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Download this PowerPoint at:
http://food.unl.edu/web/fnh/educational-resources
Alice Henneman, MS RD
University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension
ahenneman1@unl.edu
Save Time – Do More
with our FREE educational resources:
http://food.unl.edu/web/fnh/educational-resources
This publication has been peer-reviewed ● April 2014
Amy Peterson, MS RD
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Extension
apeterson3@unl.edu
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
How many people in the United States
get sick each year from food they eat?
48 million people become sick
from foodborne illnesses
3,000 people die
SOURCE: http://mednews.com/food-illness-statistics-2010-cd
How do you know if YOU
have a foodborne illness?
8
Signs and symptoms
of foodborne illness ...
Vomiting
Dehydration
Possible more
severe conditions ...
Meningitis
Paralysis
Sometimes you
can become
very sick and
may have to
stay in the
hospital a
couple of weeks
or longer!
You can’t always spot spoiled food by
using these 3 senses – what are they?
Sight
Smell
Even IF tasting would tell …
Why risk getting sick?
A “tiny taste” may not
protect you …
Yuk!
… as few as 10
bacteria could
make you sick!
Foodborne illness is
NOT a pretty picture!
22
Hey guys, I need
to throw up!
How long does it take to get
sick after eating unsafe food?
It can take ½ hour to 6 weeks to
become sick from unsafe foods.
You usually feel OK right after
eating and become sick later.
Not everyone who eats the
same food gets sick!
24
I’m feeling sick …was
it something I ate?
How come no one
else feels sick?
People with a higher risk for
foodborne illness include ...
Infants
Pregnant
women
Young children
and older adults
People already
weakened by
another disease
or treatment for a
disease
People with a
higher risk of
foodborne illness
should be
especially careful
to avoid these
potentially
hazardous foods …
31
Raw and
undercooked
meat and
poultry
Raw or partially
cooked eggs and
foods containing
raw eggs
Unpasteurized
juices, milk, or
milk products Raw sprouts
It’s not fun to have a foodborne illness!
32
You got
that right!
Be a Winner!
Increase your
chances of
preventing
foodborne
illness!
Choose MyPlate Food
Safety Recommendations
• Clean
• Separate
• Cook
• Chill
Source: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/food-safety-advice.html
Choosemyplate.gov food
safety recommendations are
for home-cooking
If you work in foodservice,
such as in a restaurant,
different guidelines for
cooking and refrigerator
temperatures may apply.
These follow national
standards and are set by
your health department.
PHOTO SOURCE http://www.dreamstime.com/
36
Part of the
reason for the
differences is
that foods
might be
delivered,
cooked and
cooled
differently in
different
food service
places
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
Do this first before
you cook!
The 10 most common
causes of infection
Handwashing is the most effective
way to stop the spread of illness
5 handwashing steps follow ...
Wet hands with
WARM water
Soap and scrub for
20 seconds
Rinse
under
clean,
running
water
Dry
completely
using a
clean cloth
or paper
towel
Turn off water with
paper towel
Wash hands after …
Handling pets
Using the
bathroom
or changing
diapers
Sneezing,
blowing
nose, and
coughing
Touching
a cut or
open sore
Before
AND after
eating and
handling
food
Clean during food preparation!
Wash cutting boards,
knives, utensils and
counter tops with hot
soapy water after
preparing each food
and before going on to
the next.
Avoid spreading bacteria!
Use paper towels or
clean dishcloths to
wipe up kitchen
surfaces or spills.
54
Wash dishcloths
often on the
hot cycle of the
washing machine
and dry in a
hot dryer.
Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
Bacteria like to
grow in wet or
damp dishcloths
and sponges
Have lots of
dishcloths or
sponges so you
can change
them frequently!
There are more
germs in the
average kitchen
than the bathroom.
Sponges and
dishcloths are the
worst offenders.
~research by Dr. Charles Gerba
PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyVictorHabbick
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Let’s examine
some pathogens
found on common
objects….
Pathogens that grew from a
clean wash cloth
58
Pathogens that grew from a cloth
used during meal preparation
59
Pathogens that grew
from clean hands
60
Pathogens that grew from
hands that were coughed on
61
Pathogens that grew from unwashed
hands from the playground
62
Cleaning fruits & vegetables
Remove and discard
outer leaves. Rinse
under clean, running
water just before
preparing or eating.
Rub briskly, scrubbing
with a clean brush or
hands to remove dirt
and surface
microorganisms.
64
Don’t use soap or
detergent. Unlike
washing dishes,
some soap or
detergent may
remain in fruits and
vegetables and
make you sick!
PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net-Winnond
Cleaning fruits & vegetables
After washing, dry with a clean cloth
or paper towel. Cut away bruised and
damaged areas.
Wash this produce, too!
Bacteria on the outside of
fruits can be transferred to
the inside when the fruit is
peeled or cut.
Read labels
Read labels on bagged produce to learn
if it is ready-to-eat.
Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce
can be used without further washing if kept
refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.
Avoid washing raw meat & poultry …
Washing increases the danger of
cross-contamination. Bacteria present on the
surface of meat and poultry can be spread to
ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils and
counter surfaces.
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
This prevents bacteria on
one food from making
another food unsafe to eat!
Use different cutting boards
Use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood
… and a separate one for fresh produce.
PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyaopsan
Why should you replace cutting
boards if they become worn
or develop grooves?
When groovy isn’t a good thing
It’s harder to clean a board that has
grooves where bacteria can hide!
PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyaopsan
Use clean plates
NEVER serve
foods on a plate
that previously
held raw meat,
poultry or
seafood unless
the plate has
first been
washed in hot,
soapy water.
74
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
COOK foods to a safe temperature
to kill microorganisms.
“Microorganisms” means
things like bacteria.
Which ground beef patty is cooked
to a safe internal temperature?
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
This IS a safely
cooked hamburger,
cooked to an internal
temperature of
160°F, even though
it's pink inside.
This is NOT a safely
cooked hamburger.
Though brown inside, it’s
undercooked. Research
shows some ground beef
patties look done at
internal temperatures as
low as 135°F.
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
1 out of 4 hamburgers turns
brown before it has been cooked
to a safe internal temperature
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
Types of food thermometers
digital instant-read dial oven-safe
oven probe
with cord
disposable
temperature
indicators
thermometer fork
combination
dial instant-read
Read the instructions for YOUR thermometer.
Placing a food thermometer
1. Place in thickest part of food.
2. Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle.
3. Begin checking temperature toward
end of cooking, but before food is
expected to be "done."
4. For irregularly shaped food, check
the temperature in several places.
Clean thermometer with
hot soapy water before and
after each use!
Using a thermometer in thinner foods
Insert a thermometer
at an angle or from
the side for really thin
foods like meat
patties, pork chops
and chicken breasts.
When grilling or frying, to avoid
burning fingers, it may be helpful to
remove the food from the heat source
before inserting the thermometer!
Here are the temperatures
for cooking some foods …
Chicken and turkey
Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds
and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts,
legs and thighs, etc.) to 165°F.
Pork
Cook pork, roasts, and
chops to 145 ºF as
measured with a food
thermometer, then
allow the meat to rest
for three minutes
before carving or
consuming.
http://blogs.usda.gov/2011/05/25/cooking-meat-check-the-new-recommended-temperatures/
Pork, egg dishes, hamburger
& ground meats
Cook egg dishes, hamburger and
ground meats to 160°F.
Cook ground poultry to 165°F.
You can’t stick a
thermometer into a
scrambled or fried egg.
Scrambled, poached, fried and
hard-cooked eggs are safe
when cooked so both yolks
and whites are firm, not runny.
How do you know
when they’re done?
Leftovers
Reheat leftovers until a temperature of
165°F is reached throughout the food.
Beef, lamb & veal steaks
Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts
to 160°F for medium doneness (145°F for
medium rare, with a 3 minute rest time).
What is Rest Time?
“Rest time” is the amount of
time the product remains at
the final temperature, after it
has been removed from a grill,
oven or other heat source.
During the three minutes after
meat is removed the heat
source, its temperature
remains constant or continues
to rise, which destroys
harmful bacteria.
92
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
CHILL (refrigerate)
“perishable” foods promptly
and defrost foods properly.
What foods are “perishable”
and spoil more readily?
Dairy products
Pasta, rice, cooked
vegetables
Fresh, peeled/cut
fruits and vegetables
Meat, poultry,
fish, eggs, tofu
Photos: watermelon, potato, and rice are from NCI / photographer: Renee Comet
Does anyone know the
“TWO-hour rule”?
96
The TWO-hour rule
Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time
at room temperature is less than TWO hours
(Only ONE hour when temperature is above 90°F)
A Multiplication Quiz
How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA
left at room temperature 7 hours?
The number of bacteria can
double in 20 minutes!
Answer: 2,097,152!
Refrigerate
perishable foods
within TWO hours!
100
How to be Cool – Part 1
Place very hot foods on a rack at room
temperature for about 20 minutes before
putting them in the refrigerator.
Cool food in
shallow containers.
Limit depth of food
to 2 inches or less.
How to be Cool – Part 2
It’s OK to refrigerate foods
while they are still warm.
Leave container cover slightly
cracked until the food has cooled.
What
temperatures are
recommended
for refrigerator
and freezer?
102
0
o
F
40
o
F
Place an appliance thermometer
in the refrigerator AND freezer!
Monitor refrigerator & freezer temperatures
Place thermometer in the
front of refrigerator/freezer
in an easy-to-read location.
Check temperature regularly
– at least once a week!
105
The THAW
LAW Plan ahead
to defrost
foods.
The best way to thaw
perishable foods is
in the refrigerator!
Refrigerator Storage
Store raw meat, poultry and
seafood on the bottom shelf
of the refrigerator so juices
don’t drip onto other foods.
Don’t do
this, even if
your food is
kept in the
refrigerator!
Photo credit Freedigitalphotos.net - Ambro
How long should you
keep leftover food?
Refrigerated
leftovers
may become
unsafe within
3 to 4 days.
109
http://www.4daythrowaway.org
Menu
1. Foodborne Illness Facts
2. Clean
3. Separate
4. Cook
5. Chill
6. Game — Keep or Toss?
Keep
OR
Toss!
Should you KEEP or TOSS …
Tacos left on
the kitchen
counter
overnight?
Toss it out!
Photo credit Freedigitalphotos.net – m_bartosch
Toss it out!
115
A toxin is something that
can make you sick. The
type of sickness depends
on the type of bacteria
forming the toxin.
Even if you reheat tacos
left out overnight, some bacteria
can form a heat-resistant toxin
which cooking won’t destroy.
Hamburger
thawed all day
on the kitchen
counter?
Should you KEEP or TOSS …
Photo credit FoodPhotoSite.com
Toss it out!
118
Thaw packages of meat, poultry and
seafood on a plate on the bottom shelf of
the refrigerator. This prevents their juices
from dripping on other foods.
Remember how bacteria
may have formed heat-
resistant toxins when
tacos were left out more
than TWO hours?
120
Leftover pizza which was stored in
the refrigerator within TWO hours
after it was served?
PHOTOSOURCE:FreeDigitalPhotos.netbyDavidCastilloDominici
KEEP IT!
If perishable foods are
refrigerated within
TWO hours after they
are served, they should
be safe. Just eat them
within 3 to 4 days.
PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net–stockimages
124
Leftover cold
pizza can be a
GREAT breakfast
food — IF you
handle it safely!
PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net–Ambro
Should you KEEP or TOSS …
Cut or peeled fruits and vegetables
left at room temperature for more
than TWO hours?
Toss it out!
Toss it out!
Should you
KEEP or
TOSS …
Leftovers kept in
the refrigerator
for over a week?
Toss it out!
Toss it out!
Even refrigerated
leftovers may become
unsafe within
3 to 4 days.
You can’t
always see
or smell if a
food is
unsafe. You
could get
sick tasting
a food!
Should you KEEP or TOSS …
A pot of chili soup stored
in the refrigerator while
still hot?
And….can you guess….
How long would it take
a pot of chili to cool to
a safe temperature in
your refrigerator?
Would you believe …
at least 24 hours!
Toss it out!
Toss it out!
Transfer hot foods to shallow
containers to speed cooling!
COOL!
Remember:
138University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination
policies of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.
An Extra Helping For Teachers
• Thermometers
• Safely Cooked Seafood
The following
slides provide more
information than
many students
need. Insert into the
slide set if you feel
they would be
helpful to your
classes.
An Extra Helping For Teachers
Thermometers
DIGITAL instant-read
• Reads in 10 seconds
• Place at least ½ inch deep (or as
directed by manufacturer)
• Gives fast reading
• Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods
• Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking
• Check internal temperature of food near the end of
cooking time
• Some models can be calibrated; check
manufacturer's instructions
• Available in "kitchen" stores
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
DIAL instant-read
• Reads in 15-20 seconds
• Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food
• Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups
• Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3
inches up the stem
• Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways
• Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking
• Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the
end of cooking time
• Some models can be calibrated; check
manufacturer's instructions
• Readily available in stores
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
Dial oven-safe
• Reads in 1-2 minutes
• Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest
part of food
• Can be used in roasts, casseroles,
and soups
• Not appropriate for thin foods
• Can remain in food while it's cooking
• Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high
reading
• Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's
instructions
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
Oven probe with cord
• Can be used in most foods
• Can also be used outside
the oven
• Designed to remain in the food while it
is cooking in oven or in covered pot
• Base unit sits on stovetop or counter
• Cannot be calibrated
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
Disposable temperature
indicators (Single-use)
• Reads in 5-10 seconds
• Place approximately ½ inch deep
(follow manufacturer's directions)
• Designed to be used only once
• Designed for specific temperature ranges
• Should only be used with food for which the
thermometer is intended
• Temperature-sensitive material changes color when
the desired temperature is reached
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
Thermometer-fork combination
• Reads in 2-10 seconds
• Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food
• Can be used in most foods
• Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking
• Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted
• Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time
• Cannot be calibrated
• Convenient for grilling
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
An Extra Helping For Teachers
Fresh and Frozen
Seafood:
Selecting and Serving
It Safely
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFbY2aewd4w
Watch a video on Seafood Safety from the U.S. Food and Drug Association
Signs of safely cooked seafood:
Fin Fish
• Slip point of sharp knife
into flesh; pull aside.
• Edges should be opaque,
the center slightly
translucent with flakes
beginning to separate.
• Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to
finish cooking.
Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
Fin Fish
Signs of safely cooked seafood:
Shrimp, lobster & crab
Turn red and
flesh becomes
pearly opaque.
Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
Signs of safely cooked seafood:
Scallops
Turn milky white or
opaque and firm.
Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
Signs of safely cooked seafood:
Clams, mussels & oysters
Watch for their
shells opening to
know they’re done.
Toss those that
stay closed.
Clams Mussels
Oysters
Source: United States Food & Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
Specific group recommendations
for seafood safety
These groups should
avoid some types of
fish and eat types
lower in mercury
• Pregnant women and
those who may become
pregnant
• Nursing mothers
• Young children
For more information:
http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
or call 1-888-SAFEFOOD
Extension is a Division of the Institute of
Agriculture and Natural Resources at the
University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating
with the Counties and the United States
Department of Agriculture.
University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension
educational programs abide with the
nondiscrimination policies of the University of
Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States
Department of Agriculture.

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Cold Pizza for Breakfast - Food Safety Tips for Teens

  • 1.
  • 2. Teacher Tips • Review PowerPoint in the “Slide Show” mode before showing it. The slides may appear differently on various computers. • Divide PowerPoint into more than one presentation, depending on your group. Several “courses” are identified. • Personalize by adding or deleting slides.
  • 3. Download this PowerPoint at: http://food.unl.edu/web/fnh/educational-resources
  • 4. Alice Henneman, MS RD University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension ahenneman1@unl.edu Save Time – Do More with our FREE educational resources: http://food.unl.edu/web/fnh/educational-resources This publication has been peer-reviewed ● April 2014 Amy Peterson, MS RD University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension apeterson3@unl.edu
  • 5. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 6. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 7. How many people in the United States get sick each year from food they eat? 48 million people become sick from foodborne illnesses 3,000 people die SOURCE: http://mednews.com/food-illness-statistics-2010-cd
  • 8. How do you know if YOU have a foodborne illness? 8
  • 9. Signs and symptoms of foodborne illness ...
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 13.
  • 18.
  • 19. Sometimes you can become very sick and may have to stay in the hospital a couple of weeks or longer!
  • 20. You can’t always spot spoiled food by using these 3 senses – what are they? Sight Smell
  • 21. Even IF tasting would tell … Why risk getting sick? A “tiny taste” may not protect you … Yuk! … as few as 10 bacteria could make you sick!
  • 22. Foodborne illness is NOT a pretty picture! 22 Hey guys, I need to throw up!
  • 23. How long does it take to get sick after eating unsafe food? It can take ½ hour to 6 weeks to become sick from unsafe foods. You usually feel OK right after eating and become sick later.
  • 24. Not everyone who eats the same food gets sick! 24 I’m feeling sick …was it something I ate? How come no one else feels sick?
  • 25. People with a higher risk for foodborne illness include ...
  • 29. People already weakened by another disease or treatment for a disease
  • 30. People with a higher risk of foodborne illness should be especially careful to avoid these potentially hazardous foods …
  • 31. 31 Raw and undercooked meat and poultry Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs Unpasteurized juices, milk, or milk products Raw sprouts
  • 32. It’s not fun to have a foodborne illness! 32 You got that right!
  • 33. Be a Winner! Increase your chances of preventing foodborne illness!
  • 34. Choose MyPlate Food Safety Recommendations • Clean • Separate • Cook • Chill Source: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/food-safety-advice.html
  • 35. Choosemyplate.gov food safety recommendations are for home-cooking If you work in foodservice, such as in a restaurant, different guidelines for cooking and refrigerator temperatures may apply. These follow national standards and are set by your health department. PHOTO SOURCE http://www.dreamstime.com/
  • 36. 36 Part of the reason for the differences is that foods might be delivered, cooked and cooled differently in different food service places
  • 37. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 38. Do this first before you cook!
  • 39. The 10 most common causes of infection
  • 40. Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness 5 handwashing steps follow ...
  • 42. Soap and scrub for 20 seconds
  • 45. Turn off water with paper towel
  • 52. Clean during food preparation! Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops with hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
  • 53. Avoid spreading bacteria! Use paper towels or clean dishcloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills.
  • 54. 54 Wash dishcloths often on the hot cycle of the washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.
  • 55. Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria Bacteria like to grow in wet or damp dishcloths and sponges Have lots of dishcloths or sponges so you can change them frequently!
  • 56. There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are the worst offenders. ~research by Dr. Charles Gerba PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyVictorHabbick
  • 57. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Let’s examine some pathogens found on common objects….
  • 58. Pathogens that grew from a clean wash cloth 58
  • 59. Pathogens that grew from a cloth used during meal preparation 59
  • 60. Pathogens that grew from clean hands 60
  • 61. Pathogens that grew from hands that were coughed on 61
  • 62. Pathogens that grew from unwashed hands from the playground 62
  • 63. Cleaning fruits & vegetables Remove and discard outer leaves. Rinse under clean, running water just before preparing or eating. Rub briskly, scrubbing with a clean brush or hands to remove dirt and surface microorganisms.
  • 64. 64 Don’t use soap or detergent. Unlike washing dishes, some soap or detergent may remain in fruits and vegetables and make you sick! PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net-Winnond
  • 65. Cleaning fruits & vegetables After washing, dry with a clean cloth or paper towel. Cut away bruised and damaged areas.
  • 66. Wash this produce, too! Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when the fruit is peeled or cut.
  • 67. Read labels Read labels on bagged produce to learn if it is ready-to-eat. Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.
  • 68. Avoid washing raw meat & poultry … Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination. Bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry can be spread to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils and counter surfaces.
  • 69. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 70. This prevents bacteria on one food from making another food unsafe to eat!
  • 71. Use different cutting boards Use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood … and a separate one for fresh produce.
  • 72. PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyaopsan Why should you replace cutting boards if they become worn or develop grooves?
  • 73. When groovy isn’t a good thing It’s harder to clean a board that has grooves where bacteria can hide! PhotoSource:freedigitalphotobyaopsan
  • 74. Use clean plates NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water. 74
  • 75. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 76. COOK foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms. “Microorganisms” means things like bacteria.
  • 77. Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature? Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
  • 78. This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside. This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F. Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
  • 79. 1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm
  • 80.
  • 81. Types of food thermometers digital instant-read dial oven-safe oven probe with cord disposable temperature indicators thermometer fork combination dial instant-read Read the instructions for YOUR thermometer.
  • 82. Placing a food thermometer 1. Place in thickest part of food. 2. Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle. 3. Begin checking temperature toward end of cooking, but before food is expected to be "done." 4. For irregularly shaped food, check the temperature in several places. Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!
  • 83. Using a thermometer in thinner foods Insert a thermometer at an angle or from the side for really thin foods like meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts. When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer!
  • 84. Here are the temperatures for cooking some foods …
  • 85. Chicken and turkey Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legs and thighs, etc.) to 165°F.
  • 86. Pork Cook pork, roasts, and chops to 145 ºF as measured with a food thermometer, then allow the meat to rest for three minutes before carving or consuming. http://blogs.usda.gov/2011/05/25/cooking-meat-check-the-new-recommended-temperatures/
  • 87. Pork, egg dishes, hamburger & ground meats Cook egg dishes, hamburger and ground meats to 160°F. Cook ground poultry to 165°F.
  • 88. You can’t stick a thermometer into a scrambled or fried egg. Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny. How do you know when they’re done?
  • 89. Leftovers Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165°F is reached throughout the food.
  • 90. Beef, lamb & veal steaks Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160°F for medium doneness (145°F for medium rare, with a 3 minute rest time).
  • 91. What is Rest Time? “Rest time” is the amount of time the product remains at the final temperature, after it has been removed from a grill, oven or other heat source. During the three minutes after meat is removed the heat source, its temperature remains constant or continues to rise, which destroys harmful bacteria.
  • 92. 92
  • 93. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 94. CHILL (refrigerate) “perishable” foods promptly and defrost foods properly.
  • 95. What foods are “perishable” and spoil more readily? Dairy products Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu Photos: watermelon, potato, and rice are from NCI / photographer: Renee Comet
  • 96. Does anyone know the “TWO-hour rule”? 96
  • 97. The TWO-hour rule Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours (Only ONE hour when temperature is above 90°F)
  • 98. A Multiplication Quiz How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room temperature 7 hours? The number of bacteria can double in 20 minutes!
  • 100. 100 How to be Cool – Part 1 Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before putting them in the refrigerator. Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less.
  • 101. How to be Cool – Part 2 It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they are still warm. Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.
  • 103. Place an appliance thermometer in the refrigerator AND freezer!
  • 104. Monitor refrigerator & freezer temperatures Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location. Check temperature regularly – at least once a week!
  • 105. 105 The THAW LAW Plan ahead to defrost foods. The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator!
  • 106. Refrigerator Storage Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.
  • 107. Don’t do this, even if your food is kept in the refrigerator! Photo credit Freedigitalphotos.net - Ambro
  • 108. How long should you keep leftover food? Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.
  • 110.
  • 111. Menu 1. Foodborne Illness Facts 2. Clean 3. Separate 4. Cook 5. Chill 6. Game — Keep or Toss?
  • 113. Should you KEEP or TOSS … Tacos left on the kitchen counter overnight?
  • 114. Toss it out! Photo credit Freedigitalphotos.net – m_bartosch
  • 115. Toss it out! 115 A toxin is something that can make you sick. The type of sickness depends on the type of bacteria forming the toxin. Even if you reheat tacos left out overnight, some bacteria can form a heat-resistant toxin which cooking won’t destroy.
  • 116. Hamburger thawed all day on the kitchen counter? Should you KEEP or TOSS … Photo credit FoodPhotoSite.com
  • 118. 118 Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood on a plate on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. This prevents their juices from dripping on other foods.
  • 119. Remember how bacteria may have formed heat- resistant toxins when tacos were left out more than TWO hours?
  • 120. 120
  • 121. Leftover pizza which was stored in the refrigerator within TWO hours after it was served? PHOTOSOURCE:FreeDigitalPhotos.netbyDavidCastilloDominici
  • 123. If perishable foods are refrigerated within TWO hours after they are served, they should be safe. Just eat them within 3 to 4 days. PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net–stockimages
  • 124. 124 Leftover cold pizza can be a GREAT breakfast food — IF you handle it safely! PhotocreditFreedigitalphotos.net–Ambro
  • 125. Should you KEEP or TOSS … Cut or peeled fruits and vegetables left at room temperature for more than TWO hours?
  • 128. Should you KEEP or TOSS … Leftovers kept in the refrigerator for over a week?
  • 130. Toss it out! Even refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.
  • 131. You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. You could get sick tasting a food!
  • 132. Should you KEEP or TOSS … A pot of chili soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?
  • 133. And….can you guess…. How long would it take a pot of chili to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator? Would you believe … at least 24 hours!
  • 135. Toss it out! Transfer hot foods to shallow containers to speed cooling! COOL!
  • 137.
  • 138. 138University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.
  • 139. An Extra Helping For Teachers • Thermometers • Safely Cooked Seafood The following slides provide more information than many students need. Insert into the slide set if you feel they would be helpful to your classes.
  • 140. An Extra Helping For Teachers Thermometers
  • 141. DIGITAL instant-read • Reads in 10 seconds • Place at least ½ inch deep (or as directed by manufacturer) • Gives fast reading • Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods • Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking • Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions • Available in "kitchen" stores Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 142. DIAL instant-read • Reads in 15-20 seconds • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups • Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem • Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking • Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions • Readily available in stores Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 143. Dial oven-safe • Reads in 1-2 minutes • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups • Not appropriate for thin foods • Can remain in food while it's cooking • Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 144. Oven probe with cord • Can be used in most foods • Can also be used outside the oven • Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot • Base unit sits on stovetop or counter • Cannot be calibrated Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 145. Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use) • Reads in 5-10 seconds • Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions) • Designed to be used only once • Designed for specific temperature ranges • Should only be used with food for which the thermometer is intended • Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 146. Thermometer-fork combination • Reads in 2-10 seconds • Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food • Can be used in most foods • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking • Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted • Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time • Cannot be calibrated • Convenient for grilling Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp
  • 147. An Extra Helping For Teachers Fresh and Frozen Seafood: Selecting and Serving It Safely http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
  • 148. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFbY2aewd4w Watch a video on Seafood Safety from the U.S. Food and Drug Association
  • 149. Signs of safely cooked seafood: Fin Fish • Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. • Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. • Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm Fin Fish
  • 150. Signs of safely cooked seafood: Shrimp, lobster & crab Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
  • 151. Signs of safely cooked seafood: Scallops Turn milky white or opaque and firm. Source: United States Food & Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
  • 152. Signs of safely cooked seafood: Clams, mussels & oysters Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed. Clams Mussels Oysters Source: United States Food & Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm
  • 153. Specific group recommendations for seafood safety These groups should avoid some types of fish and eat types lower in mercury • Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant • Nursing mothers • Young children For more information: http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm or call 1-888-SAFEFOOD
  • 154.
  • 155. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.