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PRESENTED BY –
NAME – NIHARIKA SUPRIYA
ROLL NO – 42
BDS FINAL YEAR ,RAMA
BATCH
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 DEFINITION
 GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRICS
 CEPHALOMETRIC LANDMARKS
 CEPHALOMETRIC LINES
 CEPHALOMETRICS PLANES
 CONCLUSION
 REFRENCE
INTRODUCTION
Origin: ‘Cephalo’ means head and ‘Metric’ is
measurement
Discovery of X-rays measurement of the head
from shadows of bony and soft tissue
landmarks on the roentgenographic image ,
known as the Roentgenographic cephalometry.
DEFINITIONS
 “The scientific measurement of the bones of the cranium
and face, utilizing a fixed, reproducible position for lateral
radiographic exposure of skull and facial bones” -- Moyers
 “ A scientific study of the measurements of the head with
relation to specific reference points; used for evaluation of
facial growth and development, including soft tissue
profile” -- Grabers
GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRICS
To evaluate the relationships, both horizontally and
vertically, of the five major functional components of
the face:
 The cranium and the cranial base
 The skeletal maxilla
 The skeletal mandible
 The maxillary dentition and the alveolar process
 The mandibular dentition and the alveolar process
-- Jacobson
CEPHALOMETRIC LANDMARKS
cephalometric landmarks are readily recognizable
points on a cephalometric radiograph or tracing,
representing certain hard or soft tissue anatomical
structures (anatomical landmarks) & (constructed
landmarks).
Requirement of Cephalometric
Landmarks
It should be easily seen in radiograph.
It should be uniform in outline and should be
reproducible.
The landmarks should permit valid quantitative
measurements of lines and angles projected
from them.
TYPES OF CEPHALOMETRIC
LANDMARKS
Two types of Cephalometric landmarks are :
1. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS –These landmarks represent
actual anatomic structures of the skull.
1. DERIVED LANDMARKS – These are the landmarks that have
been obtained secondarily from anatomic structures in a
cephalogram.
BASED ON TISSUE :
Landmarks can also be classified into :-
1.HARD TISSUE LANDMARKS
2.SOFT TISSUE LANDMARKS
Cephalometrics ( landmarks,Lines and Planes )
Hard tissue landmarks
Some of the important hard tissue landmarks are:-
NASION : The most anterior point midway between the frontal
and nasal bones on the fronto-nasal suture.
ORBITALE: The lowest point on the inferior bony margin of the
orbit.
PORION: The highest bony point on the upper margin of
external auditory meatus.
SELLA: The point represented the midpoint of the pituitary fossa
or sella turcica.It is a constructed point in the mid sagittal plane.
POINT A : It is the deepest point in the midline between the
anterior nasal spine and alveolar crest between the two central
incisors.
POINT B : It is the deepest point in the midline between the
alveolar crest of mandible and the mental process.
BASION : It is the median point of anterior margin of foramen
magnum.
BOLTON POINT : The highest point at the post condylar notch of
the occipital bone.
ANTERIOR NASAL SPINE : It is the anterior tip of the sharp bony
process of the maxilla in the midline of the lower margin of
anterior nasal opening.
GONION : It is a constructed point at the junction of the ramal
plane and the mandibular plane.
POGONION : It is the most anterior point of the bony chin in the
median plane.
MENTON : It is the most inferior midline point on the
mandibular symphysis.
GNATHION : It is the most antero-inferior point on the
symphysis of the chin .
ARTICULARE : It is a point at the junction of the posterior borde of
ramus and the inferior border of the basilar part of the occipital
bone.
CONDYLION : The most superior point on the head of the condyle.
PROSTHION : The lowest and most anterior point on the alveolar
bone in the midline , between the upper central incisors. It is also
called Supradentale .
POSTERIOR NASAL SPINE : The intersection of a continuation of the
anterior wall of the pterygo-palatine fossa and the floor of the
nose, marking the distal limit of the maxilla.
GLABELLA : It is the most prominent point of the forehead in the
mid sagittal plane.
CHELION : It is the lateral terminus of the oral slit on the outer
corner of the mouth.
SUBNASALE : The point where the lowest border of the nose meets
the outer contour of the upper lip.
SOFT TISSUE LANDMARKS
Some of the important soft tissue landmarks are :-
GLABELLA : It is the most prominent point in the med-sagittal plane
of forehead.
NASION SOFT TISSUE : It is the deepest point in the concavity of the
soft tissue contour of the root of the nose.
PRONASALE : The most prominent point of the nose.
SUBNASALE : It is the intersection of the lower border of the nose
and the outer contour of the upper lip.
LABRALE SUPERIUS : The median point in the upper margin of the
upper membranous lip.
LABRALE INFERIUS : The median point in the lower margin of the
lower membranous lip.
SUPERIOR LABIAL SULCUS : It is the point of the greatest
concavity in the midline of the upper lip.
STOMION SUPERIUS : It is the lowest point of the upper
lip.
STOMION INFERIUS : It is the highest point of the lower
lip.
STOMION : It is the ,midpoint between stomion superius
and stomion inferius.
POGONION SOFT TISSUE : It is the most prominent point
on the soft tissue contour of the chin.
MENTON SOFT TISSUE : It is a constructed point at the
intersection of a vertical co-ordinate from menton and
the inferior soft tissue contour of the chin.
CEPHALOMETRICS : LINES AND
PLANES
• The lines are obtained by connecting two landmarks.
• Based on their orientation the lines or planes can be
classified into horizontal and vertical.
HORIZONTAL PLANES
1. S.N. PLANE : It is the
cranial line between the
centre of the sella turcica
(sella) and the anterior
point of the fronto– nasal
suture (nasion) .
• It represents the anterior
cranial base.
2. FRANKFORT
HORIZONTAL PLANE :
This plane connects
the lowest point of the
orbit (orbitale) and the
superior point of the
external auditory
meatus.
3.OCCLUSAL PLANE : It is
a denture plane bisecting
the posterior occlusion of
the permanent molars
and premolars ( or
deciduous molars in
mixed dentition ) and
extends anteriorly.
4.PALATAL PLANE : It
is a line linking the
anterior nasal spine
of the maxilla and
the posterior nasal
spine of the palatine
bone.
5. MANDIBULAR PLANE :
Several mandibular planes
are used in cephalometrics ,
based on the analysis being
done.
• The most commonly used
ones are :
a. Tangent to the lower
border of the mandible
(Tweed).
b. A line connecting gonion
and gnathion (Steiner) .
c. A line connecting gonion
and menton (Downs) .
6. BASION - NASAL PLANE : It is
a line connecting the basion
and nasion .
• It represents the cranial
base.
7. BOLTON’S PLANE : This
is a plane that connects
the Bolton’s point
posterior to the occipital
condyles and nasion.
VERTICAL PLANES
1. A – POG LINE : It is
a line from point A on
the maxilla to
pogonion on the
mandible .
2. FACIAL PLANE : It is a
line from the anterior
point of the fronto-nasal
suture ( nasion ) to the
most anterior point of the
mandible ( pogonion ).
3. FACIAL AXIS : A line
from Ptm point to
cephalometric gnathion .
4. ESTHETIC PLANE :
It is a line between
the most anterior
point of the soft
tissue nose and soft
tissue chin.
REFERENCE
• Orthodontics, the art and science - SI Bhalajhi .
• Contemporary Orthodontics – William Proffit .
Cephalometrics ( landmarks,Lines and Planes )

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Cephalometrics ( landmarks,Lines and Planes )

  • 1. PRESENTED BY – NAME – NIHARIKA SUPRIYA ROLL NO – 42 BDS FINAL YEAR ,RAMA BATCH
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  DEFINITION  GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRICS  CEPHALOMETRIC LANDMARKS  CEPHALOMETRIC LINES  CEPHALOMETRICS PLANES  CONCLUSION  REFRENCE
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Origin: ‘Cephalo’ means head and ‘Metric’ is measurement Discovery of X-rays measurement of the head from shadows of bony and soft tissue landmarks on the roentgenographic image , known as the Roentgenographic cephalometry.
  • 4. DEFINITIONS  “The scientific measurement of the bones of the cranium and face, utilizing a fixed, reproducible position for lateral radiographic exposure of skull and facial bones” -- Moyers  “ A scientific study of the measurements of the head with relation to specific reference points; used for evaluation of facial growth and development, including soft tissue profile” -- Grabers
  • 5. GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRICS To evaluate the relationships, both horizontally and vertically, of the five major functional components of the face:  The cranium and the cranial base  The skeletal maxilla  The skeletal mandible  The maxillary dentition and the alveolar process  The mandibular dentition and the alveolar process -- Jacobson
  • 6. CEPHALOMETRIC LANDMARKS cephalometric landmarks are readily recognizable points on a cephalometric radiograph or tracing, representing certain hard or soft tissue anatomical structures (anatomical landmarks) & (constructed landmarks).
  • 7. Requirement of Cephalometric Landmarks It should be easily seen in radiograph. It should be uniform in outline and should be reproducible. The landmarks should permit valid quantitative measurements of lines and angles projected from them.
  • 8. TYPES OF CEPHALOMETRIC LANDMARKS Two types of Cephalometric landmarks are : 1. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS –These landmarks represent actual anatomic structures of the skull. 1. DERIVED LANDMARKS – These are the landmarks that have been obtained secondarily from anatomic structures in a cephalogram.
  • 9. BASED ON TISSUE : Landmarks can also be classified into :- 1.HARD TISSUE LANDMARKS 2.SOFT TISSUE LANDMARKS
  • 11. Hard tissue landmarks Some of the important hard tissue landmarks are:- NASION : The most anterior point midway between the frontal and nasal bones on the fronto-nasal suture. ORBITALE: The lowest point on the inferior bony margin of the orbit. PORION: The highest bony point on the upper margin of external auditory meatus. SELLA: The point represented the midpoint of the pituitary fossa or sella turcica.It is a constructed point in the mid sagittal plane. POINT A : It is the deepest point in the midline between the anterior nasal spine and alveolar crest between the two central incisors. POINT B : It is the deepest point in the midline between the alveolar crest of mandible and the mental process.
  • 12. BASION : It is the median point of anterior margin of foramen magnum. BOLTON POINT : The highest point at the post condylar notch of the occipital bone. ANTERIOR NASAL SPINE : It is the anterior tip of the sharp bony process of the maxilla in the midline of the lower margin of anterior nasal opening. GONION : It is a constructed point at the junction of the ramal plane and the mandibular plane. POGONION : It is the most anterior point of the bony chin in the median plane. MENTON : It is the most inferior midline point on the mandibular symphysis. GNATHION : It is the most antero-inferior point on the symphysis of the chin .
  • 13. ARTICULARE : It is a point at the junction of the posterior borde of ramus and the inferior border of the basilar part of the occipital bone. CONDYLION : The most superior point on the head of the condyle. PROSTHION : The lowest and most anterior point on the alveolar bone in the midline , between the upper central incisors. It is also called Supradentale . POSTERIOR NASAL SPINE : The intersection of a continuation of the anterior wall of the pterygo-palatine fossa and the floor of the nose, marking the distal limit of the maxilla. GLABELLA : It is the most prominent point of the forehead in the mid sagittal plane. CHELION : It is the lateral terminus of the oral slit on the outer corner of the mouth. SUBNASALE : The point where the lowest border of the nose meets the outer contour of the upper lip.
  • 14. SOFT TISSUE LANDMARKS Some of the important soft tissue landmarks are :- GLABELLA : It is the most prominent point in the med-sagittal plane of forehead. NASION SOFT TISSUE : It is the deepest point in the concavity of the soft tissue contour of the root of the nose. PRONASALE : The most prominent point of the nose. SUBNASALE : It is the intersection of the lower border of the nose and the outer contour of the upper lip. LABRALE SUPERIUS : The median point in the upper margin of the upper membranous lip. LABRALE INFERIUS : The median point in the lower margin of the lower membranous lip.
  • 15. SUPERIOR LABIAL SULCUS : It is the point of the greatest concavity in the midline of the upper lip. STOMION SUPERIUS : It is the lowest point of the upper lip. STOMION INFERIUS : It is the highest point of the lower lip. STOMION : It is the ,midpoint between stomion superius and stomion inferius. POGONION SOFT TISSUE : It is the most prominent point on the soft tissue contour of the chin. MENTON SOFT TISSUE : It is a constructed point at the intersection of a vertical co-ordinate from menton and the inferior soft tissue contour of the chin.
  • 16. CEPHALOMETRICS : LINES AND PLANES • The lines are obtained by connecting two landmarks. • Based on their orientation the lines or planes can be classified into horizontal and vertical.
  • 17. HORIZONTAL PLANES 1. S.N. PLANE : It is the cranial line between the centre of the sella turcica (sella) and the anterior point of the fronto– nasal suture (nasion) . • It represents the anterior cranial base.
  • 18. 2. FRANKFORT HORIZONTAL PLANE : This plane connects the lowest point of the orbit (orbitale) and the superior point of the external auditory meatus.
  • 19. 3.OCCLUSAL PLANE : It is a denture plane bisecting the posterior occlusion of the permanent molars and premolars ( or deciduous molars in mixed dentition ) and extends anteriorly.
  • 20. 4.PALATAL PLANE : It is a line linking the anterior nasal spine of the maxilla and the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bone.
  • 21. 5. MANDIBULAR PLANE : Several mandibular planes are used in cephalometrics , based on the analysis being done. • The most commonly used ones are : a. Tangent to the lower border of the mandible (Tweed). b. A line connecting gonion and gnathion (Steiner) . c. A line connecting gonion and menton (Downs) .
  • 22. 6. BASION - NASAL PLANE : It is a line connecting the basion and nasion . • It represents the cranial base.
  • 23. 7. BOLTON’S PLANE : This is a plane that connects the Bolton’s point posterior to the occipital condyles and nasion.
  • 24. VERTICAL PLANES 1. A – POG LINE : It is a line from point A on the maxilla to pogonion on the mandible .
  • 25. 2. FACIAL PLANE : It is a line from the anterior point of the fronto-nasal suture ( nasion ) to the most anterior point of the mandible ( pogonion ).
  • 26. 3. FACIAL AXIS : A line from Ptm point to cephalometric gnathion .
  • 27. 4. ESTHETIC PLANE : It is a line between the most anterior point of the soft tissue nose and soft tissue chin.
  • 28. REFERENCE • Orthodontics, the art and science - SI Bhalajhi . • Contemporary Orthodontics – William Proffit .