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CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE
BEHAVIOR OF SOCIAL
NETWORKS USERS IN GERMANY
by Knut Linke, Faculty of Economics and Management
University of Latvia
at the International Conference:
NEW CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
May 9-11, 2013, Riga, University of Lativa
Overview
 Milieu theory and lifeworlds
 Main hypothesis
 Analysing sub hypothesizes
 Results
 Recommondations
• According to (Bourdieu, 1980, p. 183), the society consists of
accumulations which can only be represented by short-lived and
mechanical states of equilibrium.
• (Schulze, 1992, pp. 176-197) supports this approach of stipulating and
choosing relationships on the basis of the character and shape. The
term 'social milieu' (Becker et al., 1992, p. 80) combines groups of
people who are similar in terms of their outlook on life and life style.
Consequently, the group has the same living environment (Hradil,
2006, pp. 87-125).
• The term 'social milieu' (Hradil, 2006, pp. 278-284) denotes a
grouping of people that have a similar mentality and often a common
'factual context' (region, district, professional life, etc.).
Milieu theory and lifeworlds
• This approach has also been used to research Internet users in
Germany and Great Britain (Lichy, 2011, pp. 470-475), and
differences in the online communication behaviour can be observed.
• The social differentiation, that is, the connection between personal
preferences, the social position and the benefits from the use of the
Internet and social networks, has so far not been investigated in the
Federal Republic of Germany.
• An estimate of the number of users of a population can be obtained
from the approach of social structure analysis. The population can be
analysed in terms of certain forms or market segments.
Milieu theory and lifeworlds
In order to confirm the theoretical fundamentals the following (primary)
hypothesis has been proposed:
•H: The consideration of a participant’s lifeworld leads to more reliable results
than analysing the sample without taking lifeworlds into account.
supported by three main-sub-hypothesis (build on pre-research):
•Ha: The selected lifeworlds reveal characteristics, relating to their consumption
preferences, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld.
•Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics, relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld.
•Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant
changes in the results of the SH1-SH10.
Researched hypothesis
In the following the first results of the main analyses of the ISS2012 (892
female and 715 male participants; the average year of birth: 1983,
median: 1987, mode: 1991; Internet since average: 2000 median: 2001;
431 of the 1,607 participants did not have mobile Internet access;
average income level of 35,000 - 44,999€; average number of persons
per household is 2.62, median/mode of 2) sample for the hypothesis “Hc:
In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal
significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10” are displayed.
The Hc is researched with a selection of six out of the ten sub-
hypothesizes with the statistical methods of product-moment correlation
(PMC) by Pearson, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SRCC) and
factor analysis.
Analyses
• SH1: An increasing household income has a positive and significant
impact on the living environment of the participant.
• SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > -0.3 between the
household income and the time when an Internet connection is
installed in the household.
• The SRCC shows a value of -.306 between the variables of household
income and the beginning of Internet use. This means that the higher
the gross income of a household, the sooner it started using the
Internet. SH1a can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 1
• SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the household income and its residential environment.
• An SRCC of +.401 exists between the variables of household income
and the residential environment. SH1b can be considered as
confirmed.
• SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the household income of the participant and his educational
qualification.
• The SRCC shows a value of +.299 between the variables of household
income and the educational qualification. Unfortunately, SH1c
cannot be considered as confirmed (formally)
• SH1 can be considered as confirmed, if the +.299 would be count as
+.3
Sub-hypothesis 1
• SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular
media content and gender.
• SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the female participants and consumption of romantic films.
• A PMC/SRCC of +.458 can be observed between the gender of the
participant and the preference for romance films. SH2a can be
considered as confirmed.
• SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the male participants and consumption of action films.
• A PMC/SRCC of +.342 can be detected between participants of the
male gender and the preference for action films. SH2b can be
considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 2
• SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the male participants and consumption of TV content relating to
sports.
• There is a PMC/SRCC of +.331 between the male participants and the
preference for TV content relating to sports. SH2c can be considered
as confirmed.
• SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the female participants and consumption of romantic literature.
• There is a PMC/SRCC of +.387 between the female participants and
the preference for romance literature. This confirms the assumptions
that romance literature, as well as romance films, are usually enjoyed
by women. SH2d can be considered as confirmed.
• SH2 can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 2
• SH3: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5
between the duration of Internet use during the week and at the
weekend.
• In the following, the values refer first to a population of n=1,607,
including all participants, and a population of n=1,177, including the
participants who indicated the availability of mobile Internet.
• SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5
between the duration of using the Internet on a desktop computer
during the week and at the weekend.
• There is a highly significance SRCC value of -.724/-.745 between using
the Internet on a desktop computer during the week and at the
weekend. SH3a can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 3
• SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5
between the duration of using the Internet on a mobile device during
the week and at the weekend.
• There is an SRCC of +.864/+.776 between using the Internet on
mobile device during the week and at the weekend. SH3b can be
considered as confirmed.
• SH3c: There is no correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the duration
of using the Internet on a desktop computer or a mobile device.
• There is an SRCC of -.051/+.045 between using the Internet on a
desktop computer during the week and a mobile device during the
week.
Sub-hypothesis 3
• There is an SRCC of -.068/-.001 between using the Internet on a
desktop computer during the week and using the Internet on a
mobile device at the weekend. There is an SRCC of -.061/+.011
between using the Internet on a desktop computer at the weekend
and using the Internet on a mobile device during the week. There is
an SRCC of -.030/+.139 between using the Internet on a desktop
computer at the weekend and using the Internet on a mobile device
at the weekend. In addition, there is no significance of the
measurements, or a significance of the level of 0.01. SH3c can be
considered as confirmed.
• SH3 can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 3
• SH5: There is a significant correlation between social networks and
the intensity of their use.
• SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
social networks with the same user layers.
• SH5a can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 5
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Flickr (1) 1 +.385 +.406 +.420 +.372 +.353 +.282 +.363
4SQ (2) +.385 1 +.408 +.276 +.419 +.400 +.267 +.431
Instagram (3) +,406 +.408 1 +.314 +.245 +.361 +.329 +.373
LastFM (4) +.420 +.276 +.314 1 +.247 +.295 +.355 +.280
LinkedIn (5) +.372 +.419 +.245 +.247 1 +.390 +.208 +.338
Pinterest (6) +.353 +.400 +.361 +.295 +.390 1 +.317 +.297
Spotify (7) +.282 +.267 +.329 +.355 +.208 +.317 1 +.232
Twitter (8) +.363 +.431 +.373 +.280 +.338 +.297 +.232 1
• SH5b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined.
• The factor analysis (KMO .915; Sig. by Bartlett .000) shows three
factors:
• The first factor contains mainly niche networks and is led by certain
new networks which focus on special users groups or web functions.
• The second factor consists mostly of older networks or networks
which are not evident in the correlation analysis.
• The third factor contains niche networks from Germany which are no
longer on the market with an impact on it.
• SH5b can be considered as confirmed.
• SH5 can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 5
• SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using
business networks, specific users and the factors motivating them to
use business networks.
• SH7a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the intensity of using business networks and the motivation to find
business partners and customers.
• Both networks (Xing and LinkedIn) have a PMC which exceeds +.3.
There is a PMC of +.372 for LinkedIn and +.434 for Xing and the
motivation to search for customers and business partners. SH6a can
be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• SH7b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the intensity of using business networks and the motivation to search
for jobs using social networks.
• There is a correlation of +.268 between LinkedIn and job search, and
+.305 between Xing and job search. Due to the fact that both
networks are very similar and no such correlations can be seen for
other networks, it is assumed that career change is a motivational
factor for using Xing and LinkedIn. SH6b is formally regarded as
unconfirmed. Nevertheless, a notable correlation exists; especially
Xing exceeds the significant limit.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• SH7c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the motivation to find business partners and customers and to search
for jobs using social networks.
• There is a PMC of +.470 between both motivations. SH6c can be
considered as confirmed.
• SH7d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the motivation to find business partners and customers and to
establish contacts within social networks.
• There is a PMC of +.368 between both motivations. Establishing
contacts in social networks has a PMC of +.199 for LinkedIn and +.220
for Xing. SH6d can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• SH7e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH7a-
SH7d.
• Factor No 5, provided by factor analysis (KMO .915; Sig by Barlett .
000) is led by the search for business partners with a loading of +.668,
and followed by the use of networks for job search with +.608, the
intensity of using of Xing with +537, LinkedIn with +454, and the
intention to establish contacts with +.412. SH6e can be considered as
confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• SH7f: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the
intensity of using business networks and the educational qualification
of the user.
• There is an SRCC of +.324 between LinkedIn and the educational
qualification of the participant. There is an SRCC of +.409 between
Xing and the educational qualification of the participant. SH6f can be
considered as confirmed.
• SH7g: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
Xing and LinkedIn.
• There is a highly significant PMC of +.559 between the intensity of the
use of both business networks Xing and LinkedIn. SH7g can be
considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• UH7a-UH7g indicates a very specific situation regarding the users of
business networks.
• SH7b was not confirmed, but it shows a clear trend for the German
market. This raises the question of how similar the significance of
LinkedIn and Xing is. Based on the measured significance, a high
similarity can be expected. It can be expected that here by a speciality
for German users exists, which focusses the usage of those networks
more work related as users with a more international mind.
• The rest of the sub-hypotheses were confirmed. Therefore, SH7 can
be regarded as confirmed if the hypothesis focusses on the German
market of business networks only. For an international approach the
SH7 cannot be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 7
• SH8: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using
the Internet for political discussions and the intensity of using
communication functions.
• SH8a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and the intensity
to leave comments.
• The correlation for the commenting of content has only a PMC of
+.294 and making comments in general has the value of +.238,
discussing events shows a PMC of +.249.
• SH8a is regarded as unconfirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 8
• SH8b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the motivation to hold political discussions and to exchange opinions.
• There is a PMC of +.442 for the intensity of the motivation to
exchange opinions. SH8b can be considered as confirmed.
• SH8c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and to share
web-sites within social networks.
• There is a PMC of +.315 between the motivation to discuss political
content and the intensity to share websites on social networks. SH8c
can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 8
• SH8d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH8a-
SH8c.
• Factor analysis (KMO .914; Sig. by Barlett .000) indicates a factor, led
by the motivation to discuss the daily events with a loading of +.688,
and followed by discussing politics with a loading of +632, discussing
TV content with +.457 and exchanging opinions with +.386. SH8d can
be considered as confirmed.
• SH8 basically shows that politically active people, who share content
related to politics, are generally of communicative nature and share
other types of content as well. Formally, SH8 cannot be considered
as confirmed, since SH8a was not confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 8
• SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between
the user's degree of interest in listening to music as a leisure activity
and the intensity of taking part in online services which offer music.
• As concerns leisure activities, listening to music and listening to music
on the Internet has a PMC of +.486. In addition, leisure activities
correlate with watching videos on the Internet with a value of +.294.
• There is a highly significant correlation of +.509 between listening to
music on the Internet and watching videos on the Internet.
• In addition, there is a correlation of +.300 between listening to music
on the Internet and consuming TV content on the Internet.
• SH10 can be considered as confirmed.
Sub-hypothesis 10
• The results of the analyses display a positive and homogeneous trend.
• In general, it is evident that the findings of the preliminary research
can be proved. The results also made it possible to gather a large
number of online and offline behaviours, and to make specific
assertions concerning the examined user layer.
• In addition to the discussed SHs, three additional SH, related to
Facebook usage, usage of security settings and music consumption,
could be confirmed. The results must be viewed, however, against
the validity of the sample.
• The confirmed SH10 shows an example that it is possible to transfer
certain types of leisure activities to the Internet.
Results
• There is a strong emphasis in the results on young
participants.
• This raises the question if the hypotheses would exist in
differentiated lifeworlds or there would be shifts.
• Focus was on the target group of social network users.
• The survey was only provided online, the results can be different
if they would be done offline
• Only valid for German users
Limitations
• In light of SH1 and SH10, the results allow expressing the first general
recommendations.
• If there is a correlation between the availability of financial means and the ability
to use the Internet, as demonstrated by SH1, Internet access should be granted to
people in order to avoid discrimination caused by a lack of finances.
• Moreover, SH8 shows, with certain significance, that people use the Internet to
discuss issues related to politics. This can be important for a country to maintain
democracy and provide its people with the opportunity for open discussion.
• There should be a political demand, proved by statistical data, for a
free, government-guaranteed Internet access, and no restrictions
should be imposed on it. As concerns the degree to which a state
needs to protect itself and its citizens, a generally free access to the
Internet, in view of a democratic society, should not be limited.
Recommendations
• (Becker et al., 1992) Horst Becker, Ulrich Becker, Walter Ruhland:
Zwischen Angst und Aufbruch, ECON, Düsseldorf, 1992 [230 P.].
• (Bourdieu, 1980) Pierre Bourdieu: Sozialer Sinn, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt
on the Main, 1980 [503 P.].
• (Hradil, 2006) Stefan Hradil: Die Sozialstruktur Deutschlands im
internationalen Vergleich, 2nd edition, VS, Wiesbaden, 2006 [304 P.].
• (Lichy, 2011) Jessica Lichy: Internet user behavior in France and
Britain: exploring socio-spatial disparity among adolescents, In:
International Journal of Consumer Studies, No. 35, 2011 [PP. 470-
475].
• (Schulze, 1992) Gerhard Schulze: Die Erlebnisgesellschaft, Campus,
Frankfurt, 1992 [765 P.].
References
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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Characteristics for the behavior of german social networks users

  • 1. CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIOR OF SOCIAL NETWORKS USERS IN GERMANY by Knut Linke, Faculty of Economics and Management University of Latvia at the International Conference: NEW CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT May 9-11, 2013, Riga, University of Lativa
  • 2. Overview  Milieu theory and lifeworlds  Main hypothesis  Analysing sub hypothesizes  Results  Recommondations
  • 3. • According to (Bourdieu, 1980, p. 183), the society consists of accumulations which can only be represented by short-lived and mechanical states of equilibrium. • (Schulze, 1992, pp. 176-197) supports this approach of stipulating and choosing relationships on the basis of the character and shape. The term 'social milieu' (Becker et al., 1992, p. 80) combines groups of people who are similar in terms of their outlook on life and life style. Consequently, the group has the same living environment (Hradil, 2006, pp. 87-125). • The term 'social milieu' (Hradil, 2006, pp. 278-284) denotes a grouping of people that have a similar mentality and often a common 'factual context' (region, district, professional life, etc.). Milieu theory and lifeworlds
  • 4. • This approach has also been used to research Internet users in Germany and Great Britain (Lichy, 2011, pp. 470-475), and differences in the online communication behaviour can be observed. • The social differentiation, that is, the connection between personal preferences, the social position and the benefits from the use of the Internet and social networks, has so far not been investigated in the Federal Republic of Germany. • An estimate of the number of users of a population can be obtained from the approach of social structure analysis. The population can be analysed in terms of certain forms or market segments. Milieu theory and lifeworlds
  • 5. In order to confirm the theoretical fundamentals the following (primary) hypothesis has been proposed: •H: The consideration of a participant’s lifeworld leads to more reliable results than analysing the sample without taking lifeworlds into account. supported by three main-sub-hypothesis (build on pre-research): •Ha: The selected lifeworlds reveal characteristics, relating to their consumption preferences, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. •Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics, relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. •Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10. Researched hypothesis
  • 6. In the following the first results of the main analyses of the ISS2012 (892 female and 715 male participants; the average year of birth: 1983, median: 1987, mode: 1991; Internet since average: 2000 median: 2001; 431 of the 1,607 participants did not have mobile Internet access; average income level of 35,000 - 44,999€; average number of persons per household is 2.62, median/mode of 2) sample for the hypothesis “Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10” are displayed. The Hc is researched with a selection of six out of the ten sub- hypothesizes with the statistical methods of product-moment correlation (PMC) by Pearson, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SRCC) and factor analysis. Analyses
  • 7. • SH1: An increasing household income has a positive and significant impact on the living environment of the participant. • SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > -0.3 between the household income and the time when an Internet connection is installed in the household. • The SRCC shows a value of -.306 between the variables of household income and the beginning of Internet use. This means that the higher the gross income of a household, the sooner it started using the Internet. SH1a can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 1
  • 8. • SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the household income and its residential environment. • An SRCC of +.401 exists between the variables of household income and the residential environment. SH1b can be considered as confirmed. • SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the household income of the participant and his educational qualification. • The SRCC shows a value of +.299 between the variables of household income and the educational qualification. Unfortunately, SH1c cannot be considered as confirmed (formally) • SH1 can be considered as confirmed, if the +.299 would be count as +.3 Sub-hypothesis 1
  • 9. • SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and gender. • SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the female participants and consumption of romantic films. • A PMC/SRCC of +.458 can be observed between the gender of the participant and the preference for romance films. SH2a can be considered as confirmed. • SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the male participants and consumption of action films. • A PMC/SRCC of +.342 can be detected between participants of the male gender and the preference for action films. SH2b can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 2
  • 10. • SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the male participants and consumption of TV content relating to sports. • There is a PMC/SRCC of +.331 between the male participants and the preference for TV content relating to sports. SH2c can be considered as confirmed. • SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the female participants and consumption of romantic literature. • There is a PMC/SRCC of +.387 between the female participants and the preference for romance literature. This confirms the assumptions that romance literature, as well as romance films, are usually enjoyed by women. SH2d can be considered as confirmed. • SH2 can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 2
  • 11. • SH3: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5 between the duration of Internet use during the week and at the weekend. • In the following, the values refer first to a population of n=1,607, including all participants, and a population of n=1,177, including the participants who indicated the availability of mobile Internet. • SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5 between the duration of using the Internet on a desktop computer during the week and at the weekend. • There is a highly significance SRCC value of -.724/-.745 between using the Internet on a desktop computer during the week and at the weekend. SH3a can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 3
  • 12. • SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.5 between the duration of using the Internet on a mobile device during the week and at the weekend. • There is an SRCC of +.864/+.776 between using the Internet on mobile device during the week and at the weekend. SH3b can be considered as confirmed. • SH3c: There is no correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the duration of using the Internet on a desktop computer or a mobile device. • There is an SRCC of -.051/+.045 between using the Internet on a desktop computer during the week and a mobile device during the week. Sub-hypothesis 3
  • 13. • There is an SRCC of -.068/-.001 between using the Internet on a desktop computer during the week and using the Internet on a mobile device at the weekend. There is an SRCC of -.061/+.011 between using the Internet on a desktop computer at the weekend and using the Internet on a mobile device during the week. There is an SRCC of -.030/+.139 between using the Internet on a desktop computer at the weekend and using the Internet on a mobile device at the weekend. In addition, there is no significance of the measurements, or a significance of the level of 0.01. SH3c can be considered as confirmed. • SH3 can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 3
  • 14. • SH5: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use. • SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between social networks with the same user layers. • SH5a can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 5 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Flickr (1) 1 +.385 +.406 +.420 +.372 +.353 +.282 +.363 4SQ (2) +.385 1 +.408 +.276 +.419 +.400 +.267 +.431 Instagram (3) +,406 +.408 1 +.314 +.245 +.361 +.329 +.373 LastFM (4) +.420 +.276 +.314 1 +.247 +.295 +.355 +.280 LinkedIn (5) +.372 +.419 +.245 +.247 1 +.390 +.208 +.338 Pinterest (6) +.353 +.400 +.361 +.295 +.390 1 +.317 +.297 Spotify (7) +.282 +.267 +.329 +.355 +.208 +.317 1 +.232 Twitter (8) +.363 +.431 +.373 +.280 +.338 +.297 +.232 1
  • 15. • SH5b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined. • The factor analysis (KMO .915; Sig. by Bartlett .000) shows three factors: • The first factor contains mainly niche networks and is led by certain new networks which focus on special users groups or web functions. • The second factor consists mostly of older networks or networks which are not evident in the correlation analysis. • The third factor contains niche networks from Germany which are no longer on the market with an impact on it. • SH5b can be considered as confirmed. • SH5 can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 5
  • 16. • SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks, specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks. • SH7a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the intensity of using business networks and the motivation to find business partners and customers. • Both networks (Xing and LinkedIn) have a PMC which exceeds +.3. There is a PMC of +.372 for LinkedIn and +.434 for Xing and the motivation to search for customers and business partners. SH6a can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 17. • SH7b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the intensity of using business networks and the motivation to search for jobs using social networks. • There is a correlation of +.268 between LinkedIn and job search, and +.305 between Xing and job search. Due to the fact that both networks are very similar and no such correlations can be seen for other networks, it is assumed that career change is a motivational factor for using Xing and LinkedIn. SH6b is formally regarded as unconfirmed. Nevertheless, a notable correlation exists; especially Xing exceeds the significant limit. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 18. • SH7c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the motivation to find business partners and customers and to search for jobs using social networks. • There is a PMC of +.470 between both motivations. SH6c can be considered as confirmed. • SH7d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the motivation to find business partners and customers and to establish contacts within social networks. • There is a PMC of +.368 between both motivations. Establishing contacts in social networks has a PMC of +.199 for LinkedIn and +.220 for Xing. SH6d can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 19. • SH7e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH7a- SH7d. • Factor No 5, provided by factor analysis (KMO .915; Sig by Barlett . 000) is led by the search for business partners with a loading of +.668, and followed by the use of networks for job search with +.608, the intensity of using of Xing with +537, LinkedIn with +454, and the intention to establish contacts with +.412. SH6e can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 20. • SH7f: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the intensity of using business networks and the educational qualification of the user. • There is an SRCC of +.324 between LinkedIn and the educational qualification of the participant. There is an SRCC of +.409 between Xing and the educational qualification of the participant. SH6f can be considered as confirmed. • SH7g: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between Xing and LinkedIn. • There is a highly significant PMC of +.559 between the intensity of the use of both business networks Xing and LinkedIn. SH7g can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 21. • UH7a-UH7g indicates a very specific situation regarding the users of business networks. • SH7b was not confirmed, but it shows a clear trend for the German market. This raises the question of how similar the significance of LinkedIn and Xing is. Based on the measured significance, a high similarity can be expected. It can be expected that here by a speciality for German users exists, which focusses the usage of those networks more work related as users with a more international mind. • The rest of the sub-hypotheses were confirmed. Therefore, SH7 can be regarded as confirmed if the hypothesis focusses on the German market of business networks only. For an international approach the SH7 cannot be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 7
  • 22. • SH8: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political discussions and the intensity of using communication functions. • SH8a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and the intensity to leave comments. • The correlation for the commenting of content has only a PMC of +.294 and making comments in general has the value of +.238, discussing events shows a PMC of +.249. • SH8a is regarded as unconfirmed. Sub-hypothesis 8
  • 23. • SH8b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the motivation to hold political discussions and to exchange opinions. • There is a PMC of +.442 for the intensity of the motivation to exchange opinions. SH8b can be considered as confirmed. • SH8c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and to share web-sites within social networks. • There is a PMC of +.315 between the motivation to discuss political content and the intensity to share websites on social networks. SH8c can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 8
  • 24. • SH8d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH8a- SH8c. • Factor analysis (KMO .914; Sig. by Barlett .000) indicates a factor, led by the motivation to discuss the daily events with a loading of +.688, and followed by discussing politics with a loading of +632, discussing TV content with +.457 and exchanging opinions with +.386. SH8d can be considered as confirmed. • SH8 basically shows that politically active people, who share content related to politics, are generally of communicative nature and share other types of content as well. Formally, SH8 cannot be considered as confirmed, since SH8a was not confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 8
  • 25. • SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ > +0.3 between the user's degree of interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of taking part in online services which offer music. • As concerns leisure activities, listening to music and listening to music on the Internet has a PMC of +.486. In addition, leisure activities correlate with watching videos on the Internet with a value of +.294. • There is a highly significant correlation of +.509 between listening to music on the Internet and watching videos on the Internet. • In addition, there is a correlation of +.300 between listening to music on the Internet and consuming TV content on the Internet. • SH10 can be considered as confirmed. Sub-hypothesis 10
  • 26. • The results of the analyses display a positive and homogeneous trend. • In general, it is evident that the findings of the preliminary research can be proved. The results also made it possible to gather a large number of online and offline behaviours, and to make specific assertions concerning the examined user layer. • In addition to the discussed SHs, three additional SH, related to Facebook usage, usage of security settings and music consumption, could be confirmed. The results must be viewed, however, against the validity of the sample. • The confirmed SH10 shows an example that it is possible to transfer certain types of leisure activities to the Internet. Results
  • 27. • There is a strong emphasis in the results on young participants. • This raises the question if the hypotheses would exist in differentiated lifeworlds or there would be shifts. • Focus was on the target group of social network users. • The survey was only provided online, the results can be different if they would be done offline • Only valid for German users Limitations
  • 28. • In light of SH1 and SH10, the results allow expressing the first general recommendations. • If there is a correlation between the availability of financial means and the ability to use the Internet, as demonstrated by SH1, Internet access should be granted to people in order to avoid discrimination caused by a lack of finances. • Moreover, SH8 shows, with certain significance, that people use the Internet to discuss issues related to politics. This can be important for a country to maintain democracy and provide its people with the opportunity for open discussion. • There should be a political demand, proved by statistical data, for a free, government-guaranteed Internet access, and no restrictions should be imposed on it. As concerns the degree to which a state needs to protect itself and its citizens, a generally free access to the Internet, in view of a democratic society, should not be limited. Recommendations
  • 29. • (Becker et al., 1992) Horst Becker, Ulrich Becker, Walter Ruhland: Zwischen Angst und Aufbruch, ECON, Düsseldorf, 1992 [230 P.]. • (Bourdieu, 1980) Pierre Bourdieu: Sozialer Sinn, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt on the Main, 1980 [503 P.]. • (Hradil, 2006) Stefan Hradil: Die Sozialstruktur Deutschlands im internationalen Vergleich, 2nd edition, VS, Wiesbaden, 2006 [304 P.]. • (Lichy, 2011) Jessica Lichy: Internet user behavior in France and Britain: exploring socio-spatial disparity among adolescents, In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, No. 35, 2011 [PP. 470- 475]. • (Schulze, 1992) Gerhard Schulze: Die Erlebnisgesellschaft, Campus, Frankfurt, 1992 [765 P.]. References
  • 30. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION