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Introduction to exercise physiology


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Introduction to exercise physiology

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction To Exercise Physiology
  2. 2. What is Physical Activity? Body movement produced by muscle action that increases energy expenditure. eg: activities of daily living such as shopping, gardening, house keeping, child rearing, work-related activities, etc What is Exercise? Planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful physical activity e.g.: training for or performing athletics, sports, or recreational activities such as jogging, roller-blading, ice skating, swimming, etc. How do you define Exercise?
  3. 3. What is physical fitness?  Muscular strength  Muscular endurance  Flexibility  Body composition  Cardiorespiratory endurance  Power  Agility Attributes related to how well one performs physical activity.
  4. 4. What is Exercise Physiology? Definition: the study of how the body (cell, tissue, organ, system) responds in function and structure to (1) acute exercise stress, and (2) chronic physical activity. As an academic discipline: 1. Body of knowledge built on facts and theories derived from research. 2. Formal course of study in institutions of higher learning 3. Professional preparation of practitioners, future investigators, and leaders in the field.
  5. 5. Foundations of science: facts, laws, and theories What is are independent and dependent variables?
  6. 6. 3-parts of the field of study in Exercise Physiology
  7. 7.  Consider the physiological systems: • Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nervous, Renal, GI, Temperature Regulation, Endocrine, Muscle, Bone, Skin, Immune, Metabolism • Exercise tends to disturb homeostasis • Adaptations of physiological systems tend to minimize this disturbance What is Exercise Physiology?
  8. 8. What is Exercise Training? The repeated use of exercise to improve physical fitness. Adaptations to Exercise Acute adaptations The changes in human physiology that occur during exercise or physical activity. Chronic Adaptations The alterations in the structure and functions of the body that occur in response to the regular completion of physical activity and exercise.
  9. 9. What does training do?  Permits adaptations within the physiological systems to minimize the disturbance to homeostasis resulting from exercise  This means exercise intensity can be increased for a given distance or duration, or a given intensity can be sustained longer
  10. 10. Physiological Interactions with Training  Oxygen delivery  Heat dissipation  Motor control  Substrate delivery  Endurance  Power output  Hormonal responses  Can you get these with a pill?
  11. 11. Why is Exercise Physiology relevant in understanding performance capabilities?  Physiological determinants of performance • Rate at which energy can be transformed • Quantity of energy which can be available • Energy cost of performing a given task  Some athletic events are more relevant • Individual rather than team • Running, cycling, swimming, rowing, x-country ski  But the principles apply to all….. • Shouldn’t all exercise science/HPE/PT majors be required to take an exercise physiology course?
  12. 12. What is Clinical Exercise Physiology? A sub-component of exercise physiology that involves the application of exercise physiology principles, knowledge and skills for purposes of the prevention, rehabilitation or diagnosis of disease or disability in humans.
  13. 13. Applications of Exercise Physiology To Other Disciplines and Professions Cardiology Applications • Biochemistry -metabolic adaptations to muscle contraction and exercise training • Cardiology -diagnostics, rehabilitation, and prevention -reversal of risk factors for heart disease • Endocrinology -rehabilitation of type II diabetes • Neurology -effects of exercise on the autonomic nervous system • Nutrition -macro-nutrient & micro-nutrient needs during exercise, and exercise training • Orthopedics -effects of exercise on bone remodeling • Physical Therapy -injury rehabilitation/prevention • Pulmonology -training/conditioning of muscles used in ventilation
  14. 14. What was the first exercise physiology laboratory?  George Wells Fitz • Helped establish the Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology, and Physical Training at Harvard University in 1891.
  15. 15. What was the first exercise physiology laboratory?  Harvard Fatigue Laboratory • David Bruce Dill established a fatigue laboratory at Harvard University, 1927 • Refocused his efforts from biochemistry to experimental physiology
  16. 16. Professional Issues American Society of Exercise Physiologists (ASEP) Founded in 1997; functions to accommodate the professional needs of exercise physiologists. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Founded in 1954; functions to support and “bring together” all disciplines and professions interested in how exercise affects the human body.
  17. 17. Professional Issues, cont’d. National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA) Functions to promote the knowledge and skill competencies of individuals who are interested in muscular strength and power. American Physiological Society (APS) Functions to support the knowledge and research of all aspects of physiology.
  18. 18. The Scientific Method Observation Hypothesis Revision Experiment Theory
  19. 19. Research continuum in science  Basic research – discovery of new knowledge, no concern for immediate application (e.g., design a new heart rate watch).  Theoretical research – fact finding (e.g., performing a study that looks at the risk factors for heart disease).  Empirical research – meaningful relationships, experience-related research. The purpose of this research is to test a theory and possibly refine it (e.g., it was thought previously that 3 days a week of exercise was sufficient, now it is recommended 3-5 days per week).  Applied research – scientific endeavors to solve specific problems. Found in many scientific journals and magazines that apply a theory that was tested (e.g., new training methods and schedules).
  20. 20. What do exercise physiologists do?  Educators  Health center  Fitness center  Rehabilitation center  Physical therapy  Personal trainers  Managers  Athletic Trainers  Sports Therapy  Entrepreneurs  Governmental agencies  Massage therapy  Occupational therapy  Nursing  Nutrition  Medicine  Chiropractic