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Chapter 8
Inverters
AC Power • Inverters • Power
Conditioning Units • Inverter
Features and Specifications
Chapter 8 — Inverters
If voltage and current
signals are either always
positive or always
negative, they are DC
waveforms. If the signals
switch between positive
and negative, they are AC
waveforms.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
AC waveforms can take a
variety of shapes.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Certain parameters are
integral to defining the
characteristics of an AC
waveform
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Three-phase power is
composed of three
separate voltage wave-
forms that are 120° out of
phase.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Voltage variations outside
allowable ranges include
voltage drops, voltage
swells, and transients.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Three-phase voltage and
current waveforms are
unbalanced if they are not
equal in magnitude and
frequency.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Harmonics can add to the
fundamental frequency to
produce distorted
waveforms.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Resistive loads keep the voltage
and current waveforms in phase,
while reactive loads cause the
current waveform to lead or lag
the voltage waveform.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Inverters are available in
many different configur-
ations and ratings.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Stand-alone inverters are connected to the battery
bank.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Interactive inverters are connected to the PV array.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
AC modules include small
inverters in place of the
DC junction box.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Solid-state switching
devices used in PV
inverters include tran-
sistors and thyristors.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Line-commutated inverters
use an external AC signal
to activate and deactivate
the inverter switching
devices.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
H-bridge inverter circuits use
two pairs of switching devices
to direct a DC input to the
output in both directions.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Push-pull inverter circuits use
one pair of switching devices
and a transformer to
alternate the direction of
direct current.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Square waves can be modified
by adjusting the duration and
magnitude of the pulses.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Combining multiple
modified square waves
with different magnitudes
and durations results in a
multistepped modified
square wave that more
closely approximates a
sine wave.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Pulse-width modulation at high frequencies generates
the truest approximation of a sine wave.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Power conditioning units
are inverters that also
perform other power
control and conversion
functions.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Transformers use induced
magnetic fields to transfer
AC power from one circuit
to another and transform
the power to higher or lower
voltages.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
The primary and
secondary windings in
an autotransformer
share some of the same
windings.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Inverter nameplates
include much of the
needed information for
sizing and operating the
inverter.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
At high temperatures, an
inverter may limit current
input by raising the input
voltage, which also
lowers power input and
output.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Most inverters operate
from a relatively wide
range of input voltages,
but the range for MPPT
operation is smaller.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
In order to output AC
voltage within the spec-
ified range, the DC input
voltage must meet certain
minimum values.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Inverters may limit
maximum DC input
current with increasing
DC input voltage.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Most sine wave inverters
maintain high efficiency
over a wide operating-
power range.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Inverter enclosures may
include protective devices
such as disconnects.
Chapter 8 — Inverters
Inverter interfaces include on-board screens, remote
data monitors, and computerized data acquisition and
processing software.

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Chapter-8-Power-Point.ppt

  • 1. PowerPoint® Presentation Chapter 8 Inverters AC Power • Inverters • Power Conditioning Units • Inverter Features and Specifications
  • 2. Chapter 8 — Inverters If voltage and current signals are either always positive or always negative, they are DC waveforms. If the signals switch between positive and negative, they are AC waveforms.
  • 3. Chapter 8 — Inverters AC waveforms can take a variety of shapes.
  • 4. Chapter 8 — Inverters Certain parameters are integral to defining the characteristics of an AC waveform
  • 5. Chapter 8 — Inverters Three-phase power is composed of three separate voltage wave- forms that are 120° out of phase.
  • 6. Chapter 8 — Inverters Voltage variations outside allowable ranges include voltage drops, voltage swells, and transients.
  • 7. Chapter 8 — Inverters Three-phase voltage and current waveforms are unbalanced if they are not equal in magnitude and frequency.
  • 8. Chapter 8 — Inverters Harmonics can add to the fundamental frequency to produce distorted waveforms.
  • 9. Chapter 8 — Inverters Resistive loads keep the voltage and current waveforms in phase, while reactive loads cause the current waveform to lead or lag the voltage waveform.
  • 10. Chapter 8 — Inverters Inverters are available in many different configur- ations and ratings.
  • 11. Chapter 8 — Inverters Stand-alone inverters are connected to the battery bank.
  • 12. Chapter 8 — Inverters Interactive inverters are connected to the PV array.
  • 13. Chapter 8 — Inverters AC modules include small inverters in place of the DC junction box.
  • 14. Chapter 8 — Inverters Solid-state switching devices used in PV inverters include tran- sistors and thyristors.
  • 15. Chapter 8 — Inverters Line-commutated inverters use an external AC signal to activate and deactivate the inverter switching devices.
  • 16. Chapter 8 — Inverters H-bridge inverter circuits use two pairs of switching devices to direct a DC input to the output in both directions.
  • 17. Chapter 8 — Inverters Push-pull inverter circuits use one pair of switching devices and a transformer to alternate the direction of direct current.
  • 18. Chapter 8 — Inverters Square waves can be modified by adjusting the duration and magnitude of the pulses.
  • 19. Chapter 8 — Inverters Combining multiple modified square waves with different magnitudes and durations results in a multistepped modified square wave that more closely approximates a sine wave.
  • 20. Chapter 8 — Inverters Pulse-width modulation at high frequencies generates the truest approximation of a sine wave.
  • 21. Chapter 8 — Inverters Power conditioning units are inverters that also perform other power control and conversion functions.
  • 22. Chapter 8 — Inverters Transformers use induced magnetic fields to transfer AC power from one circuit to another and transform the power to higher or lower voltages.
  • 23. Chapter 8 — Inverters The primary and secondary windings in an autotransformer share some of the same windings.
  • 24. Chapter 8 — Inverters Inverter nameplates include much of the needed information for sizing and operating the inverter.
  • 25. Chapter 8 — Inverters At high temperatures, an inverter may limit current input by raising the input voltage, which also lowers power input and output.
  • 26. Chapter 8 — Inverters Most inverters operate from a relatively wide range of input voltages, but the range for MPPT operation is smaller.
  • 27. Chapter 8 — Inverters In order to output AC voltage within the spec- ified range, the DC input voltage must meet certain minimum values.
  • 28. Chapter 8 — Inverters Inverters may limit maximum DC input current with increasing DC input voltage.
  • 29. Chapter 8 — Inverters Most sine wave inverters maintain high efficiency over a wide operating- power range.
  • 30. Chapter 8 — Inverters Inverter enclosures may include protective devices such as disconnects.
  • 31. Chapter 8 — Inverters Inverter interfaces include on-board screens, remote data monitors, and computerized data acquisition and processing software.