defined natural images (targets)
● Very precise, if targets are good enough
● May be used against natural images on site
● Usually used with printed images
Types of Augmented Reality - Markerless Based
● Based on detection of planar surfaces
● Not contextual
AR Development Frameworks
● We studied multi-platform AR development frameworks and their
features
○ We wanted natural image features
● Narrowed down to 3 frameworks suitable for natural image
detection
AR Framework Evaluation
● Real-world evaluation with roman mosaics at Conímbriga
● Targets with different characteristics were captured
● A test application was developed using each of the 3 AR
frameworks
AR Test Application
● Test application overlaid graphical shapes over the targets
● We screen-captured in video the execution of the application over
each of the mosaic targets
AR Test Application
● We subjectively analysed the various videos on 3 metrics
○ Recognition delay
○ Minimum required target area
○ Visual alignment and stability
AR Framework Evaluation Results - Overall Recognition
● Not all targets were
recognized
○ This was expected
○ Targets were captured from a
distance
○ Not much effort in capturing
targets
● Wikitude performed very
poorly
○ Unexpected
○ Requires further study as to
why
AR Framework Evaluation Results - Recognition Delay
● CraftAR is faster than PixLive
○ Almost 0.5 seconds faster
AR Framework Evaluation Results - Minimum required target
area
PixLive requires less visible target area
AR Framework Evaluation Results - Visual alignment and
stability
-1: bad alignment / stability
0: ok alignment / stability
1: good alignment / stability
Conclusion
● Study allowed us to understand strong and weak points of these
AR frameworks
● AR frameworks’ performance varies depending on the type of
image they are recognizing
● AR frameworks have different performance compromises
○ No single one is best at every performance attribute
● Virtual Heritage application developers should test different
frameworks before commiting to one
● We still need to study additional aspects such as the best way to
capture targets
○ Explore alternative AR types

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ConímbrigAR A Prototype Augmented Mobile Application for Exploration of Roman Mosaics

  • 1. ConímbrigAR: A Prototype Augmented Mobile Application for Exploration of Roman Mosaics 2ªs Jornadas de Documentação e Representação Digital de Bens Culturais, 19-20 Oct, School of Arts, Porto, 2018 André Belo, Jorge C. S. Cardoso CISUC/DEI, Universidade de Coimbra
  • 2. Contents 1. “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” project 2. Digital Tools for Exploring Roman Mosaic 3. Prototype AR Application 4. AR Framework Testing
  • 4. “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project ● Integrated into the CREATOUR national project as a pilot initiative - Creative Tourism Destination Development in Small Cities and Rural Areas ● “Mosaico – Conímbriga e Sicó” is a creative tourism project based on the Roman Mosaic heritage ○ Develops educational, cultural, and creative activities around Roman Mosaic
  • 5. “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project ● Based on the valuable Roman Mosaic Heritage present in the geographical axis constituted by ○ the Ruins of the Roman city of Conímbriga, ○ the Roman Villa of Rabaçal, and ○ the Monumental Complex of Santiago da Guarda. ● Headquartered in the “Monographic Museum of Conímbriga – National Museum” ○ an important center for archaeological research, conservation and restoration of Roman Mosaic in Portugal
  • 6. “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” Project ● Promotes cultural and creative activities within the museums, interpretative centers and archaeological sites included in its program of action. ● The visitors are invited to be involved in alternative experiences of sharing knowledge about the Roman Mosaic Heritage ● Mosaic as an expression of creativity brought into the present and reinterpreted now and in the future.
  • 7. Digital Tools for Exploring Roman Mosaic In the context of the “Mosaico - Conímbriga e Sicó” project Various planned digital tools to support different activities for exploring roman mosaic
  • 8. Mosaic Editor ● Support for mosaic workshops for non-professionals
  • 9. Mosaic Programming Environment ● Learning computer programming by creating mosaic patterns
  • 10. Innovative Interactive Experiences ● Sandbox early prototype ● Interactive experiences for kids ● Digging mosaics simulations
  • 11. Augmented Reality Mobile Application An AR application that provides in-place, contextual information about the roman mosaics
  • 12. Augmented Reality Mobile Application ● Technical information about the mosaics, for example, when they were uncovered, what was the latest conservation or restoration work, etc. ● Provide additional conservation and restoration information, for example, display image overlays of the conservation or restoration works on mosaics over time.
  • 13. Augmented Reality Mobile Application ● Provide a platform for the visualization of virtual restoration of the existing mosaics. The virtual restoration images could be created by different audiences with different purposes. For example, in the context of a school visit, students could digitally manipulate mosaic images and creatively “restore” missing parts which could then be experienced through the AR application.
  • 14. Augmented Reality Mobile Application ● Provide visual indication regarding specific aspects of the various mosaics. ● For example, mosaics could be highlighted with graphical information regarding the various motifs found in the mosaics ○ geometric patterns, animals, plants, compositions, mythological figures, etc.
  • 15. Augmented Reality Mobile Application ● Hybrid application (run on Android, iOS, etc.) ○ Lower development effort ● What AR development frameworks are most suitable for detecting mosaics?
  • 16. Types of Augmented Reality - Location Based ● Based on coordinates (e.g., GPS) ● Imprecise, not enough to overlay mosaic details
  • 17. Types of Augmented Reality - (Structured) Marker Based ● Based on a pre-defined, structured visual marker image ● Very precise, requires placement of artificial markers on site
  • 18. Types of Augmented Reality - (Natural Image Features) Marker Based ● Based on a pre-defined natural images (targets) ● Very precise, if targets are good enough ● May be used against natural images on site ● Usually used with printed images
  • 19. Types of Augmented Reality - Markerless Based ● Based on detection of planar surfaces ● Not contextual
  • 20. AR Development Frameworks ● We studied multi-platform AR development frameworks and their features ○ We wanted natural image features ● Narrowed down to 3 frameworks suitable for natural image detection
  • 21. AR Framework Evaluation ● Real-world evaluation with roman mosaics at Conímbriga ● Targets with different characteristics were captured ● A test application was developed using each of the 3 AR frameworks
  • 22. AR Test Application ● Test application overlaid graphical shapes over the targets ● We screen-captured in video the execution of the application over each of the mosaic targets
  • 23. AR Test Application ● We subjectively analysed the various videos on 3 metrics ○ Recognition delay ○ Minimum required target area ○ Visual alignment and stability
  • 24. AR Framework Evaluation Results - Overall Recognition ● Not all targets were recognized ○ This was expected ○ Targets were captured from a distance ○ Not much effort in capturing targets ● Wikitude performed very poorly ○ Unexpected ○ Requires further study as to why
  • 25. AR Framework Evaluation Results - Recognition Delay ● CraftAR is faster than PixLive ○ Almost 0.5 seconds faster
  • 26. AR Framework Evaluation Results - Minimum required target area PixLive requires less visible target area
  • 27. AR Framework Evaluation Results - Visual alignment and stability -1: bad alignment / stability 0: ok alignment / stability 1: good alignment / stability
  • 28. Conclusion ● Study allowed us to understand strong and weak points of these AR frameworks ● AR frameworks’ performance varies depending on the type of image they are recognizing ● AR frameworks have different performance compromises ○ No single one is best at every performance attribute ● Virtual Heritage application developers should test different frameworks before commiting to one ● We still need to study additional aspects such as the best way to capture targets ○ Explore alternative AR types