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Subject -: Athletics Care and Rehabilitation
Unit-1
Topic-:Needs and Importance of the study of
sports injuries in the field of physical education
By- AZHAR HUSSAIN ANSARI
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
BIRLA CAMPUS H.N.B.G.U.
SRINAGAR GARHWAL
Sports injuries
Sports injuries refer to the kinds of injury that occur to the players during sports
or exercise. In other words, the situation which occurs accidently during physical
activity or when the player does not remain in the position of participating in the
game or his physical ability decreases is also referred to Sports Injuries.
Sports injuries are common among athletes and other people who participate in
sports. Certain injuries that are traditionally considered sports injuries can also occurs
in people who don’t participate in sports.
Sports participants always carries the risk of injuries, sports injuries are more
likely when people do not warm up properly ( exercise and stretching muscles at a
relaxed pace before an intense workout.
Definition Of Sports Injuries
Sports injuries can be defined as the physical alignment that hinder a
person’s sports performance and prevent him/her from performing .
Need and importance of the study of sports
injuries in the field of physical education
 The field of physical education focuses on improving physical fitness and
the ability to execute and appreciate daily physical activity.
 Sports injuries are common in physical activities and therefore the study of
sports injuries become very important in the discipline of physical
education.
 It does concern with post-injury treatment but also with injury prevention,
diet, recovery, and performance training to help athletes improve their
game.
 It is important as to Diagnose and give the first aid to the athlete during the
training and competition.
 To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs.
Soft tissue injury Bone injury
Joint
injuries
Sprain Fractures
Luxation
Sub-Luxation
Dislocation
Strain Greenstick
Bruising Transverse
Pulls Oblique
Blisters
Comminute
Cuts
Impacted
spiral
COMMON SPORTS INJURIES
Simple
compound
Sports or performance injuries can be classified according to either the cause of the
injury or the type of the body tissue damage.
If injuries are classified according to the cause, the three categories are:
Direct
injury
Indirect
injury
Overuse
injury
Direct injury A direct injury is caused by an external blow or force (extrinsic causes)
• A collision with another person e.g, during a tackle in rugby or football
• Being struck by an object e.g. a basketball or hockey stick
An indirect injury can occur in two ways (intrinsic causes):
• The actual injury can occur some distance from the impact site e.g. falling on an
outstretched hand can result in a dislocated shoulder
• The injury does not result from physical contact with an object or person, but from
internal forces built up by the actions of the performer, such as may be caused by over-
stretching, poor technique, fatigue, and lack of fitness. (e.g. muscle strain or ligament
sprain)
Indirect injury
Any repetitive activity can lead to an overuse injury. Overuse injuries occur over a period of
time, usually due to excessive and repetitive loading of the tissue, with symptoms presenting
gradually. Little or no pain might be experienced in the early stages of these injuries and the
athlete might continue to place pressure on the injured site. This prevents the site being given
the necessary time to heal. In contrast to acute injuries, the cause of overuse injuries is often
much less obvious
Overuse Injuries
Classification of injuries according to the cause
If injuries are classified according to the types of body tissue damage, the two
categories are:
classified according to the types of body tissue
damage
Soft tissue injuries
Contusion / bruises
Strain
Sprain
Laceration
Abrasion
Blisters
Hard tissue injuries
Bone Injuries Fractures
Joint injuries Dislocation of Joints
Soft Tissue injuries
Contusion
A soft tissue injury (STI) is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body while playing games
and sports. Soft Tissue injuries are of different kinds:
A contusion happens when an injured
capillary or blood vessel leaks blood into the
surrounding area. Contusions are a type of
hematoma, which refers to any collection of
blood outside of a blood vessel. While the
term contusion might sound serious, it’s just a
medical term for the common bruise.
Contusions occur when a direct blow or
repeated blows by a blunt object strike part of
the body, crushing underlying muscle fibers
and connective tissue without breaking the
skin. A contusion can result from falling or
jamming the body against a hard surface.
You and your healthcare provider can identify a bruise by its distinct look and coloring. If
you experience frequent or unexplained bruising, your provider may order tests to rule out
possible causes. These tests include:
• X-rays to check for bone fractures.
• Blood tests to check for clotting disorders and vitamin deficiencies.
Most contusions simply require time to heal. Soft tissue contusions can take anywhere from a few days
to a couple of weeks to heal.
To control pain, bleeding, and inflammation, keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position and use the RICE
protocol:
Diagnose
Treatment
A strain is an injury to a muscle and/or tendons. a strain
may be a simple stretch in the muscle or tendon, or it may be a
partial or complete tear in the muscle-and-tendon
combination. In case of complete tear, movement becomes
completely impossible. In such a situation, there may be
unbearable pain as well, Strain can be due to heavy weight
lifting, or excessive practice for the games.
Strain can be classified as :
(a) Mild Strain : In this type of stretch, there is a slight tension
in the muscles without tearing of the muscles.
(b) Moderate Strain : In this type of strain the muscles rupture
slightly which also brings a slight decrease in its strength.
(c) Severe Strain : This type of strain results in complete tear of
the muscles and lack of strength
Strain
• During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness. The location
and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature of the damage.
• In more severe injuries, where the muscle or tendon has been completely ruptured, your doctor may be
able to see or feel a defect in the area of injury.
• Ultrasound often can help distinguish among several different types of soft tissue injuries.
Most muscle strains can be successfully treated at home. Minor muscle strains can be treated with rest, ice, compression,
and elevation (RICE).
Other self-care methods include the following:
• Use an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication.
• After three days, apply heat to the muscle several times a day.
Diagnose
Treatment
Sprain
A sprain is a stretch and/or tear of a ligament, a
strong band of connective tissue that connects the end of
one bone with another. The areas of the body that are
most vulnerable to sprains are ankles, knees, and wrists.
Sometimes, it leads to fracture as well. Pain, swelling and
inflammation are common in sprains. Sprains are
classified by severity :
(a) Mild Sprain : Slight stretching and some damage to
the fibers (fibrils) of the ligament which resists the
joint movement.
(b) Moderate Sprain : Partial tearing of the ligament.
There is abnormal looseness (laxity) in the joint when
it is moved in certain ways. Sprain
(c) Severe Sprain : Complete tear of the ligament. This
causes significant instability and makes the joint non
functional.
• During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness in your
affected limb. The location and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature
of the damage.
• X-rays can help rule out a fracture or other bone injury as the source of the problem.
• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also may be used to help diagnose the extent of the
injury.
Most muscle strains can be successfully treated at home. Minor muscle strains can be treated with rest, ice,
compression, and elevation (RICE).
Other self-care methods include the following:
• Use an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication.
• After three days, apply heat to the muscle several times a day.
Diagnose
Treatment
Laceration
A Laceration is the tearing of the skin with a
sharp object or by impact injury from a blunt object
or force that result in an irregular wound. They are
more dangerous than incised wounds. In most cases,
tissue injury is minimal, and infections are
uncommon and poisonous. Very less blood 0ozes out
from these wounds. The marks of the wound are
quite visible even after their healing.
Diagnosis is made by physical exam.
• Separating the edges and looking at the wound
• Testing nerve, artery, and muscle function
• Checking for objects in the cut (such as embedded glass or wood)
• Examining your overall condition (such as whether you are pale from blood loss or anxiety)
An x-ray may be ordered if foreign objects or an underlying broken bone is suspected.
Diagnose
Treatment
Treatment involves
• Stopping the bleeding,
• Cleaning and dressing the wound.
• Deeper cuts may need stitches to stop bleeding and reduce scarring.
Abrasion
An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis.
Abrasion injuries most commonly occur when exposed skin comes into moving contact with a rough
surface, causing a grinding or rubbing away of the upper layers of the epidermis. If a player walks or
falls down, the surface of the skin gets scratched due to friction. Usually, it happens in kabaddi,
basketball and athletics.
Abrasions can range from mild to severe. Most abrasions are mild and can easily be tended at home. Some abrasions, however, may
require medical treatment.
It involves superficial damage to the epidermis. A first-degree abrasion is considered mild. It won’t bleed.
First-degree abrasions are sometimes called scrapes or grazes.
It results in damage to the epidermis as well as the dermis.
A second-degree abrasion may bleed mildly.
It is a severe abrasion. It’s also known as an avulsion wound. It involves friction and tearing of the skin to the layer of tissue deeper
than the dermis. An avulsion may bleed heavily and require more intense medical care.
First-degree abrasion
Third-degree abrasion
Second-degree abrasion
Different grades of abrasions
Diagnose
Treatment
A first- or second-degree abrasion can usually be treated at home. To care for an abrasion:
• Begin with washed hands.
• Gently clean the area with cool to lukewarm water and mild soap. Remove dirt or other particles from the wound
using sterilized tweezers.
• For a mild scrape that’s not bleeding, leave the wound uncovered.
• If the wound is bleeding, use a clean cloth or bandage, and apply gentle pressure to the area to stop any bleeding.
Elevating the area can also help stop bleeding.
• Cover a wound that bled with a thin layer of topical antibiotic ointment, like Bacitracin, or a sterile moisture barrier
ointment, like Aquaphor. Cover it with a clean bandage or gauze. Gently clean the wound and change the ointment
and bandage once per day.
• Watch the area for signs of infection, like pain or redness and swelling. See your doctor if you suspect infection.
• A simple physical exam of the affected area.
• The doctor may also perform X-rays and other imaging to check for other injuries, like a broken bone or
a foreign object under the skin.
Blisters
They're bubbles that pop up when fluid
collects in pockets under the top layer of your skin.
They can be filled with pus, blood, or the clear,
watery part of your blood called serum. Most are
shaped like circles. Depending on the cause, your
blister could itch or hurt a lot or a little.They are
often caused by irritation or friction (such as
with a poorly fitting shoe), blisters can also
represent disease processes. Blisters can
accompany some types of skin rashes and
inflammatory conditions, including certain
autoimmune diseases. Depending upon the
cause of the blisters, blisters may occur singly
or in groups. Small fluid-filled blisters are
medically known as vesicles. Bullae (singular =
bulla) are blisters that are larger than 1 cm
across.
Diagnose
Treatment
Most blisters will heal without medical intervention.
• As the new skin grows beneath the blister, the fluid will slowly disappear and the skin will naturally dry
and peel off.
• Cover the blister and the surrounding area with a sterile, dry dressing.
• Similarly, with blood blisters, allow them to heal under in their own time. They can be more painful than
standard blisters and an ice pack can offer some relief. Place a towel over the affected area, ensuring that
the ice pack does not come into contact with the skin directly.
• A simple physical exam of the affected area.
Hard Tissue injuries
Hard tissue injuries are injuries to the bone or teeth, i.e. injuries of the skeleton. Hard tissue injuries include breaks and
dislocations, including lost teeth. Hard tissue injuries are less frequent than soft tissue injuries in sport, but are often more serious.
A fracture is the technical term for a broken bone and there are various types of fracture with various degrees of complication.
The other main hard tissue injury is a dislocation. A dislocation is when a joint is displaced. There are some joints more susceptible
to dislocation than others and dislocations always result in various soft tissue injuries as well
Fractures are very common hard tissue injury and are also known as breaks. A fracture is a broken bone and comes in three
classifications.
closed fracture
It remains inside the body and does not pierce the skin. These are the most common broken bones that occur. They are also
known as simple fractures.
An open fracture
It is a break that does pierce the skin so that bone can be seen. These are also known as compound fractures, because there is
more than one issue that needs to be addressed (i.e. bleeding, open wound etc).
Complicated fractures
They are where the bone causes further damage to major nerves, organs or blood vessels. These are complicated because they
can be life threatening and require immediate medical attention.
Fracture
s
Types of Fracture
Simple Fracture
Simple fractures, also called closed fractures, is an injury in
which a bone in your body is broken but does not cut through
the flesh that surrounds it
Compound Fracture
Compound fractures, also called open fractures, is
an injury in which a bone in your body is broken and it
also cut through the flesh that surrounds it
Multiple Fracture
When there are more then one Fracture in the bone are
called multiple fractures.
Comminuted Fracture
Comminuted fractures are severe fractures that involve the
breaking of a bone into several smaller pieces.
Greenstick Fracture
the bone partly fractures on one side, but does not break completely because
the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children, whose bones
are softer and more elastic
Spiral Fracture
When a bone is broken by the twisting
force is known as spiral fracture.
Stress Fracture
Hairline Fracture
More common among athletes. A bone breaks
because of repeated stresses and strains.
Aa partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type
of fracture is harder to detect with routine x-rays.
In addition to a complete medical history (including asking how the injury occurred) and physical
examination, diagnostic procedures for a fracture may include the following:
•X-ray
•MRI
•CT scan
Diagnose
Treatment
Immobilization – as soon as the bones are aligned they must stay aligned while they heal. This may include:
•Plaster casts or plastic functional braces – these hold the bone in position until it has healed.
•Metal plates and screws – current procedures may use minimally invasive techniques.
•Intra-medullary nails – internal metal rods are placed down the center of long bones. Flexible wires may be used in children.
•External fixators – these may be made of metal or carbon fiber; they have steel pins that go into the bone directly through the
skin. They are a type of scaffolding outside the body.
•Surgery – if there was damage to the skin and soft tissue around the affected bone or joint, plastic surgery may be required.
Usually, the fractured bone area is immobilized for 2-8 weeks. The duration depends on which bone is affected and whether there
are any complications, such as a blood supply problem or an infection.
Dislocation
A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or
more bones come together — in which the ends of your bones
are forced from their normal positions. This painful injury
temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint.
Dislocation is a condition that happens when the bones of a joint
are knocked out of place. A joint can be partially dislocated
(subluxation) or fully dislocated. A dislocation can be caused by
a trauma (Collation or fall) or the weakening of muscles and
tendons.
Treatment can vary based on the severity of the injury and which joint is dislocated. Applying ice and keeping the joint
elevated can help reduce pain while you wait to see a doctor. Treatments for dislocations include:
•Medication: Your doctor may recommend medication to reduce pain from a dislocation
•Manipulation: A doctor returns the bones to their proper places.
•Rest: Once the joint is back in place, you may need to protect it and keep it immobile. Using a sling or splint can help
the area heal fully.
•Rehabilitation: Physical therapy exercises strengthen the muscles and ligaments around the joint to help support it.
•Surgery: Your doctor may recommend surgery if:
• Manipulation does not work to put the bones back in place.
• The dislocation damaged blood vessels or nerves.
• The dislocation damaged bones, tore muscles or ligaments that need repair.
Your doctor may diagnose a dislocation by looking at and moving the joint and asking about what caused the
injury.
In some cases, a doctor will use an imaging test called an X-ray to take a picture of your bones. This test allows the
doctor to see the exact location and severity of the dislocation.
Diagnose
Treatment

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Sports Injuries Care and Rehabilitation

  • 1. Subject -: Athletics Care and Rehabilitation Unit-1 Topic-:Needs and Importance of the study of sports injuries in the field of physical education By- AZHAR HUSSAIN ANSARI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION BIRLA CAMPUS H.N.B.G.U. SRINAGAR GARHWAL
  • 2. Sports injuries Sports injuries refer to the kinds of injury that occur to the players during sports or exercise. In other words, the situation which occurs accidently during physical activity or when the player does not remain in the position of participating in the game or his physical ability decreases is also referred to Sports Injuries. Sports injuries are common among athletes and other people who participate in sports. Certain injuries that are traditionally considered sports injuries can also occurs in people who don’t participate in sports. Sports participants always carries the risk of injuries, sports injuries are more likely when people do not warm up properly ( exercise and stretching muscles at a relaxed pace before an intense workout.
  • 3. Definition Of Sports Injuries Sports injuries can be defined as the physical alignment that hinder a person’s sports performance and prevent him/her from performing .
  • 4. Need and importance of the study of sports injuries in the field of physical education  The field of physical education focuses on improving physical fitness and the ability to execute and appreciate daily physical activity.  Sports injuries are common in physical activities and therefore the study of sports injuries become very important in the discipline of physical education.  It does concern with post-injury treatment but also with injury prevention, diet, recovery, and performance training to help athletes improve their game.  It is important as to Diagnose and give the first aid to the athlete during the training and competition.  To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs.
  • 5. Soft tissue injury Bone injury Joint injuries Sprain Fractures Luxation Sub-Luxation Dislocation Strain Greenstick Bruising Transverse Pulls Oblique Blisters Comminute Cuts Impacted spiral COMMON SPORTS INJURIES Simple compound
  • 6. Sports or performance injuries can be classified according to either the cause of the injury or the type of the body tissue damage. If injuries are classified according to the cause, the three categories are: Direct injury Indirect injury Overuse injury
  • 7. Direct injury A direct injury is caused by an external blow or force (extrinsic causes) • A collision with another person e.g, during a tackle in rugby or football • Being struck by an object e.g. a basketball or hockey stick An indirect injury can occur in two ways (intrinsic causes): • The actual injury can occur some distance from the impact site e.g. falling on an outstretched hand can result in a dislocated shoulder • The injury does not result from physical contact with an object or person, but from internal forces built up by the actions of the performer, such as may be caused by over- stretching, poor technique, fatigue, and lack of fitness. (e.g. muscle strain or ligament sprain) Indirect injury Any repetitive activity can lead to an overuse injury. Overuse injuries occur over a period of time, usually due to excessive and repetitive loading of the tissue, with symptoms presenting gradually. Little or no pain might be experienced in the early stages of these injuries and the athlete might continue to place pressure on the injured site. This prevents the site being given the necessary time to heal. In contrast to acute injuries, the cause of overuse injuries is often much less obvious Overuse Injuries Classification of injuries according to the cause
  • 8. If injuries are classified according to the types of body tissue damage, the two categories are: classified according to the types of body tissue damage Soft tissue injuries Contusion / bruises Strain Sprain Laceration Abrasion Blisters Hard tissue injuries Bone Injuries Fractures Joint injuries Dislocation of Joints
  • 9. Soft Tissue injuries Contusion A soft tissue injury (STI) is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body while playing games and sports. Soft Tissue injuries are of different kinds: A contusion happens when an injured capillary or blood vessel leaks blood into the surrounding area. Contusions are a type of hematoma, which refers to any collection of blood outside of a blood vessel. While the term contusion might sound serious, it’s just a medical term for the common bruise. Contusions occur when a direct blow or repeated blows by a blunt object strike part of the body, crushing underlying muscle fibers and connective tissue without breaking the skin. A contusion can result from falling or jamming the body against a hard surface.
  • 10. You and your healthcare provider can identify a bruise by its distinct look and coloring. If you experience frequent or unexplained bruising, your provider may order tests to rule out possible causes. These tests include: • X-rays to check for bone fractures. • Blood tests to check for clotting disorders and vitamin deficiencies. Most contusions simply require time to heal. Soft tissue contusions can take anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks to heal. To control pain, bleeding, and inflammation, keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position and use the RICE protocol: Diagnose Treatment
  • 11. A strain is an injury to a muscle and/or tendons. a strain may be a simple stretch in the muscle or tendon, or it may be a partial or complete tear in the muscle-and-tendon combination. In case of complete tear, movement becomes completely impossible. In such a situation, there may be unbearable pain as well, Strain can be due to heavy weight lifting, or excessive practice for the games. Strain can be classified as : (a) Mild Strain : In this type of stretch, there is a slight tension in the muscles without tearing of the muscles. (b) Moderate Strain : In this type of strain the muscles rupture slightly which also brings a slight decrease in its strength. (c) Severe Strain : This type of strain results in complete tear of the muscles and lack of strength Strain
  • 12. • During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness. The location and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature of the damage. • In more severe injuries, where the muscle or tendon has been completely ruptured, your doctor may be able to see or feel a defect in the area of injury. • Ultrasound often can help distinguish among several different types of soft tissue injuries. Most muscle strains can be successfully treated at home. Minor muscle strains can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Other self-care methods include the following: • Use an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication. • After three days, apply heat to the muscle several times a day. Diagnose Treatment
  • 13. Sprain A sprain is a stretch and/or tear of a ligament, a strong band of connective tissue that connects the end of one bone with another. The areas of the body that are most vulnerable to sprains are ankles, knees, and wrists. Sometimes, it leads to fracture as well. Pain, swelling and inflammation are common in sprains. Sprains are classified by severity : (a) Mild Sprain : Slight stretching and some damage to the fibers (fibrils) of the ligament which resists the joint movement. (b) Moderate Sprain : Partial tearing of the ligament. There is abnormal looseness (laxity) in the joint when it is moved in certain ways. Sprain (c) Severe Sprain : Complete tear of the ligament. This causes significant instability and makes the joint non functional.
  • 14. • During the physical exam, your doctor will check for swelling and points of tenderness in your affected limb. The location and intensity of your pain can help determine the extent and nature of the damage. • X-rays can help rule out a fracture or other bone injury as the source of the problem. • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also may be used to help diagnose the extent of the injury. Most muscle strains can be successfully treated at home. Minor muscle strains can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Other self-care methods include the following: • Use an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication. • After three days, apply heat to the muscle several times a day. Diagnose Treatment
  • 15. Laceration A Laceration is the tearing of the skin with a sharp object or by impact injury from a blunt object or force that result in an irregular wound. They are more dangerous than incised wounds. In most cases, tissue injury is minimal, and infections are uncommon and poisonous. Very less blood 0ozes out from these wounds. The marks of the wound are quite visible even after their healing.
  • 16. Diagnosis is made by physical exam. • Separating the edges and looking at the wound • Testing nerve, artery, and muscle function • Checking for objects in the cut (such as embedded glass or wood) • Examining your overall condition (such as whether you are pale from blood loss or anxiety) An x-ray may be ordered if foreign objects or an underlying broken bone is suspected. Diagnose Treatment Treatment involves • Stopping the bleeding, • Cleaning and dressing the wound. • Deeper cuts may need stitches to stop bleeding and reduce scarring.
  • 17. Abrasion An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis. Abrasion injuries most commonly occur when exposed skin comes into moving contact with a rough surface, causing a grinding or rubbing away of the upper layers of the epidermis. If a player walks or falls down, the surface of the skin gets scratched due to friction. Usually, it happens in kabaddi, basketball and athletics.
  • 18. Abrasions can range from mild to severe. Most abrasions are mild and can easily be tended at home. Some abrasions, however, may require medical treatment. It involves superficial damage to the epidermis. A first-degree abrasion is considered mild. It won’t bleed. First-degree abrasions are sometimes called scrapes or grazes. It results in damage to the epidermis as well as the dermis. A second-degree abrasion may bleed mildly. It is a severe abrasion. It’s also known as an avulsion wound. It involves friction and tearing of the skin to the layer of tissue deeper than the dermis. An avulsion may bleed heavily and require more intense medical care. First-degree abrasion Third-degree abrasion Second-degree abrasion Different grades of abrasions
  • 19. Diagnose Treatment A first- or second-degree abrasion can usually be treated at home. To care for an abrasion: • Begin with washed hands. • Gently clean the area with cool to lukewarm water and mild soap. Remove dirt or other particles from the wound using sterilized tweezers. • For a mild scrape that’s not bleeding, leave the wound uncovered. • If the wound is bleeding, use a clean cloth or bandage, and apply gentle pressure to the area to stop any bleeding. Elevating the area can also help stop bleeding. • Cover a wound that bled with a thin layer of topical antibiotic ointment, like Bacitracin, or a sterile moisture barrier ointment, like Aquaphor. Cover it with a clean bandage or gauze. Gently clean the wound and change the ointment and bandage once per day. • Watch the area for signs of infection, like pain or redness and swelling. See your doctor if you suspect infection. • A simple physical exam of the affected area. • The doctor may also perform X-rays and other imaging to check for other injuries, like a broken bone or a foreign object under the skin.
  • 20. Blisters They're bubbles that pop up when fluid collects in pockets under the top layer of your skin. They can be filled with pus, blood, or the clear, watery part of your blood called serum. Most are shaped like circles. Depending on the cause, your blister could itch or hurt a lot or a little.They are often caused by irritation or friction (such as with a poorly fitting shoe), blisters can also represent disease processes. Blisters can accompany some types of skin rashes and inflammatory conditions, including certain autoimmune diseases. Depending upon the cause of the blisters, blisters may occur singly or in groups. Small fluid-filled blisters are medically known as vesicles. Bullae (singular = bulla) are blisters that are larger than 1 cm across.
  • 21. Diagnose Treatment Most blisters will heal without medical intervention. • As the new skin grows beneath the blister, the fluid will slowly disappear and the skin will naturally dry and peel off. • Cover the blister and the surrounding area with a sterile, dry dressing. • Similarly, with blood blisters, allow them to heal under in their own time. They can be more painful than standard blisters and an ice pack can offer some relief. Place a towel over the affected area, ensuring that the ice pack does not come into contact with the skin directly. • A simple physical exam of the affected area.
  • 22. Hard Tissue injuries Hard tissue injuries are injuries to the bone or teeth, i.e. injuries of the skeleton. Hard tissue injuries include breaks and dislocations, including lost teeth. Hard tissue injuries are less frequent than soft tissue injuries in sport, but are often more serious. A fracture is the technical term for a broken bone and there are various types of fracture with various degrees of complication. The other main hard tissue injury is a dislocation. A dislocation is when a joint is displaced. There are some joints more susceptible to dislocation than others and dislocations always result in various soft tissue injuries as well Fractures are very common hard tissue injury and are also known as breaks. A fracture is a broken bone and comes in three classifications. closed fracture It remains inside the body and does not pierce the skin. These are the most common broken bones that occur. They are also known as simple fractures. An open fracture It is a break that does pierce the skin so that bone can be seen. These are also known as compound fractures, because there is more than one issue that needs to be addressed (i.e. bleeding, open wound etc). Complicated fractures They are where the bone causes further damage to major nerves, organs or blood vessels. These are complicated because they can be life threatening and require immediate medical attention. Fracture s
  • 24. Simple Fracture Simple fractures, also called closed fractures, is an injury in which a bone in your body is broken but does not cut through the flesh that surrounds it Compound Fracture Compound fractures, also called open fractures, is an injury in which a bone in your body is broken and it also cut through the flesh that surrounds it
  • 25. Multiple Fracture When there are more then one Fracture in the bone are called multiple fractures. Comminuted Fracture Comminuted fractures are severe fractures that involve the breaking of a bone into several smaller pieces.
  • 26. Greenstick Fracture the bone partly fractures on one side, but does not break completely because the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children, whose bones are softer and more elastic Spiral Fracture When a bone is broken by the twisting force is known as spiral fracture.
  • 27. Stress Fracture Hairline Fracture More common among athletes. A bone breaks because of repeated stresses and strains. Aa partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type of fracture is harder to detect with routine x-rays.
  • 28. In addition to a complete medical history (including asking how the injury occurred) and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a fracture may include the following: •X-ray •MRI •CT scan Diagnose Treatment Immobilization – as soon as the bones are aligned they must stay aligned while they heal. This may include: •Plaster casts or plastic functional braces – these hold the bone in position until it has healed. •Metal plates and screws – current procedures may use minimally invasive techniques. •Intra-medullary nails – internal metal rods are placed down the center of long bones. Flexible wires may be used in children. •External fixators – these may be made of metal or carbon fiber; they have steel pins that go into the bone directly through the skin. They are a type of scaffolding outside the body. •Surgery – if there was damage to the skin and soft tissue around the affected bone or joint, plastic surgery may be required. Usually, the fractured bone area is immobilized for 2-8 weeks. The duration depends on which bone is affected and whether there are any complications, such as a blood supply problem or an infection.
  • 29. Dislocation A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or more bones come together — in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. This painful injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint. Dislocation is a condition that happens when the bones of a joint are knocked out of place. A joint can be partially dislocated (subluxation) or fully dislocated. A dislocation can be caused by a trauma (Collation or fall) or the weakening of muscles and tendons.
  • 30. Treatment can vary based on the severity of the injury and which joint is dislocated. Applying ice and keeping the joint elevated can help reduce pain while you wait to see a doctor. Treatments for dislocations include: •Medication: Your doctor may recommend medication to reduce pain from a dislocation •Manipulation: A doctor returns the bones to their proper places. •Rest: Once the joint is back in place, you may need to protect it and keep it immobile. Using a sling or splint can help the area heal fully. •Rehabilitation: Physical therapy exercises strengthen the muscles and ligaments around the joint to help support it. •Surgery: Your doctor may recommend surgery if: • Manipulation does not work to put the bones back in place. • The dislocation damaged blood vessels or nerves. • The dislocation damaged bones, tore muscles or ligaments that need repair. Your doctor may diagnose a dislocation by looking at and moving the joint and asking about what caused the injury. In some cases, a doctor will use an imaging test called an X-ray to take a picture of your bones. This test allows the doctor to see the exact location and severity of the dislocation. Diagnose Treatment