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1
CHAPTER 4
CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TO
BUILD BRAND EQUITY
2
Strategic Brand Management Process
Mental maps
Competitive frame of reference
Points-of-parity and points-of-difference
Core brand associations
Brand mantra
Mixing and matching of brand elements
Integrating brand marketing activities
Leveraging of secondary associations
Brand Value Chain
Brand audits
Brand tracking
Brand equity management system
Brand-product matrix
Brand portfolios and hierarchies
Brand expansion strategies
Brand reinforcement and revitalization
KEY CONCEPTSSTEPS
Grow and Sustain
Brand Equity
Identify and Establish
Brand Positioning and Values
Plan and Implement
Brand Marketing Programs
Measure and Interpret
Brand Performance
3
Building
Customer-Based Brand Equity
• Brand knowledge structures depend on . . .
– The initial choices for the brand elements
– The supporting marketing program and the
manner by which the brand is integrated into it
– Other associations indirectly transferred to the
brand by linking it to some other entities
4
Brand Elements
Objective:
• Enhance brand awareness
• Facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and
unique brand associations
– Brand Names
– URLs
– Logos & Symbols
– Characters
– Slogans
– Jingles
– Packaging
5
Brand Elements Choice Criteria:
General Considerations
• Memorable
– Easily Recognized
– Easily Recalled
• Meaningful
– Descriptive
– Persuasive
• Likable
– Fun & Interesting
– Aesthetics
– Rich Visual & Verbal
Imagery
• Transferrable
– Within & Across
Product Categories
– Across Geographical
Boundaries & Cultures
• Adaptable
– Flexible & Updateable
• Protectable
– Legally
– Competitively
6
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Brand Names
• Brand Awareness
– Simple and easy to pronounce: Raid, Chevy
– Familiar and meaningful: Neon, JuicyJuice
– Different, distinctive, and unique: Apple, Toys’R’Us,
Xerox
• Brand Associations
– The explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract
from it are important. The brand name can reinforce an
important attribute or benefit association that makes up
the positioning.
– Broader meaning than just the category: performance-
related or emotion-laden (ColorStay lipsticks, Close-Up
toothpaste)
– Descriptive names can cause difficulty in re-positioning: I
Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter
7
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Brand Names
Landor’s Brand Name Taxonomy (p.147, Figure 4-
3)
1. Descriptive
2. Suggestive
3. Compounds
Naming Procedures
1. Define branding objectives
2. Generate as many names as possible
3. Screen based on marketing considerations
4. Collect more extensive info about the survivors
5. Conduct consumer research
6. Choose and register the brand name
4. Classical
5. Arbitrary
6. Fanciful
8
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: URLs
• Uniform Resource Locators: Domain names
• Must register and pay for its use
• By September 2000, 98% of the words in a
typical English dictionary had been registered.
• A company can either sue the current owner of
the URL for copyright infringement, buy the
name from the current owner, or register all
conceivable variations of its brand as domain
names ahead of time.
9
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Logos and Symbols
• Versatile: Can be updated and transferred.
Useful to endorse sub-brands.
• Strong word marks (with no separate logo):
Coca-Cola, Kit-Kat
• Non-word mark logos (Symbols): Mercedes
star, Nike swoosh, Olympic rings
• Many logos fall between these two extremes:
Literal representations of brand name (Apple),
certain elements of brand (McDonald’s Golden
Arches, Playboy bunny, etc.)
10
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Characters
• Takes on human or real-life
characteristics: the Marlboro cowboy,
Ronald McDonald, Energizer’s drumming
pink bunny
• Colorful and rich in imagery: Brand
awareness
• Relationship building
• Transferable
• Licensing opportunities
11
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Slogans
• Function like hooks or handles
– Build brand awareness by
• playing off the brand name (My doctor said
Mylanta)
• Making strong links with the category (If you’re
not wearing Dockers, you’re just wearing pants
– Reinforce brand positioning or POD
(Nothing runs like a Deere)
• Relatively easier to change
12
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Jingles
• Musical messages written around the
brand
• Often convey product meaning in an
abstract fashion
• Most likely to relate to feelings and other
intangibles
13
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Packaging
• The activities of designing and producing
containers or wrappers for a product.
• Objectives?
14
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Packaging
• The activities of designing and producing
containers or wrappers for a product.
• Objectives
– Identify the brand
– Convey descriptive and persuasive
information
– Facilitate product transportation and protection
– Assist at-home storage
– Aid product consumption
15
Options and Tactics for Brand
Elements: Packaging
• Bigger or smaller packaged versions:
Different market segments
• Stand out from the clutter
• The “last five seconds of marketing”
• Can redesign the package, but there is a
risk…
• Guidelines: 175, Figure 4-10
16
• Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible, and
what we see on a package can lead us to taste what we
think we are going to taste.
• Long after we have bought a product, a package can
still lead us to believe we bought it because it was a
good value.
• Studies of 48 different types of foods and personal
care products have shown that people pour and
consume between 18% and 32% more of a product as
the size of the container doubles.
Packaging Can Influence Perceptions
of Taste, Value and Consumption
17
Packaging Can Influence How a
Person Uses a Product
• One strategy to increase use of mature products
has been to encourage people to use the brand
in new situations, like soup for breakfast, or
new uses, like baking soda as a refrigerator
deodorizer.
• An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumers
showed that twice as many people learned
about the new use from the package than from
television ads.
18
Putting It All Together
• The entire set of brand elements makes up the
brand identity, the contribution of all brand
elements to awareness and image.
• The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends
on the extent to which the brand elements are
consistent.
19
Mix and Match the Brand Elements
• Brand elements have their strengths and
weaknesses.
• Maximize their collective contribution to
brand equity
– Mix: Achievement of objectives
– Match: Reinforcement of meaning
• P. 178, Figure 4-11

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CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS

  • 1. 1 CHAPTER 4 CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TO BUILD BRAND EQUITY
  • 2. 2 Strategic Brand Management Process Mental maps Competitive frame of reference Points-of-parity and points-of-difference Core brand associations Brand mantra Mixing and matching of brand elements Integrating brand marketing activities Leveraging of secondary associations Brand Value Chain Brand audits Brand tracking Brand equity management system Brand-product matrix Brand portfolios and hierarchies Brand expansion strategies Brand reinforcement and revitalization KEY CONCEPTSSTEPS Grow and Sustain Brand Equity Identify and Establish Brand Positioning and Values Plan and Implement Brand Marketing Programs Measure and Interpret Brand Performance
  • 3. 3 Building Customer-Based Brand Equity • Brand knowledge structures depend on . . . – The initial choices for the brand elements – The supporting marketing program and the manner by which the brand is integrated into it – Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entities
  • 4. 4 Brand Elements Objective: • Enhance brand awareness • Facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations – Brand Names – URLs – Logos & Symbols – Characters – Slogans – Jingles – Packaging
  • 5. 5 Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations • Memorable – Easily Recognized – Easily Recalled • Meaningful – Descriptive – Persuasive • Likable – Fun & Interesting – Aesthetics – Rich Visual & Verbal Imagery • Transferrable – Within & Across Product Categories – Across Geographical Boundaries & Cultures • Adaptable – Flexible & Updateable • Protectable – Legally – Competitively
  • 6. 6 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Brand Names • Brand Awareness – Simple and easy to pronounce: Raid, Chevy – Familiar and meaningful: Neon, JuicyJuice – Different, distinctive, and unique: Apple, Toys’R’Us, Xerox • Brand Associations – The explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract from it are important. The brand name can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up the positioning. – Broader meaning than just the category: performance- related or emotion-laden (ColorStay lipsticks, Close-Up toothpaste) – Descriptive names can cause difficulty in re-positioning: I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter
  • 7. 7 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Brand Names Landor’s Brand Name Taxonomy (p.147, Figure 4- 3) 1. Descriptive 2. Suggestive 3. Compounds Naming Procedures 1. Define branding objectives 2. Generate as many names as possible 3. Screen based on marketing considerations 4. Collect more extensive info about the survivors 5. Conduct consumer research 6. Choose and register the brand name 4. Classical 5. Arbitrary 6. Fanciful
  • 8. 8 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: URLs • Uniform Resource Locators: Domain names • Must register and pay for its use • By September 2000, 98% of the words in a typical English dictionary had been registered. • A company can either sue the current owner of the URL for copyright infringement, buy the name from the current owner, or register all conceivable variations of its brand as domain names ahead of time.
  • 9. 9 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Logos and Symbols • Versatile: Can be updated and transferred. Useful to endorse sub-brands. • Strong word marks (with no separate logo): Coca-Cola, Kit-Kat • Non-word mark logos (Symbols): Mercedes star, Nike swoosh, Olympic rings • Many logos fall between these two extremes: Literal representations of brand name (Apple), certain elements of brand (McDonald’s Golden Arches, Playboy bunny, etc.)
  • 10. 10 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Characters • Takes on human or real-life characteristics: the Marlboro cowboy, Ronald McDonald, Energizer’s drumming pink bunny • Colorful and rich in imagery: Brand awareness • Relationship building • Transferable • Licensing opportunities
  • 11. 11 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Slogans • Function like hooks or handles – Build brand awareness by • playing off the brand name (My doctor said Mylanta) • Making strong links with the category (If you’re not wearing Dockers, you’re just wearing pants – Reinforce brand positioning or POD (Nothing runs like a Deere) • Relatively easier to change
  • 12. 12 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Jingles • Musical messages written around the brand • Often convey product meaning in an abstract fashion • Most likely to relate to feelings and other intangibles
  • 13. 13 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • The activities of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product. • Objectives?
  • 14. 14 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • The activities of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product. • Objectives – Identify the brand – Convey descriptive and persuasive information – Facilitate product transportation and protection – Assist at-home storage – Aid product consumption
  • 15. 15 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • Bigger or smaller packaged versions: Different market segments • Stand out from the clutter • The “last five seconds of marketing” • Can redesign the package, but there is a risk… • Guidelines: 175, Figure 4-10
  • 16. 16 • Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible, and what we see on a package can lead us to taste what we think we are going to taste. • Long after we have bought a product, a package can still lead us to believe we bought it because it was a good value. • Studies of 48 different types of foods and personal care products have shown that people pour and consume between 18% and 32% more of a product as the size of the container doubles. Packaging Can Influence Perceptions of Taste, Value and Consumption
  • 17. 17 Packaging Can Influence How a Person Uses a Product • One strategy to increase use of mature products has been to encourage people to use the brand in new situations, like soup for breakfast, or new uses, like baking soda as a refrigerator deodorizer. • An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumers showed that twice as many people learned about the new use from the package than from television ads.
  • 18. 18 Putting It All Together • The entire set of brand elements makes up the brand identity, the contribution of all brand elements to awareness and image. • The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends on the extent to which the brand elements are consistent.
  • 19. 19 Mix and Match the Brand Elements • Brand elements have their strengths and weaknesses. • Maximize their collective contribution to brand equity – Mix: Achievement of objectives – Match: Reinforcement of meaning • P. 178, Figure 4-11