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GENERATION FACEBOOK?
           THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL NETWORKS
 A presentation by Knut Linke, University of Latvia, at the
                International Conference:
GLOBAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT RESEARCH CONFERENCE
              02.-04 DECEMBER, 2011
                 FULDA, GERMANY
Overview
 Computer Medieated Interaction
 Invention of the „Internet“
 The first social networks
 The Facebook
 Local and niche Markets
 Current leaders
 Conclusion
The startof Computer Mediated
             Interaction
• The first email were transferred in the year
  1971 (Tomlinson, 2011).
• On 16/02/1978 the first bulletin board was
  converted onto an electronic base
  (Gilbertson, 2010), the bulletin board service
  (BBS)
• With its technology the BBS set the
  ideological and technical basement for the in
  1979 introduced Usenet (Hauben, 1990).
The invention of the „Internet“
• Invention of the World Wide Web by Tim-
  Berners Lee on August 6th, 1991 (Berners-Lee,
  1991).
    •  Introduction of webserver and browser for the
       displaying of information and the receiving of
       information through the usage from hyperlinks.
•   During 1994 and 1995 the first private Internet
    providers were established for the consumer market
    and set the basics for the usage of the Internet
    technology in our times (Borders, 2009).
Virtual Cities
•   One of those little and local providers, the “Beverly
    Hills Internet” company, introduced the GeoCities
    network in 1995.
    • GeoCities allowed the introduction of personal information
      through a webpage related to virtual cities (Altman,
      Bohnet, 1995).
    • Customer were able to create standard webpages and to
      integrate them into webrings which belonged to content
      areas or city areas.
SixDegrees.com – The First Social
                Network
•   The success from GeoCities was followed by
    sixdegress.com in 1997 which was already similar to
    current social networks like Facebook
•   SixDegress.com featured a virtual self-identity and
    presentation page as also the mentioned friend list
    feature and determined with this the basic standards
    for social network sites (Boyd, Ellison, 2007).
    • “Sixdegress.com had at its peak 1,000,000 users and
      around 100 employees, but was shut down in 2001”
Social Sharing & Networks
•   After SixDegress.com several other social networks like
    classmates.com were introduced to the Internet. Also the
    first social per to per network was introduced to the
    Internet users:
    • The Napster system allowed as first service the direct sharing
      of personal files through an online network.
    • During his success, Napster gets his peak to the end of 2001
      with around 26.4 million customers using the exchange of
      content via the Napster network (Lipsman, 2011).
•   Additional social networks started like Friendster
    (becomes a leader in Asia) in 2002 and MySpace and
    Second Live in 2003.
TheFacebook.com / fb.com
•   Facebook was founded under the alias “The Facebook” in
    February 2004 (Facebook 2, 2011) and until September
    2006 the system was only available to students in the
    states with a valid .edu e-mail address and at the
    beginning only for students from Harvard.
    •   The network had over 750 million active users in the mid of July
        2011 (Alexa 2, 2011) and those spend over 700 billion minutes
        per month on Facebook (Facebook 1, 2011).
    •   In Germany over 20 million people are active in the Facebook
        network. From the members base, more males are active in the
        network as females (in the US it is the opposite). The main area
        in age is between 13 – 44 years, which represent 17.2 million
        users (Allfacebook, 2011)
TheFacebook.com / fb.com
•   Facebook Feature Race:
    • November 2007 - Facebook Pages / May 2008 - Facebook
      Connect / February 2009 - “Like it” Button / July 2009 -
      Facebook credits / August 2010 - Facebook / March 2011 -
      Facebook Questions / July 2011 - Facebook credits become
      the standard payment method in Facebook (Facebookbiz,
      2011)
•   The usage of personal user data allows marketers to
    set up marketing campaigns, based on personal
    preferences and includes friends of a user on those
    campaigns.
Niche markets and local leaders
•    Niche market: Business networks
•    Market leader in Germany and central Europe: Xing
•    Available in 16 languages; provides the ability to
     exchange knowledge in over 45.000 groups and supports
     the community by providing the functions to organize
     offline events for and from the community.
•    As company Xing employs in June 2011 over 380 co-
     workers.
•    Over 10.8 million users in 2011, 759 thousand premium
     customers and over 476 million page impressions (Xing,
     2011)
Niche markets and local leaders
Focus on German users: The VZ-Network
•    Established in October 2005 as a service similar to the first version
     of Facebook .
•    After the success of a student network additional networks were
     was launched for non-students and for pupils and persons below
     eighteen.
•    The network offers for all three brands the same technology.
•    17 million users in July 2011 (StudiVZ 1, 2011), active amount of
     11.6 million unique users, (StudiVZ 2, 2011VZ)
•    In the first quarter from 2011 only 10.8 million users were active in
     the network, which is around 60% from the available user base
     (StudiVZ 3, 2011).
Microblogging via Twitter
•     Twitter was introduced in 2006 under the name Twttr as
      micro blogging service (Patel, 2011).
    •     The approach is to provide short status updates
          (limitation on 140 characters ) to friends and interested
          people on a personal page.
•     The system had at the beginning of 2011 around 200
      million users (Shiels, 2011).
    •     An active user is understood as a user how as send out for
          messages during the time period of a month (Pfeiffer, 2011).
•       The amount of tweets in the German language in March
        2011 was around 16.7 million from around 480.000 active
        users with the setting of German as their language.
The + in Google
•   Google’s social network was introduced in June
    2011m reached during the beta period a 20 million
    users by the end of June (Musil, 2011) and launched
    official in August 2011.
    • Special feature: the circle approach.
    • Instead of Facebook the Google+ system allows the adding
      of friends only into separated lists, called circles.
The + in Google
•   In addition to the “Like it” function from Facebook,
    Google introduced the +1 function.
    • In Google+ the +1 function works like the Facebook function and
      aggregated recognition for the provided content.
    • On external webpages the +1 function adds the selected
      webpage or content on a personal bookmark page.
•   The search results from Google works with those +1 in
    addition to allow a social search approach. Personal
    highlight from friends or +1 from your circles are
    displayed in an aggregated way in the search results.
Conclusion - 1
•   This sector in business has changed rapidly from a niche
    market in the Internet business into a market with high
    competition.
•   With the provided information it can be displayed that
    social interaction via the Internet is not a development
    from our current time and that social networks and
    exchange had its success in the past.
•   The main difference, beside the ongoing increasment of
    technological features and the more perfect integration
    of the interpersonal communication, which is also the
    fast driver for technological improvements in the system,
    is the reached in the society as itself.
Conclusion - 2
•   The market leader Facebook seems also to be aware of
    the changing situation, by introducing new features since
    the beginning of August 2011 by including the abilities
    from Google+ in a lower level as a circle approach and
    focusing on the fast speed communication from Twitter.
•   The international market for social networks will be still
    heavily active during the next months and years and it
    can be possible that the market leader Facebook will be
    replaced or loss traffic to new competitors soon.
References-1
•   Alexa 2 (2011): Alexa - The Web Information Company: Top 500 Global Sites, In: http://www.alexa.com/topsites.
•   Allfacebook (2011): Facebook Nutzerdaten Deutschland, In: http://allfacebook.de/userdata/.
•   Altman D.; Bohnet D. (1995): Beverly Hills Internet, builder of interactive cyber cities, launches 4 more virtual communities
    linked to real places; SiliconValley, CapitolHill, Paris and Tokyo offer free homesteads to residents of BHI's 'GeoCities' In:
    Business Wire, 07/05/1995.
•   Berners-Lee T. (1991): WorldWideWeb: Summary, In:
    http://groups.google.com/group/alt.hypertext/msg/395f282a67a1916c?pli=1.
•   Borders B. (2009): A Brief History of Social Media, In: http://copybrighter.com/history-of-social-media.
•   Boyd D. M., Ellison N. B. (2007): Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. In: Journal of Computer-Mediated
    Communication, 13(1), article 11.
•   Facebook 1 (2011): Facebook Statistics, In: http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics.
•   Facebook 2 (2011): Facebook Factsheet, In: http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?factsheet.
•   Facebookbiz (2011): Die Geschichte des Facebook Commerce, In: http://www.facebookbiz.de/artikel/die-geschichte-des-
    facebook-commerce-infografik.
•   Gilbertson S. (2010): Feb. 16, 1978: Bulletin Board Goes Electronic, In:
    http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2010/02/0216cbbs-first-bbs-bulletin-board.
•   Hauben R. (1995): ON THE EARLY DAYS OF USENET: THE ROOTS OF THE COOPERATIVE ONLINE CULTURE. In: Netizens: An
    Anthology, chapter 10, Columbia University.
References-2
•   Lipsman A. (2001): GLOBAL NAPSTER USAGE PLUMMETS, BUT NEW FILE-SHARING ALTERNATIVES GAINING GROUND, REPORTS
    JUPITER MEDIA METRIX, In: Comscore.com.
•   Musil S. (2011): Google+ hits 20 million marks in three weeks, In: News.cnet.com.
•   Patel R. (2006): Odeo Releases Twttr, 07/15/2006, In: Techcrunch.com.
•   Pfeiffer T. (2011): 480.000 Twitternutzende im März 2011, In: webevangelisten.de.
•   Shiels M. (2011): Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey rejoins company, In: bbc.co.uk/news/.
•   StudiVZ 1 (2011): Über uns - Daten und Fakten, In: http://www.studivz.net/l/about_us/1/.
•   StudiVZ 2 (2011): VZgeschäftlich - Aktuelles aus den VZ-Netzwerken, In: http://www.studivz.net/geschaeftlich.
•   StudiVZ3 (2011): Mediadaten VZ Netzwerke, Juni 2011, In: Mediadaten VZ Netzwerke, VZ Netzwerk, Berlin.
•   Tomlinson R. (2011): The First Network Email, In: http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html.
•   Xing (2011): Facts & Figures, In: http://corporate.xing.com/deutsch/investor-relations/basisinformationen/zahlen-und-fakten/.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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The history of social networks

  • 1. GENERATION FACEBOOK? THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL NETWORKS A presentation by Knut Linke, University of Latvia, at the International Conference: GLOBAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT RESEARCH CONFERENCE 02.-04 DECEMBER, 2011 FULDA, GERMANY
  • 2. Overview  Computer Medieated Interaction  Invention of the „Internet“  The first social networks  The Facebook  Local and niche Markets  Current leaders  Conclusion
  • 3. The startof Computer Mediated Interaction • The first email were transferred in the year 1971 (Tomlinson, 2011). • On 16/02/1978 the first bulletin board was converted onto an electronic base (Gilbertson, 2010), the bulletin board service (BBS) • With its technology the BBS set the ideological and technical basement for the in 1979 introduced Usenet (Hauben, 1990).
  • 4. The invention of the „Internet“ • Invention of the World Wide Web by Tim- Berners Lee on August 6th, 1991 (Berners-Lee, 1991). • Introduction of webserver and browser for the displaying of information and the receiving of information through the usage from hyperlinks. • During 1994 and 1995 the first private Internet providers were established for the consumer market and set the basics for the usage of the Internet technology in our times (Borders, 2009).
  • 5. Virtual Cities • One of those little and local providers, the “Beverly Hills Internet” company, introduced the GeoCities network in 1995. • GeoCities allowed the introduction of personal information through a webpage related to virtual cities (Altman, Bohnet, 1995). • Customer were able to create standard webpages and to integrate them into webrings which belonged to content areas or city areas.
  • 6. SixDegrees.com – The First Social Network • The success from GeoCities was followed by sixdegress.com in 1997 which was already similar to current social networks like Facebook • SixDegress.com featured a virtual self-identity and presentation page as also the mentioned friend list feature and determined with this the basic standards for social network sites (Boyd, Ellison, 2007). • “Sixdegress.com had at its peak 1,000,000 users and around 100 employees, but was shut down in 2001”
  • 7. Social Sharing & Networks • After SixDegress.com several other social networks like classmates.com were introduced to the Internet. Also the first social per to per network was introduced to the Internet users: • The Napster system allowed as first service the direct sharing of personal files through an online network. • During his success, Napster gets his peak to the end of 2001 with around 26.4 million customers using the exchange of content via the Napster network (Lipsman, 2011). • Additional social networks started like Friendster (becomes a leader in Asia) in 2002 and MySpace and Second Live in 2003.
  • 8. TheFacebook.com / fb.com • Facebook was founded under the alias “The Facebook” in February 2004 (Facebook 2, 2011) and until September 2006 the system was only available to students in the states with a valid .edu e-mail address and at the beginning only for students from Harvard. • The network had over 750 million active users in the mid of July 2011 (Alexa 2, 2011) and those spend over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook (Facebook 1, 2011). • In Germany over 20 million people are active in the Facebook network. From the members base, more males are active in the network as females (in the US it is the opposite). The main area in age is between 13 – 44 years, which represent 17.2 million users (Allfacebook, 2011)
  • 9. TheFacebook.com / fb.com • Facebook Feature Race: • November 2007 - Facebook Pages / May 2008 - Facebook Connect / February 2009 - “Like it” Button / July 2009 - Facebook credits / August 2010 - Facebook / March 2011 - Facebook Questions / July 2011 - Facebook credits become the standard payment method in Facebook (Facebookbiz, 2011) • The usage of personal user data allows marketers to set up marketing campaigns, based on personal preferences and includes friends of a user on those campaigns.
  • 10. Niche markets and local leaders • Niche market: Business networks • Market leader in Germany and central Europe: Xing • Available in 16 languages; provides the ability to exchange knowledge in over 45.000 groups and supports the community by providing the functions to organize offline events for and from the community. • As company Xing employs in June 2011 over 380 co- workers. • Over 10.8 million users in 2011, 759 thousand premium customers and over 476 million page impressions (Xing, 2011)
  • 11. Niche markets and local leaders Focus on German users: The VZ-Network • Established in October 2005 as a service similar to the first version of Facebook . • After the success of a student network additional networks were was launched for non-students and for pupils and persons below eighteen. • The network offers for all three brands the same technology. • 17 million users in July 2011 (StudiVZ 1, 2011), active amount of 11.6 million unique users, (StudiVZ 2, 2011VZ) • In the first quarter from 2011 only 10.8 million users were active in the network, which is around 60% from the available user base (StudiVZ 3, 2011).
  • 12. Microblogging via Twitter • Twitter was introduced in 2006 under the name Twttr as micro blogging service (Patel, 2011). • The approach is to provide short status updates (limitation on 140 characters ) to friends and interested people on a personal page. • The system had at the beginning of 2011 around 200 million users (Shiels, 2011). • An active user is understood as a user how as send out for messages during the time period of a month (Pfeiffer, 2011). • The amount of tweets in the German language in March 2011 was around 16.7 million from around 480.000 active users with the setting of German as their language.
  • 13. The + in Google • Google’s social network was introduced in June 2011m reached during the beta period a 20 million users by the end of June (Musil, 2011) and launched official in August 2011. • Special feature: the circle approach. • Instead of Facebook the Google+ system allows the adding of friends only into separated lists, called circles.
  • 14. The + in Google • In addition to the “Like it” function from Facebook, Google introduced the +1 function. • In Google+ the +1 function works like the Facebook function and aggregated recognition for the provided content. • On external webpages the +1 function adds the selected webpage or content on a personal bookmark page. • The search results from Google works with those +1 in addition to allow a social search approach. Personal highlight from friends or +1 from your circles are displayed in an aggregated way in the search results.
  • 15. Conclusion - 1 • This sector in business has changed rapidly from a niche market in the Internet business into a market with high competition. • With the provided information it can be displayed that social interaction via the Internet is not a development from our current time and that social networks and exchange had its success in the past. • The main difference, beside the ongoing increasment of technological features and the more perfect integration of the interpersonal communication, which is also the fast driver for technological improvements in the system, is the reached in the society as itself.
  • 16. Conclusion - 2 • The market leader Facebook seems also to be aware of the changing situation, by introducing new features since the beginning of August 2011 by including the abilities from Google+ in a lower level as a circle approach and focusing on the fast speed communication from Twitter. • The international market for social networks will be still heavily active during the next months and years and it can be possible that the market leader Facebook will be replaced or loss traffic to new competitors soon.
  • 17. References-1 • Alexa 2 (2011): Alexa - The Web Information Company: Top 500 Global Sites, In: http://www.alexa.com/topsites. • Allfacebook (2011): Facebook Nutzerdaten Deutschland, In: http://allfacebook.de/userdata/. • Altman D.; Bohnet D. (1995): Beverly Hills Internet, builder of interactive cyber cities, launches 4 more virtual communities linked to real places; SiliconValley, CapitolHill, Paris and Tokyo offer free homesteads to residents of BHI's 'GeoCities' In: Business Wire, 07/05/1995. • Berners-Lee T. (1991): WorldWideWeb: Summary, In: http://groups.google.com/group/alt.hypertext/msg/395f282a67a1916c?pli=1. • Borders B. (2009): A Brief History of Social Media, In: http://copybrighter.com/history-of-social-media. • Boyd D. M., Ellison N. B. (2007): Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. In: Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11. • Facebook 1 (2011): Facebook Statistics, In: http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics. • Facebook 2 (2011): Facebook Factsheet, In: http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?factsheet. • Facebookbiz (2011): Die Geschichte des Facebook Commerce, In: http://www.facebookbiz.de/artikel/die-geschichte-des- facebook-commerce-infografik. • Gilbertson S. (2010): Feb. 16, 1978: Bulletin Board Goes Electronic, In: http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2010/02/0216cbbs-first-bbs-bulletin-board. • Hauben R. (1995): ON THE EARLY DAYS OF USENET: THE ROOTS OF THE COOPERATIVE ONLINE CULTURE. In: Netizens: An Anthology, chapter 10, Columbia University.
  • 18. References-2 • Lipsman A. (2001): GLOBAL NAPSTER USAGE PLUMMETS, BUT NEW FILE-SHARING ALTERNATIVES GAINING GROUND, REPORTS JUPITER MEDIA METRIX, In: Comscore.com. • Musil S. (2011): Google+ hits 20 million marks in three weeks, In: News.cnet.com. • Patel R. (2006): Odeo Releases Twttr, 07/15/2006, In: Techcrunch.com. • Pfeiffer T. (2011): 480.000 Twitternutzende im März 2011, In: webevangelisten.de. • Shiels M. (2011): Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey rejoins company, In: bbc.co.uk/news/. • StudiVZ 1 (2011): Über uns - Daten und Fakten, In: http://www.studivz.net/l/about_us/1/. • StudiVZ 2 (2011): VZgeschäftlich - Aktuelles aus den VZ-Netzwerken, In: http://www.studivz.net/geschaeftlich. • StudiVZ3 (2011): Mediadaten VZ Netzwerke, Juni 2011, In: Mediadaten VZ Netzwerke, VZ Netzwerk, Berlin. • Tomlinson R. (2011): The First Network Email, In: http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html. • Xing (2011): Facts & Figures, In: http://corporate.xing.com/deutsch/investor-relations/basisinformationen/zahlen-und-fakten/.
  • 19. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION