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“TRAINING IN SPORTS”
TRAINING IN SPORTS
11.1 Meaning and concept of Sports Training
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
11.3 Warming-Up and Limbering Down
11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery
11.5 Skill, Technique and Style
11.6 Symptoms of overload and how to
overcome it
11.1 Meaning and Concept of Sports Training
 Specialised process of all round physical
conditioning aimed at preparation for performance
in sports
 Includes Training, Sports competitions, Special
nutrition, Special rehabilitation treatments,
Assessment of performance capacity, Psychological
factors
 Systematic & Regular process carried over a longer
duration
 Based on scientific facts and successful practices
 Basic form of preparation of sportsperson
11.1 Definition of Sports Training
 Sports Training is a planned & controlled process in
which, for achieving a goal, changes in complex
motor performance, ability to act and perform.
 Sports Training is scientific knowledge and a
pedagogical process of sports perfection which ,
through systematic effect on psycho-physical
performance ability and readiness aiming to top
level .
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
1. The Principle of Continuity
2. The Principle of Overload
3. The Principle of Individual Differences
4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation
5. The Principle of Progression
6. The Principle of Specificity
7. The Principle of Active Involvement
8. The Principle of variety
9. The Principle of warm up & cool down
10. The Principle of Rest & recovery
11. The Principle of Ensuring results
12. The Principle of Cyclicity
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
1. The Principle of Continuity :
 Training should be a continuous process
 Discontinuity of training reduces physiological
capacities
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
2. The Principle of Overload :
 There should be greater than normal load on
the body as required for training adaptation
2. (cont...)
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
2. The Principle of Overload : (cont...)
 Training load should be increased for improving
the performance
 The effectiveness of training diminishes if
training load is static
 For continuous improvement, the training load
should be increased after the adaptation of
previous training load
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
3. The Principle of Individual Difference :
 Every Sportsperson is different hence response to
exercise or load varies.
• (cont..)
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
3. The Principle of Individual Difference : (cont..)
 Training program should be modified to take
individual difference into following considerations:
a) Large muscles heal slower than smaller muscles
b) Fast twitch muscles fibres recover quicker than
slow twitch muscles fibre
c) Women requires more recovery time
d) Fast or explosive movements require more
recovery time
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation :
 General preparation serves as the base for specific
preparation
 General preparation increases the functional capacity
of all the body systems and organs
 Specific preparation improves the systems and organs
on which the performance directly depends
 Speed improved through running will be beneficial in
football
( cont…)
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation :
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
5. The Principle of Progression :
 The overload should not be increased too rapidly
 Rapid increase in overload may lead to injury or
muscles damage
 Emphasise the need for proper rest and recovery
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
6. The Principle of Specificity :
 Exercising a certain part of the body primarily develop
that part
 Runner should get
trained by running
 Swimmer should get
trained by swimming
 Cyclist should get
trained by cycling
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
7. The Principle of Active Involvement :
 Performance is the result of sportsperson’s efforts and
coach’s skill
 Active involvement of coach & sports person is
necessary
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
8. The Principle of Variety :
 Variety in the training programme helps to maintain
the interest and motivation of the sportsperson
 Changing the nature of exercise, time of the day of the
session, training group & the environment
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
9. The Principle of Warm up and Cool down :
 Warmup through low intensity activity
increases blood flow to the working muscles
and prepare them for high intensity sports
 Cooldown helps in transferring blood from
working muscles back to vital organs of the
body
 Cool down also helps in removing the waste
products in the body
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
9. The Principle of Warm up and Cool down :
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
10.The Principle of Rest & Recovery :
 Body regenerates during rest and becomes better &
strong than before
 Training programme should be planned to provide
proper rest and interval between training activities
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
11.The Principle of Ensuring Results :
 Apex aim is to attain good results
 Plan to guaranteeing good performance & maintain it
for longer period
 Requires integration of other
principles with it
11.2 Principles of Sports Training
12.The Principle of Cyclicity :
 Programmes are developed through various training
cycles as macro cycle, meso cycle and micro cycle
 Macro cycle is longest with 3 to 12 months
duration
 Meso cycle is of medium duration lasting 3 to 6
weeks
 Micro cycle is of 3 to 10 days duration
11.3 Warming-up & Limbering Down
Meaning of Warming up :
 It is a short duration activity ,performed prior to training
session or competition
 Helps sportsperson to prepare physically, mentally
&physiologically for training session or competition
 Muscles become ready to perform efficiently
 Light running, jogging, hand exercises etc.
11.3 Definition of Warming-up
 Warming-up is done to tone up the body so as to
meet the ensuing activity
 Consists of a series of preparatory exercises either
before a training session or competition
 A preliminary exercise of physical and mental
preparation for a strenuous exertion
 Increases temperature of blood and muscles
improve the performance
A. Passive Warming up
B. Active Warming up
11.3 Types of Warming-up
A. Passive Warming-up :
 Aim is to increase the body temperature without
performing any physical activity
 Body temperature is increased by external means
such as by wearing warm clothes, massage, hot water,
steam, sunlight or hot drinks etc.
 Mixture of active & passive warm-up provides better
results
11.3 Types of Warming-up
B. Active Warming-up :
 Sportsperson performs many physical activities
 Body temperature increases up to required level
 Working efficiency is increased
 Muscles are toned up
 Further divided into two categories
1. General Warming up
2. Specific Warming up
11.3 Active Warming-up
1. General Warming-up :
 Performed in all types of activities
 Includes jogging, jumping, stretching etc.
 Increases coordination abilities and flexibilities of
muscles and joints
 Improves muscles tone
 Duration depend upon
the nature of work to be
performed
11.3 Active Warming-up
2. Specific Warming-up :
 Exercises are done with implements
 Special exercises are performed which have direct
relationship with the activity to be performed
 Performed after general warming-up
 Main stress is laid down on the practice of various
skills to performed in the game
cont...
11.3 Active Warming-up
2. Specific Warming-up : (cont.)
 Badminton-Forward ,sideways & backward bending,
body twisting exercises
 Basketball-Dribbling, shooting, lay up shots, shuttle
run, dodging , free throws
 Tennis- Wall practice, service, passing shots, knocking
 Shot put- shifting the shot from left hand to right
hand & vice versa, standing throws, gliding practice
 Hockey- Dribbling, rotation of stick, short passes, long
passes, scoop
 Cricket- Bowling, catching, batting, fielding
11.3 Methods of Warming-up
1. General Method :
 Jogging
 Simple exercise
 Stretching exercise
 Wind sprints (a form of exercise involving moving from a
walk or slow run to a faster run and repeatedly reversing the
process)
 Striding (walk with long steps in a specified direction)
11.3 Methods of Warming-up
2. Warming-up with Warm water :
 Warm water bath for swimming, synchronised swimming,
water polo etc.
3. Warm-up through Massage :
 Used by wrestlers
 Cures minor muscle injuries
11.3 Methods of Warming-up
4. Warming-up by drinking hot drinks :
 Hot Tea, Coffee
5. Warm-up through Sunbathe
6. Warm-up through Steam bathe
11.3 Importance of Warming-up
1. Increases the Body Temperature
2. Decreases the Viscosity of Muscles
3. Increases the Speed of Nerve Impulses
4. Decreases the Resistance in Muscles
Capillaries
5. Increases the Speed of Transfer of Oxygen
and Fuel to Tissues
6. Increases Metabolic Rate
7. Reduces the Anxiety and Tension
11.3 Importance of Warming-up
8. Enhances Cooling Efficiency
9. Reduces the Blood Lactic Acid
10.Warming-up Avoids Injury
11.Increases the Speed of Muscles
12.Increases Flexibility
13.Increases Strength
14.Increases Endurance
11.3 Importance of Warming-up
15.Increases Explosive Power
16.Improves Specific Skills
17.Improves Neuro-muscular Co-ordination
18.Improves the Level of Performance
19.Decreases Reaction Time
20.Brings Second Wind more Readily
11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up
1. Increases the Body Temperature:
 Increases body & muscle temperature
 Research show that warm up muscles
improve performance
 Speed of muscle contract and relax is
increased
 Force of contraction is increased
 Reduces risk of tearing of muscle fibre
11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up
2. Decreases the Viscosity of Muscles :
 When an inactive muscle is stimulated
repeatedly, first few contractions are small &
irregular and relaxation is incomplete.
 Later, contractions are regular and relaxation is
complete
 Rate of muscular contraction & relaxation
becomes faster & efficient
 Risk of wear & tear of muscle and ligament is
reduced
11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up
3. Increases the Speed of Nerve Impulses :
 Increases the speed of nerve impulses
which improves and sharpens the
reaction time of sportsperson
4. Decreases the Resistance in Muscles
Capillaries :
 Research studies have revealed that warming-
up decreases the resistance in muscles
capillaries
11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up
5. Increases the Speed of Transfer of Oxygen
and Fuel to Tissues :
 It occurs due to enhancement of blood flow through
the muscles by dilating the small blood vessels
6. Increases Metabolic Rate :
 Increased metabolic rate enhances energy level
 If body temperature increases by 0.5 C, metabolic rate
increases by 7%
11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up
7. Reduces the Blood Lactic Acid :
 Heart rate & consumption of oxygen is directly related
to muscle temperature
 At higher temperature lactic acid is reduced
8. Increase in working capacity :
 Due to physiological adaptation, capacity to do
physical is increased
 All systems of body become efficient to do their
related work
11.3 Guiding Principles of Warming-Up
1. Simple to Complex
2. Exercise for all the parts of body
3. Stretching and loosening exercise should be
included
4. Intensive enough to increase body temperature
5. Warming-up should be according to age and sex
6. Warming-up should be according to the activity or
sport
7. Concerned movement of the game should be
included
8. Warming up should be done at exact time
11.3 Meaning of Limbering Down
Cooling down or warming down after a
competition
Allows the body to transit gradually from an
exertional state to a resting state
Necessary activity after training
Involves a specific procedure to bring the
body to normal state
Walking or jogging for 5-10 min
Static exercise 5-10 min
11.3 Static Stretching Exercise for Limbering down
1. Hamstrings
2. Chest
3. Glutes
4. Quadriceps
5. Triceps/ Shoulders
11.3 Importance of Limbering Down
1. Body temperature becomes normal
2. Proper removal of waste products
3. Decrease in tension
4. Reduces the chances of dizziness or fainting
5. Supply of Oxygen
6. Decrease in the level of aderaline in the
blood
7. Muscles do not remain stiff
8. Heart rate returns to initial stage
11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery
Meaning of Load:
 In the field of sport, load is known as training load
 Work or exercises, a sportsperson performs in a
training session
 Includes physiological & psychological demands
put on the sportsperson to maintain or improve
performance capacity
11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery
Meaning of Adaptation:
 Process of long term adjustment to a specific
stimulus
 When new load is put on the body, it reacts by
increasing its ability to cope with new load
 Body requires 4-6 weeks to a training method
 Adaptation occurs during the recovery period after
the training session is completed
11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery
Meaning of Recovery:
 It is to regain the strength which was lost during
training session
 Essential part after training session
11.4 The Process of Stimulus-Recovery and Adaptation
 Body adapts to loads that are higher than the demands
of normal daily activity.
 Process of recovery & adaptation returns the body to an
improved level (overcompensation)
 Training loads must be increased gradually to allow the
body to adapt and to avoid injury
11.4 The Process of Stimulus-Recovery and Adaptation
• If the load is not enough, a little
compensation
• If the load is too much, difficulty in recovery.
Sports person may not return to previous
level of fitness
11.5 Skill, Technique & Style
Skill:
 Ability to perform a whole movement
 Automatisation of motor action
 Level of effectiveness with which a movement or a motor
action can be performed
 Any action learnt for a purpose and is needed to take part
in activities
 Shooting in basketball, service in tennis, overhead kick in
football
11.5 Classification of Skills
1. Open Skills
2. Closed Skills
3. Simple Skills
4. Complex Skills
5. Gross Skills
6. Fine Skills
11.5 Classification of Skills
7. Discrete Skills
8. Serial Skills
9. Continuous Skills
10. Individual Skills
11. Coactive Skills
12. Interactive Skills
11.5 Meaning of Technique
 Basic movements of any sport or event
 The way of performing a skill
 A skill can be performed by using more than one
technique
 A technique involves scientific and economical methods
adopted to achieve top performance
 Selection of technique by a sportsperson:
Suits the level of the player
Enhances players performance
Best at the given time & within the rules
11.5 Meaning of Style
An individual’s expression of technique in
motor action
Sportsperson due to specific psychic, physical
and biological capacities realizes the
technique in a unique personal way.
It is called his style
...........
11.6 Symptoms of Overload and How to overcome it
 Overload is the state when an athlete is undergoing hard
as well as strenuous training without the adequate
recovery
 Overload is a state of decreased performance capacity
 Overload occurs for longer periods
11.6 Symptoms of Overload
A. Psychological Symptoms :
1. Increased irritability
2. Obstinacy
3. Increased quarrelsomeness
4. Avoidance with the Coach and fellow sportspersons
5. Oversensitivity to criticism
6. Increased indolence
7. Dullness
8. Hallucination
11.6 Symptoms of Overload
A. Psychological Symptoms :
9. Anxiety
10. Depression
11. Melancholy
12. Insecurity
13. Changes in Personality
14. Low level of self esteem and motivation to workout
15. Easily distracted during tasks
11.6 Symptoms of Overload
B. Performance Related Symptoms :
a) Movement Coordination
1. Disturbance in rhythm and flow of movement
2. Reduced power of correction and differentiation
3. Difficulty in concentration
4. Tensed movements
5. Reoccurrence of previous errors
6. Increased susceptibility to technical errors
11.6 Symptoms of Overload
B. Performance Related Symptoms :
b) Competitive qualities
1. Decrease in readiness for competition
2. Fear of competition
3. Giving up in the face of intricate situations, specially
at the end
4. Confusion in competition
5. Increasing tendency to abandon the struggle
11.6 Symptoms of Overload
B. Performance Related Symptoms :
c) Somatic functional symptoms
1. Loss of sleep
2. Lack of appetite
3. Loss of body weight
4. Disturbance in digestion
5. Increase in time required for recovery of pulse
6. Frequent dizziness
7. Night sweating
8. Increased frequency of respiration
9. Joint aches and pains
10. Impaired muscular strength
11.6 How to Overcome Overload
1. Plan the training :
1. Coach and athlete should plan a strategy
2. Break in training to allow proper recovery
3. Loading in training programmes by reducing
volume or intensity of the training
4. Split the program to work on different set of
muscles on different days/ time/sessions
5. Ensure adequate recovery before exposing to
subsequent loadings
11.6 How to Overcome Overload
2. Nutrition :
1. Adequate nutrition is mandatory for appropriate
recovery
2. Sports drinks in suitable quantity, rich in
carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins should be
taken during and after exercises
3. For Short duration training take water
4. For longer training duration, glucose solutions are
required
5. Meal timings should be fixed
11.6 How to Overcome Overload
3. Psychological Strategies :
1. Relaxation Training, imagery, autogenic training
2. Help in maintaining focus during competition,
relieving tension and recovery process
3. Meditation is beneficial for inducing sleep
4. Social interaction :
1. Helps in diversion from rigorous training
11.6 How to Overcome Overload
5. Medical Aids :
1. Valuable tools
2. Various massages
3. Wax Bath, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy,
electrotherapy, hot & cold water bath
6. Physical Therapy :
1. Slow stretching exercises
2. Warm up
3. Cooling down
4. swimming

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Chapter 11:Training in Sports

  • 1.
  • 3. TRAINING IN SPORTS 11.1 Meaning and concept of Sports Training 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 11.3 Warming-Up and Limbering Down 11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery 11.5 Skill, Technique and Style 11.6 Symptoms of overload and how to overcome it
  • 4. 11.1 Meaning and Concept of Sports Training  Specialised process of all round physical conditioning aimed at preparation for performance in sports  Includes Training, Sports competitions, Special nutrition, Special rehabilitation treatments, Assessment of performance capacity, Psychological factors  Systematic & Regular process carried over a longer duration  Based on scientific facts and successful practices  Basic form of preparation of sportsperson
  • 5. 11.1 Definition of Sports Training  Sports Training is a planned & controlled process in which, for achieving a goal, changes in complex motor performance, ability to act and perform.  Sports Training is scientific knowledge and a pedagogical process of sports perfection which , through systematic effect on psycho-physical performance ability and readiness aiming to top level .
  • 6. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 1. The Principle of Continuity 2. The Principle of Overload 3. The Principle of Individual Differences 4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation 5. The Principle of Progression 6. The Principle of Specificity 7. The Principle of Active Involvement 8. The Principle of variety 9. The Principle of warm up & cool down 10. The Principle of Rest & recovery 11. The Principle of Ensuring results 12. The Principle of Cyclicity
  • 7. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 1. The Principle of Continuity :  Training should be a continuous process  Discontinuity of training reduces physiological capacities
  • 8. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 2. The Principle of Overload :  There should be greater than normal load on the body as required for training adaptation 2. (cont...)
  • 9. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 2. The Principle of Overload : (cont...)  Training load should be increased for improving the performance  The effectiveness of training diminishes if training load is static  For continuous improvement, the training load should be increased after the adaptation of previous training load
  • 10. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 3. The Principle of Individual Difference :  Every Sportsperson is different hence response to exercise or load varies. • (cont..)
  • 11. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 3. The Principle of Individual Difference : (cont..)  Training program should be modified to take individual difference into following considerations: a) Large muscles heal slower than smaller muscles b) Fast twitch muscles fibres recover quicker than slow twitch muscles fibre c) Women requires more recovery time d) Fast or explosive movements require more recovery time
  • 12. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation :  General preparation serves as the base for specific preparation  General preparation increases the functional capacity of all the body systems and organs  Specific preparation improves the systems and organs on which the performance directly depends  Speed improved through running will be beneficial in football ( cont…)
  • 13. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 4. The Principle of General & Specific Preparation :
  • 14. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 5. The Principle of Progression :  The overload should not be increased too rapidly  Rapid increase in overload may lead to injury or muscles damage  Emphasise the need for proper rest and recovery
  • 15. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 6. The Principle of Specificity :  Exercising a certain part of the body primarily develop that part  Runner should get trained by running  Swimmer should get trained by swimming  Cyclist should get trained by cycling
  • 16. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 7. The Principle of Active Involvement :  Performance is the result of sportsperson’s efforts and coach’s skill  Active involvement of coach & sports person is necessary
  • 17. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 8. The Principle of Variety :  Variety in the training programme helps to maintain the interest and motivation of the sportsperson  Changing the nature of exercise, time of the day of the session, training group & the environment
  • 18. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 9. The Principle of Warm up and Cool down :  Warmup through low intensity activity increases blood flow to the working muscles and prepare them for high intensity sports  Cooldown helps in transferring blood from working muscles back to vital organs of the body  Cool down also helps in removing the waste products in the body
  • 19. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 9. The Principle of Warm up and Cool down :
  • 20. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 10.The Principle of Rest & Recovery :  Body regenerates during rest and becomes better & strong than before  Training programme should be planned to provide proper rest and interval between training activities
  • 21. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 11.The Principle of Ensuring Results :  Apex aim is to attain good results  Plan to guaranteeing good performance & maintain it for longer period  Requires integration of other principles with it
  • 22. 11.2 Principles of Sports Training 12.The Principle of Cyclicity :  Programmes are developed through various training cycles as macro cycle, meso cycle and micro cycle  Macro cycle is longest with 3 to 12 months duration  Meso cycle is of medium duration lasting 3 to 6 weeks  Micro cycle is of 3 to 10 days duration
  • 23. 11.3 Warming-up & Limbering Down Meaning of Warming up :  It is a short duration activity ,performed prior to training session or competition  Helps sportsperson to prepare physically, mentally &physiologically for training session or competition  Muscles become ready to perform efficiently  Light running, jogging, hand exercises etc.
  • 24.
  • 25. 11.3 Definition of Warming-up  Warming-up is done to tone up the body so as to meet the ensuing activity  Consists of a series of preparatory exercises either before a training session or competition  A preliminary exercise of physical and mental preparation for a strenuous exertion  Increases temperature of blood and muscles improve the performance A. Passive Warming up B. Active Warming up
  • 26. 11.3 Types of Warming-up A. Passive Warming-up :  Aim is to increase the body temperature without performing any physical activity  Body temperature is increased by external means such as by wearing warm clothes, massage, hot water, steam, sunlight or hot drinks etc.  Mixture of active & passive warm-up provides better results
  • 27. 11.3 Types of Warming-up B. Active Warming-up :  Sportsperson performs many physical activities  Body temperature increases up to required level  Working efficiency is increased  Muscles are toned up  Further divided into two categories 1. General Warming up 2. Specific Warming up
  • 28. 11.3 Active Warming-up 1. General Warming-up :  Performed in all types of activities  Includes jogging, jumping, stretching etc.  Increases coordination abilities and flexibilities of muscles and joints  Improves muscles tone  Duration depend upon the nature of work to be performed
  • 29. 11.3 Active Warming-up 2. Specific Warming-up :  Exercises are done with implements  Special exercises are performed which have direct relationship with the activity to be performed  Performed after general warming-up  Main stress is laid down on the practice of various skills to performed in the game cont...
  • 30. 11.3 Active Warming-up 2. Specific Warming-up : (cont.)  Badminton-Forward ,sideways & backward bending, body twisting exercises  Basketball-Dribbling, shooting, lay up shots, shuttle run, dodging , free throws  Tennis- Wall practice, service, passing shots, knocking  Shot put- shifting the shot from left hand to right hand & vice versa, standing throws, gliding practice  Hockey- Dribbling, rotation of stick, short passes, long passes, scoop  Cricket- Bowling, catching, batting, fielding
  • 31. 11.3 Methods of Warming-up 1. General Method :  Jogging  Simple exercise  Stretching exercise  Wind sprints (a form of exercise involving moving from a walk or slow run to a faster run and repeatedly reversing the process)  Striding (walk with long steps in a specified direction)
  • 32. 11.3 Methods of Warming-up 2. Warming-up with Warm water :  Warm water bath for swimming, synchronised swimming, water polo etc. 3. Warm-up through Massage :  Used by wrestlers  Cures minor muscle injuries
  • 33. 11.3 Methods of Warming-up 4. Warming-up by drinking hot drinks :  Hot Tea, Coffee 5. Warm-up through Sunbathe 6. Warm-up through Steam bathe
  • 34. 11.3 Importance of Warming-up 1. Increases the Body Temperature 2. Decreases the Viscosity of Muscles 3. Increases the Speed of Nerve Impulses 4. Decreases the Resistance in Muscles Capillaries 5. Increases the Speed of Transfer of Oxygen and Fuel to Tissues 6. Increases Metabolic Rate 7. Reduces the Anxiety and Tension
  • 35. 11.3 Importance of Warming-up 8. Enhances Cooling Efficiency 9. Reduces the Blood Lactic Acid 10.Warming-up Avoids Injury 11.Increases the Speed of Muscles 12.Increases Flexibility 13.Increases Strength 14.Increases Endurance
  • 36. 11.3 Importance of Warming-up 15.Increases Explosive Power 16.Improves Specific Skills 17.Improves Neuro-muscular Co-ordination 18.Improves the Level of Performance 19.Decreases Reaction Time 20.Brings Second Wind more Readily
  • 37. 11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up 1. Increases the Body Temperature:  Increases body & muscle temperature  Research show that warm up muscles improve performance  Speed of muscle contract and relax is increased  Force of contraction is increased  Reduces risk of tearing of muscle fibre
  • 38. 11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up 2. Decreases the Viscosity of Muscles :  When an inactive muscle is stimulated repeatedly, first few contractions are small & irregular and relaxation is incomplete.  Later, contractions are regular and relaxation is complete  Rate of muscular contraction & relaxation becomes faster & efficient  Risk of wear & tear of muscle and ligament is reduced
  • 39. 11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up 3. Increases the Speed of Nerve Impulses :  Increases the speed of nerve impulses which improves and sharpens the reaction time of sportsperson 4. Decreases the Resistance in Muscles Capillaries :  Research studies have revealed that warming- up decreases the resistance in muscles capillaries
  • 40. 11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up 5. Increases the Speed of Transfer of Oxygen and Fuel to Tissues :  It occurs due to enhancement of blood flow through the muscles by dilating the small blood vessels 6. Increases Metabolic Rate :  Increased metabolic rate enhances energy level  If body temperature increases by 0.5 C, metabolic rate increases by 7%
  • 41. 11.3 Physiological Basis of Warming-up 7. Reduces the Blood Lactic Acid :  Heart rate & consumption of oxygen is directly related to muscle temperature  At higher temperature lactic acid is reduced 8. Increase in working capacity :  Due to physiological adaptation, capacity to do physical is increased  All systems of body become efficient to do their related work
  • 42. 11.3 Guiding Principles of Warming-Up 1. Simple to Complex 2. Exercise for all the parts of body 3. Stretching and loosening exercise should be included 4. Intensive enough to increase body temperature 5. Warming-up should be according to age and sex 6. Warming-up should be according to the activity or sport 7. Concerned movement of the game should be included 8. Warming up should be done at exact time
  • 43. 11.3 Meaning of Limbering Down Cooling down or warming down after a competition Allows the body to transit gradually from an exertional state to a resting state Necessary activity after training Involves a specific procedure to bring the body to normal state Walking or jogging for 5-10 min Static exercise 5-10 min
  • 44. 11.3 Static Stretching Exercise for Limbering down 1. Hamstrings 2. Chest 3. Glutes 4. Quadriceps 5. Triceps/ Shoulders
  • 45. 11.3 Importance of Limbering Down 1. Body temperature becomes normal 2. Proper removal of waste products 3. Decrease in tension 4. Reduces the chances of dizziness or fainting 5. Supply of Oxygen 6. Decrease in the level of aderaline in the blood 7. Muscles do not remain stiff 8. Heart rate returns to initial stage
  • 46. 11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery Meaning of Load:  In the field of sport, load is known as training load  Work or exercises, a sportsperson performs in a training session  Includes physiological & psychological demands put on the sportsperson to maintain or improve performance capacity
  • 47. 11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery Meaning of Adaptation:  Process of long term adjustment to a specific stimulus  When new load is put on the body, it reacts by increasing its ability to cope with new load  Body requires 4-6 weeks to a training method  Adaptation occurs during the recovery period after the training session is completed
  • 48. 11.4 Load, Adaptation and Recovery Meaning of Recovery:  It is to regain the strength which was lost during training session  Essential part after training session
  • 49. 11.4 The Process of Stimulus-Recovery and Adaptation  Body adapts to loads that are higher than the demands of normal daily activity.  Process of recovery & adaptation returns the body to an improved level (overcompensation)  Training loads must be increased gradually to allow the body to adapt and to avoid injury
  • 50. 11.4 The Process of Stimulus-Recovery and Adaptation • If the load is not enough, a little compensation • If the load is too much, difficulty in recovery. Sports person may not return to previous level of fitness
  • 51. 11.5 Skill, Technique & Style Skill:  Ability to perform a whole movement  Automatisation of motor action  Level of effectiveness with which a movement or a motor action can be performed  Any action learnt for a purpose and is needed to take part in activities  Shooting in basketball, service in tennis, overhead kick in football
  • 52. 11.5 Classification of Skills 1. Open Skills 2. Closed Skills 3. Simple Skills 4. Complex Skills 5. Gross Skills 6. Fine Skills
  • 53. 11.5 Classification of Skills 7. Discrete Skills 8. Serial Skills 9. Continuous Skills 10. Individual Skills 11. Coactive Skills 12. Interactive Skills
  • 54. 11.5 Meaning of Technique  Basic movements of any sport or event  The way of performing a skill  A skill can be performed by using more than one technique  A technique involves scientific and economical methods adopted to achieve top performance  Selection of technique by a sportsperson: Suits the level of the player Enhances players performance Best at the given time & within the rules
  • 55. 11.5 Meaning of Style An individual’s expression of technique in motor action Sportsperson due to specific psychic, physical and biological capacities realizes the technique in a unique personal way. It is called his style ...........
  • 56. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload and How to overcome it  Overload is the state when an athlete is undergoing hard as well as strenuous training without the adequate recovery  Overload is a state of decreased performance capacity  Overload occurs for longer periods
  • 57. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload A. Psychological Symptoms : 1. Increased irritability 2. Obstinacy 3. Increased quarrelsomeness 4. Avoidance with the Coach and fellow sportspersons 5. Oversensitivity to criticism 6. Increased indolence 7. Dullness 8. Hallucination
  • 58. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload A. Psychological Symptoms : 9. Anxiety 10. Depression 11. Melancholy 12. Insecurity 13. Changes in Personality 14. Low level of self esteem and motivation to workout 15. Easily distracted during tasks
  • 59. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload B. Performance Related Symptoms : a) Movement Coordination 1. Disturbance in rhythm and flow of movement 2. Reduced power of correction and differentiation 3. Difficulty in concentration 4. Tensed movements 5. Reoccurrence of previous errors 6. Increased susceptibility to technical errors
  • 60. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload B. Performance Related Symptoms : b) Competitive qualities 1. Decrease in readiness for competition 2. Fear of competition 3. Giving up in the face of intricate situations, specially at the end 4. Confusion in competition 5. Increasing tendency to abandon the struggle
  • 61. 11.6 Symptoms of Overload B. Performance Related Symptoms : c) Somatic functional symptoms 1. Loss of sleep 2. Lack of appetite 3. Loss of body weight 4. Disturbance in digestion 5. Increase in time required for recovery of pulse 6. Frequent dizziness 7. Night sweating 8. Increased frequency of respiration 9. Joint aches and pains 10. Impaired muscular strength
  • 62. 11.6 How to Overcome Overload 1. Plan the training : 1. Coach and athlete should plan a strategy 2. Break in training to allow proper recovery 3. Loading in training programmes by reducing volume or intensity of the training 4. Split the program to work on different set of muscles on different days/ time/sessions 5. Ensure adequate recovery before exposing to subsequent loadings
  • 63. 11.6 How to Overcome Overload 2. Nutrition : 1. Adequate nutrition is mandatory for appropriate recovery 2. Sports drinks in suitable quantity, rich in carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins should be taken during and after exercises 3. For Short duration training take water 4. For longer training duration, glucose solutions are required 5. Meal timings should be fixed
  • 64. 11.6 How to Overcome Overload 3. Psychological Strategies : 1. Relaxation Training, imagery, autogenic training 2. Help in maintaining focus during competition, relieving tension and recovery process 3. Meditation is beneficial for inducing sleep 4. Social interaction : 1. Helps in diversion from rigorous training
  • 65. 11.6 How to Overcome Overload 5. Medical Aids : 1. Valuable tools 2. Various massages 3. Wax Bath, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, hot & cold water bath 6. Physical Therapy : 1. Slow stretching exercises 2. Warm up 3. Cooling down 4. swimming